Nanocircuits

Architecting for Causal Intelligence at Nanoscale

Cognition and higher order reasoning in the human brain have been shown to adhere closely to probabilistic inference frameworks such as Bayesian networks that support reasoning under uncertainty. We architect a physically equivalent Bayesian network fabric with nanotechnology, employing inherently stochastic spintronic devices in unique recursive analog circuit structures that support Bayesian inference through physical fabric properties. This fabric approach results in many orders of magnitude efficiency improvements over conventional approaches and enables new cognitive applications with millions of random variables that are not possible today.

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Architecting for Artificial Intelligence with Emerging Nanotechnology

Artificial Intelligence is becoming ubiquitous in products and services that we use daily. Although the domain of AI has seen substantial improvements over recent years, its effectiveness is limited by the capabilities of current computing technology. Recently, there have been several architectural innovations for AI using emerging nanotechnology. These architectures implement mathematical computations of AI with circuits that utilize physical behavior of nanodevices purpose-built for such computations. This approach leads to a much greater efficiency vs.

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A Wafer-scale Manufacturing Pathway for Fine-grained Vertical 3D-IC Technology

Three-dimensional integrated circuits (3D-ICs) provide a feasible path for scaling CMOS technology in the foreseeable future. IMEC and IRDS roadmaps project that 3D integration is a key avenue for the IC industry beyond 2024. They project that some form of 3D-IC technology based on nanosheets/nanowires is likely to become mainstream soon.

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Realization of Four-Terminal Switching Lattices: Technology Development and Circuit Modeling

Our European Union’s Horizon-2020 project aims to develop a complete synthesis and performance optimization
methodology for switching nano-crossbar arrays that leads to the design and construction of an emerging nanocomputer.
Within the project, we investigate different computing models based on either two-terminal switches, realized with field effect

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SkyNet: Memristor-based 3D IC for Artificial Neural Networks

Hardware implementations of artificial neural networks (ANNs) have become feasible due to the advent of persistent 2-terminal devices such as memristor, phase change memory, MTJs, etc. Hybrid memristor crossbar/CMOS systems have been studied extensively and demonstrated experimentally. In these circuits, memristors located at each cross point in a crossbar are, however, stacked on top of CMOS circuits using back end of line processing (BOEL), limiting scaling.

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Fine-Grained 3D Reconfigurable Computing Fabric with RRAM

Non-volatile 3D FPGA research to date utilizes layer-by-layer stacking of 2D CMOS / RRAM circuits. On the other hand, vertically-composed 3D FPGA that integrates CMOS and RRAM circuits has eluded us, owing to the difficult requirement of highly customized regional doping and material insertion in 3D to build and route complementary p- and n-type transistors as well as resistive switches. In the layer-by-layer nonvolatile 3D FPGA, the connectivity between the monolithically stacked RRAMs and underlying CMOS circuits is likely to be limited and lead to large parasitic RCs.

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A 14nm FinFET transistor-level 3D partitioning design to enable high-performance and low-cost monolithic 3D IC

Monolithic 3D IC (M3D) shows degradation in performance compared to 2D IC due to the restricted thermal budget during fabrication of sequential device layers. A transistor-level (TR-L) partitioning design is used in M3D to mitigate this degradation. Silicon validated 14nm FinFET data and models are used in a device-to-system evaluation to compare the TR-L partitioned M3D’s (TR-L M3D) performance against the conventional gate-level (G-L) partitioned M3D’s performance as well as standard 2D IC.

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Power -Delivery Network in 3D ICs: Monolithic 3D vs. Skybridge 3D CMOS

Design for power-delivery network (PDN) is one of the major challenges in 3D IC technology. In the typical layer-by-layer stacked monolithic 3D (M3D) approaches, PDN has limited accessibility to the device layer away from power/ground source due to limited routability and routing resources in the vertical direction. This results in an incomplete and low-density PDN design and also severe IR-drop issue. Some improved M3D approaches try to enlarge design area to create additional vertical routing resources for robust and high-density PDN design.

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