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In general…

When a civil or military title is used before a last name, it should be spelled out. With full names, the title should be abbreviated. Examples:

  • General Schwarzkopf; Gen. Norman Schwarzkopf
  • Senator Kerry; Sen. John Kerry, D-Mass.

Abbreviate and capitalize Co., Corp., Inc., and Ltd., and do not precede with a comma (except for Five Colleges, Incorporated).

Do not abbreviate street addresses in running text. Exceptions are NW, NE, SE, and SW used in some street addresses. Example:

The construction on Massachusetts Avenue will continue until March.

Academic degrees following a person’s name are abbreviated and set off by commas. Example:

  • Don Jones, PhD, has joined the faculty.

U.S. state names and U.S. territories

In running text, use the postal code abbreviations for states when they appear with a city or town; spell the state in full when mentioned without a corresponding city or town.

  • He lives in Massachusetts, but went to school in Tampa, FL.
  • The company is based in Newark, NJ.

Note: State names with six letters or less (Alaska, Hawaii, Idaho, Iowa, Maine, Ohio, Texas, and Utah) are never abbreviated in running text.

U.S. States and Territories  Postal Code Editorial Abbreviations
Alabama AL Ala. 
Alaska AK Alaska
American Samoa  AS American Samoa
Arizona AZ Ariz.
Arkansas AK Ark.
California  CA Calif.
Colorado  CO Colo.
Connecticut  CT Conn.
Delaware DE Del.
District of Columbia DC D.C.
Federated States of Micronesia FM Federated States of Micronesia 
Florida  FL Fla.
Georgia GA Ga.
Guam GU Guam
Hawaii HI Hawaii
Idaho ID Idaho
Illinois IL Ill.
Indiana IN Ind.
Iowa IA Iowa
Kansas KS Kans.
Kentucky KY Ky.
Louisiana LA La.
Maine ME Maine
Marshall Islands MH Marshall Islands
Maryland MD Md.
Massachusetts MA Mass.
Michigan MI Mich.
Minnesota MN Minn.
Mississippi MS Miss.
Missouri MO Mo.
Montana MT Mont.
Nebraska NE Nebr.
Nevada NV Nev.
New Hampshire NH N.H.
New Jersey NJ N.J.
New Mexico NM N.M.
New York NY N.Y.
North Carolina NC N.C.
North Dakota ND N.D.
Northern Mariana Island MP Northern Mariana Island
Ohio OH Ohio
Oklahoma OK Okla.
Oregon OR Ore.
Pennsylvania PA Pa.
Puerto Rico PR P.R.
Palau PW Palau
Rhode Island RI R.I.
South Carolina SC S.C.
South Dakota SD S.D.
Tennessee TN Tenn.
Texas TX Texas
Utah UT Utah
Vermont VT Vt.
Virgin Islands VI V.I.
Virginia VA Va.
Washington WA Wash.
West Virginia WV W.Va.
Wisconsin WI Wis.
Wyoming WY Wyo.

Well-known American or international cities do not require accompanying state or country.

  • "Professor Quinn is attending a conference in Paris this year." (Not "...a conference in Paris, France, this year.")
  • "All scholarship recipients will have an opportunity to study abroad in London." (Not " study abroad in London, England.")
  • "The art exhibit is transferring from Los Angeles to New Orleans."

Less-widely known cities or towns include accompanying U.S. state or country.

  • "The bulk of his research took place in Burlington, VT, during the summer."
  • "Furano, Japan, is famous for its lavender fields."

United States—spell out when used as a noun; use "U.S." as an adjective.

  • "...China's involvement with the United States."
  • "U.S. involvement in overseas diplomacy..."
  • "She paid in U.S. dollars despite the unfavorable rate exchange."