Users of parallel machines need to have a good grasp for how different communication patterns and styles affect the performance of message-passing applications. LogGP is a simple performance model that reflects the most important parameters required to estimate the communication performance of parallel computers. The message passing interface (MPI) standard provides new opportunities for developing high performance parallel and distributed applications.
In many real applications, for example, those with frequent and irregular communication patterns or those using large messages, network contention and contention for message processing resources can be a significant part of the total execution time.This paper presents a new cost model, called LoGPC, that extends the LogP  and LogGP  models to account for the impact of network contention and network interface DMA behavior on the performance of message passing programs.
The quest to improve performance forces designers to explore finer-grained multiprocessor machines. Ever increasing chip densities based on CMOS improvements fuel research in highly parallel chip multiprocessors with 100s of processing elements. With such increasing levels of parallelism, synchronization is set to become a major performance bottleneck and efficient support for synchronization an important design criterion.