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The National Labor Relations Board (NLRB) conducts elections to determine intent for collective-bargaining by employees, including to determine if a union shall continue to have the right to make a union-shop contract with an employer. In a representation election, employees are given a choice of one or more bargaining representatives or no representative at all. To be certified, an individual or a labor organization must receive a majority of the valid votes cast.

See the Methodological Appendix for further details.