Architecting for Artificial Intelligence with Emerging Nanotechnology

Artificial Intelligence is becoming ubiquitous in products and services that we use daily. Although the domain of AI has seen substantial improvements over recent years, its effectiveness is limited by the capabilities of current computing technology. Recently, there have been several architectural innovations for AI using emerging nanotechnology. These architectures implement mathematical computations of AI with circuits that utilize physical behavior of nanodevices purpose-built for such computations. This approach leads to a much greater efficiency vs.

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Accelerating Simulation-based Inference with Emerging AI Hardware

Developing models of natural phenomena by capturing their underlying complex interactions is a core tenet of various scientific disciplines. These models are useful as simulators and can help in understanding the natural processes being studied. One key challenge in this pursuit has been to enable statistical inference over these models, which would allow these simulation-based models to learn from real-world observations. Recent efforts, such as Approximate Bayesian Computation (ABC), show promise in performing a new kind of inference to leverage these models.

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Memory Systems: Overview and Trends

Computer pioneers have correctly predicted that programmers would want unlimited amounts of memory. An economical solution to this desire is the implementation of a Memory Hierarchical System, which takes advantage of locality and cost/performance of memory technologies. As time has gone by, the technology has progressed, bringing about various changes in the way memory systems are built. Memory systems must be flexible enough to accommodate various levels of memory hierarchies, and must be able to emulate an environment with unlimited amount of memory.

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Performance Modeling and Evaluation of MPI

Users of parallel machines need to have a good grasp for how different communication patterns and styles affect the performance of message-passing applications. LogGP is a simple performance model that reflects the most important parameters required to estimate the communication performance of parallel computers. The message passing interface (MPI) standard provides new opportunities for developing high performance parallel and distributed applications.

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Parallelizing Applications into Silicon

The next decade of computing will be dominated by embedded systems, information appliances and application specific computers. In order to build these systems, designers will need high-level compilation and CAD tools that generate architectures that eectively meet the needs of each application. In this paper we present a novel compilation system that allows sequential programs, written in C or FORTRAN, to be compiled directly into custom silicon or reconfigurable architectures.

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LoGPC: Modeling Network Contention in Message-Passing Programs

In many real applications, for example, those with frequent and irregular communication patterns or those using large messages, network contention and contention for message processing resources can be a significant part of the total execution time. This paper presents a new cost model, called LoGPC, that extends the LogP [9] and LogGP [4] models to account for the impact of network contention and network interface DMA behavior on the performance of message passing programs.

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SUDS: Primitive Mechanisms for Memory Dependence Speculation

As VLSI chip sizes and densities increase, it becomes possible to put many processing elements on a single chip and connect them together with a low latency communication network. In this paper we propose a software system, SUDS (Software Un-Do System), that leverages these resources using speculation to exploit parallelism in integer programs with many data dependences. We demonstrate that in order to achieve parallel speedups a speculation system must deliver memory request latencies lower than about 30 cycles.

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Exploring Cost-Performance Optimal Designs of Raw Microprocessors

The semiconductor industry roadmap projects that advances in VLSI technology will permit more than one billion transistors on a chip by the year 2010. The MIT Raw microprocessor is a proposed architecture that strives to exploit these chip-level resources by implementing thousands of tiles, each comprising a processing element and a small amount of memory, coupled by a static two-dimensional interconnect. A compiler partitions negrain instruction-level parallelism across the tiles and statically schedules inter-tile communication over the interconnect.

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Runtime Biased Pointer Analysis and Its Application on Energy Efficiency

Compiler-enabled memory systems have been successful in reducing chip energy consumption. A major challenge lies in their applicability in the context of complex pointer-intensive programs. State-of-the-art high precision pointer analysis techniques have limitations when applied to such programs, and therefore have restricted use. This paper describes runtime biased pointer reuse analysis to capture the behavior of pointers in programs of arbitrary complexity.

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Improved Modeling and Data-Migration for Dynamic Non-Uniform Cache Access

Growing wire delay and clock rates limit the amount of cache accessible within a single cycle. Non-uniform cache access (NUCA) has been proposed as a solution to this problem in Kim et al, 2002 [1], and performance has been analyzed for various cache organizations and technology assumptions. Innovations included cache organizations which dynamically migrated data between blocks within the cache (D-NUCA) resulting in 11% improvement in SPEC2000 benchmarks over a static (S-NUCA) approach.

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