|Title||Functional, biochemical, and chromatographic characterization of the complete [Ca2+]i oscillation-inducing activity of porcine sperm.|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||2005|
|Authors||Kurokawa, M, Sato, K-ichi, Wu, H, He, C, Malcuit, C, Black, SJ, Fukami, K, Fissore, RA|
|Date Published||2005 Sep 15|
A cytosolic sperm protein(s), referred to as sperm factor (SF), is delivered into eggs by the sperm during mammalian fertilization to induce repetitive increases in the intracellular concentration of free Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) that are referred to as [Ca2+]i oscillations. [Ca2+]i oscillations are essential for egg activation and early embryonic development. Recent evidence shows that the novel sperm-specific phospholipase C (PLC), PLCzeta, may be the long sought after [Ca2+]i oscillation-inducing SF. Here, we demonstrate the complete extraction of SF from porcine sperm and show that regardless of the method of extraction a single molecule/complex appears to be responsible for the [Ca2+]i oscillation-inducing activity of these extracts. Consistent with this notion, all sperm fractions that induced [Ca2+]i oscillations, including FPLC-purified fractions, exhibited high in vitro PLC activity at basal Ca2+ levels (0.1-5 microM), a hallmark of PLCzeta. Notably, we detected immunoreactive 72-kDa PLCzeta in an inactive fraction, and several fractions capable of inducing oscillations were devoid of 72-kDa PLCzeta. Nonetheless, in the latter fractions, proteolytic fragments, presumably corresponding to cleaved forms of PLCzeta, were detected by immunoblotting. Therefore, our findings corroborate the hypothesis that a sperm-specific PLC is the main component of the [Ca2+]i oscillation-inducing activity of sperm but provide evidence that the presence of 72-kDa PLCzeta does not precisely correspond with the Ca2+ releasing activity of porcine sperm fractions.
|Alternate Journal||Dev. Biol.|