Induced mammary cancer in rat models: pathogenesis, genetics, and relevance to female breast cancer.

TitleInduced mammary cancer in rat models: pathogenesis, genetics, and relevance to female breast cancer.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2022
AuthorsMiller, JL, Bartlett, AP, Harman, RM, Majhi, PDhangada, D Jerry, J, Van de Walle, GR
JournalJ Mammary Gland Biol Neoplasia
Date Published2022 06
Keywords9,10-Dimethyl-1,2-benzanthracene, Animals, Breast Neoplasms, Carcinogens, Estrogens, Female, Humans, Mammary Neoplasms, Animal, Mammary Neoplasms, Experimental, Quantitative Trait Loci, Rats, Rats, Sprague-Dawley

Mammary cancer, or breast cancer in women, is a polygenic disease with a complex etiopathogenesis. While much remains elusive regarding its origin, it is well established that chemical carcinogens and endogenous estrogens contribute significantly to the initiation and progression of this disease. Rats have been useful models to study induced mammary cancer. They develop mammary tumors with comparable histopathology to humans and exhibit differences in resistance or susceptibility to mammary cancer depending on strain. While some rat strains (e.g., Sprague-Dawley) readily form mammary tumors following treatment with the chemical carcinogen, 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]-anthracene (DMBA), other strains (e.g., Copenhagen) are resistant to DMBA-induced mammary carcinogenesis. Genetic linkage in inbred strains has identified strain-specific quantitative trait loci (QTLs) affecting mammary tumors, via mechanisms that act together to promote or attenuate, and include 24 QTLs controlling the outcome of chemical induction, 10 QTLs controlling the outcome of estrogen induction, and 4 QTLs controlling the outcome of irradiation induction. Moreover, and based on shared factors affecting mammary cancer etiopathogenesis between rats and humans, including orthologous risk regions between both species, rats have served as useful models for identifying methods for breast cancer prediction and treatment. These studies in rats, combined with alternative animal models that more closely mimic advanced stages of breast cancer and/or human lifestyles, will further improve our understanding of this complex disease.

Alternate JournalJ Mammary Gland Biol Neoplasia
PubMed ID35904679