Census Data

Kheel Center, Cornell University, https://catherwood.library.cornell.edu/kheel/collections/, as viewed on July 8, 2022.

Union Membership

Kheel Center, Cornell University, https://catherwood.library.cornell.edu/kheel/collections/, as viewed on July 8, 2022.
Union density is calculated as total U.S. union membership divided by employment by industry. 
For each decade, we average union membership: 1910-1919, 1920-1929, and so forth. The last period is 2000 to 2015. Employment is captured by taking the average of the census.  

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