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This page provides references (and links where possible) to publications of the UMass Landscape Ecology lab, including books, journal articles, book chapters and technical publications.



Leitão, A.B., J. Miller, J. Ahern, and K. McGarigal. 2006. Measuring Landscapes: A Planners Handbook. Island Press, Washington, D.C.

McGarigal, K., S. A. Cushman, and S. G. Stafford. 2000. Multivariate Statistics for Wildlife and Ecology Research. Springer-Verlag, New York.[abstract] [Download example datasets used in the book] Note, the download file is a zip file containing the raw spreadsheets in Microsoft Excel format. The files must be extracted and then imported to SAS before you can run the SAS programs described in the book.


Journal Articles (updated 3/5/2014)

Whiteley, AR, K McGarigal, and MK Schwartz. (Accepted). Pronounced differences in genetic structure despite overall similarities in ecology and life history for two Ambystoma salamanders in the same landscape. Conservation Genetics. (pdf)

Timm, BC, and K McGarigal. (Accepted). Fowler's Toad (Anaxyrus fowleri) activity patterns on a roadway at Cape Cod National Seashore, USA. J. of Herpetology. (pdf)

Timm, BC, K McGarigal, and RP Cook. (Accepted). Upland movement patterns and habitat selection of adult eastern spadefoots (Scaphiopus holbrookii) at Cape Cod National Seashore. J. of Herpetology. (pdf)

Timm, BC, and K McGarigal. (Accepted). Scaphiopus holbrooki (eastern spadefoot). Possible transmitter expulsion. Herpetological Review. (pdf)

Zeller, KA, K McGarigal, P Beier, SA Cushman, TW Vickers, and WM Boyce. 2014. Sensitivity of landscape resistance estimates based on point selection functions to scale and behavioral state: pumas as a case study. Landscape Ecology 29:541-557. (pdf)

Elizabeth Homa, Casey Brown, Kevin McGarigal, Brad Compton, and Scott Jackson. 2013. Estimating hydrologic alteration from basin characteristics in Massachusetts. Journal of Hydrology 503:196-208. (pdf)

Shirley, SM, Y Zhigiang, RA Hutchinson, JDAlexander, K McGarigal, and MG Betts. 2013. Species distribution modeling for the people: Unclassified landsat TM predicts bird distributions at fine resolutions in forested landscapes. Diversity and Distributions 1-12. (pdf)

Haire, SL, K McGarigal, and C Miller. 2013. Wilderness shapes contemporary fire size distributions across landscape in the western United States. Ecosphere 4:art15. (pdf)

Timm, BC, and K McGarigal. 2013. A preliminary assessment of the ground-dwelling arthropod community composition in six common dune cover types at Cape Cod National Seashore. Northeastern Naturalist 20:529-539. (pdf)

Allyn, AJ, A McKnight, K McGarigal, CR Griffin, KJ Kuletz, and DB Irons. 2012. Relationships among Kittlitz’s Murrelet habitat use, temperature-depth profiles, and landscape features in Prince William Sound, Alaska, USA. Marine Ecology Progress Series 466:233-247. (pdf)

Timm, B, and K McGarigal. 2012. Fine-Scale Remotely-Sensed Cover Mapping of Coastal Dune and Salt Marsh Ecosystems at Cape Cod National Seashore Using Random Forests. Remote Sensing of Environment 127:106-117. (pdf)

Zeller, KA, K McGarigal, and AR Whiteley. 2012. Estimating landscape resistance to movement: a review. Landscape Ecology 27:777-797. (pdf)

O’Connor MP, FJ Juanes, K McGarigal, and S Gaurin. 2012. Findings on American shad and stripped bass in the Hudson River Estuary: a fish community study on the longterm effects of local hydrology and regional climate change. Marine and Coastal Fisheries: Dynamics, Management, and Ecosystem Science 4:327–336. (pdf)

O’Connor MP, F Juanes, K McGarigal, and J Caris. 2012. Describing juvenile American shad and striped bass habitat use in the Hudson River estuary using species distribution models. Ecological Engineering 48:101-108. (pdf)

Seavey J, B Glimer, and K McGarigal. 2011. Effect of sea-level rise on piping plover (Charadrius melodus) breeding habitat. Biological Conservation 144:393-401. (pdf)

Timm BC, K McGarigal, and RP Cook. 2010. Scaphiopus H. Holbrookii (eastern spadefoot) predation. Herpetological Review 41:207.

Haire SL, and K McGarigal. 2010. Effects of landscape patterns of fire severity on regenerating ponderosa pine forests (Pinus ponderosa) in New Mexico and Arizona, USA. Landscape Ecology 25:1055–1069.(pdf)

Timm BC, and K McGarigal. 2010. The Diets of Subadult Fowler's Toads (Bufo fowleri) and Eastern Spadefoots (Scaphiopus h. holbrookii) at Cape Cod National Seashore, USA. Herpetological Review 41:154-156. (pdf)

Betts MG, JC Hagar, JW Rivers, JD Alexander, K McGarigal, and BC McComb. 2010. Thresholds in forest bird occurrence as a function of the amount of early-seral broadleaf forest at landscape scales. Ecological Applications 20:2116-2130. (pdf)

Cushman SA, KS McKelvey, BR Noon, and K McGarigal. 2010. Use of abundance of one species as a surrogate for abundance of others. Conservation Biology 24: 830-840.(pdf)

Massey BH, CR Griffin, and K McGarigal. 2009. Habitat Use by Foraging Northern Harriers on Nantucket Island, Massachusetts. The Wilson Journal of Ornithology 121: 765-769. (pdf)

Haire SL, and K McGarigal. 2009. Spatial patterns of fire severity in southwestern forests, USA: the role of climate, fire size, and landscape gradients. Fire Ecology 5:86-103. (pdf)

Sekar I, K McGarigal, JT Finn, R Ryan, and TO Randhir. 2009. Water quality response to economic development: quantifying environmental Kuznets curve. Indian Journal of Agricultural Economics 64:73-88. (pdf)

McGarigal K, S Tagil, and SA Cushman. 2009. Surface metrics: An alternative to patch metrics for the quantification of landscape structure. Landscape Ecology 24:433–450. (pdf)

Gamble, L.R., K. McGarigal, D.B. Sigourney, and B.C. Timm. 2009. Survival and breeding frequency in Marbled Salamanders (Ambystoma opacum): implications for spatio-temporal population dynamics. Copeia 2:394-407. (pdf)

Haire, S.L., and K. McGarigal. 2008. Inhabitants of landscape scars: plant species diversity and succession after high-severity fire at two southwestern sites. Southwestern Naturalist 53L146-161. (pdf)

Massey, B., R.Bowen, C.Griffin, and K.McGarigal. 2008. A classification-tree analysis of nesting habitat in an island population of northern harriers. The Condor 110(1):177–183. (pdf)

Cushman, S.A., K.S. McKelvey, C. Flather, and K. McGarigal. 2008a. Do forest community types provide a sufficient basis to evaluate biological diversity. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 6(1):13-17. (pdf)

Cushman, S.A., K. McGarigal, and M. Neel. 2008b. Parsimony in landscape metrics: strength, universality, and consistency. Ecological Indicators 8:691-703. ( pdf)

Gamble, L. R., S. Ravela, and K. McGarigal. 2008. Multi-scale features for identifying individuals in large biological databases: an application of pattern recognition technology to the marbled salamander Ambystoma opacum. Journal of Applied Ecology 45:170–180. (pdf)

Gamble, L.R., K. McGarigal, and B.W. Compton. 2007. Fidelity and dispersal in the pond-breeding amphibian, Ambystoma opacum: Implications for spatio-temporal population dynamics and conservation. Biological Conservation 139:247-257. (pdf)

Timm, B. C., K. McGarigal, and B. W. Compton. 2007a. Timing of large movement events of pond-breeding amphibians in western Massachusetts, USA. Biological Conservation 136:442-454. (pdf)

Timm, B. C., K. McGarigal, and L. R. Gamble. 2007b. Emigration timing of juvenile pond-breeding amphibians in western Massachusetts. Journal of Herpetology 41(2):243-250. (pdf)

Timm, B.C., K. McGarigal, and C.L. Jenkins. 2007c. Emigration orientation of juvenile pond-breeding amphibians in western Massachusetts. Copeia 3:685–698. (pdf)

Compton, B.W., K. McGarigal, S.A. Cushman, and L.R. Gamble. 2007. A resistant-kernel model of connectivity for amphibians that breed in vernal pools. Conservation Biology 21(3):788-799. (pdf)

Jenkins, C. L., K. McGarigal, and B. C. Timm. 2006. Orientation of movements and habitat selection in a spatially-structured population of marbled salamanders (Ambystoma opacum). J. of Herpetology 40(2):240-248. (pdf)

Gamble, L. R., K. McGarigal, C. L. Jenkins, and B. C. Timm. 2006. Limitations of regulated “buffer zones” for the conservation of marbled salamanders. Wetlands 26(2):298-306. (pdf)

Neel, M. C., K. McGarigal, and S. A. Cushman. 2004. Behavior of class-level landscape metrics across gradients of class aggregation and area. Landscape Ecology 19:435-455. (pdf)

Cushman, S. A., and K. McGarigal. 2004a. Hierarchical analysis of forest bird species-environment relationships in the Oregon Coast Range. Ecological Applications 14:1090-1105. (pdf)

Cushman, S. A., and K. McGarigal. 2004b. Patterns in the species-environment relationship depend on both scale and choice of response variables. Oikos 105:117-124. (pdf)

Cushman, S. A., and K. McGarigal. 2003. Landscape-level patterns of avian diversity in the Oregon Coast Range. Ecological Monographs 73:259-281. (pdf)

Jenkins, C. L., K. McGarigal, and L. Gamble. 2003. Comparative effectiveness of two trapping techniques for surveying the abundance and diversity of forest floor vertebrates along drift fence arrays. Herpetological Review 34:39-42. (pdf)

Thompson, C. M., and K. McGarigal. 2002. The influence of research scale on bald eagle habitat selection along the lower Hudson River, New York. Landscape Ecology 17:569-586. (pdf)

Cushman, S. A., and K. McGarigal. 2002. Hierarchical, multi-scale decomposition of species-environment relationships. Landscape Ecology 17:637-646. (pdf)

McGarigal, K., and S. Cushman. 2002. Comparative evaluation of experimental approaches to the study of habitat fragmentation. Ecological Applications 12(2):335-345. (pdf)

Jenkins, C. L., K. McGarigal, and L. Gamble. 2002. A comparison of aquatic surveying techniques used to sample Ambystoma opacum Larvae. Herpetological Review 33:33-35. (pdf)

McGarigal, K., W. Romme, M. Crist, and E. Roworth. 2001. Cumulative effects of Logging and road-building on landscape structure in the San Juan Mountains, Colorado. Landscape Ecology 16:327-349. (pdf)


Book Chapters (updated 9/28/2013)

Cushman SA, K McGarigal, K McKelvey, C Reagan, T Demeo, and C Vojta. 2013. Landscape analysis of wildlife habitat. Chapter 6 in MM Rowland and CD Vojta (tech. eds.), A technical guide for monitoring wildlife habitat. Gen. Tech. Rep. WO-89. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 400 p.

McGarigal K. 2013 Landscape pattern metrics. Pages 1441-1451 in AH El-Shaarawi and W Piegorsch (eds.), Encyclopedia of Environmetrics, Second Edition. John Wiley & Sons Ltd., Chichester, England. (pdf) [also see Encyclopedia at Wiley Online Library (]

Wiens JA, H Safford, K McGarigal, WH Romme, and M Manning. 2012. What is the scope of “history” in historical ecology? Issues of scale in management and conservation. Chapter 6 in J Wiens, C Regan, G Hayward, and H Safford (eds), Historical Environmental Variation in Conservation and Natural Resource Management. Wiley. (pdf)

McGarigal K, and WH Romme. 2012. Modeling historical range of variation at a range of scales: example application. Chapter 9 in J Wiens, C Regan, G Hayward, and H Safford (eds), Historical Environmental Variation in Conservation and Natural Resource Management. Wiley. (pdf)

Zuckerberg B, and K McGarigal. 2012. Widening the circle of investigation: The interface between citizen science and landscape ecology. Chapter 7 in JL Dickinson and R Bonney (eds.), Citizen Science: Public Collaboration in Environmental Research. Cornell University Press.

Cushman SA, TN Wasserman, and K McGarigal. 2011. Landscape fire and wildlife habitat. Chapter 5 in D McKenzie and LK Kellog, eds. The Landscape Ecology of Fire. Springer.

Cushman SA, J Littell, and K McGarigal. 2010. The problem of ecological scaling in spatially complex, nonequilibrium ecological systems. Chapter 3 in SA Cushman and F Huettmann (eds), Spatial Complexity, Informatics, and Wildlife Conservation. Springer. (pdf)

Cushman SA, J Evans, and K McGarigal. 2010. Landscape ecology: past, present and future. Chapter 4 in SA Cushman and F Huettmann (eds), Spatial Complexity, Informatics, and Wildlife Conservation. Springer. (pdf)

Cushman SA, K McGarigal, K Gutzweiler, and JS Evans. 2010. The gradient paradigm: a conceptual and analytical framework for landscape ecology. Chapter 5 in SA Cushman and F Huettmann (eds), Spatial Complexity, Informatics, and Wildlife Conservation. (pdf)

Cushman SA, BW Compton, and K McGarigal. 2010. Habitat fragmentation effects depend on complex interactions between population size and dispersal ability: modeling influences of roads, agriculture and residential development across a range of life-history characteristics. Chapter 20 in SA Cushman and F Huettmann (eds), Spatial Complexity, Informatics, and Wildlife Conservation. Springer. 18 pgs. (pdf)

Cushman, SA, and K McGarigal. 2008. Landscape metrics and scales of resolution. Pages 31-50 in K.V. Gadow, ed., Adaptive Design of Forested Landscapes: The Multiple Path Principle. Springer, New York.

Cushman, SA, and K McGarigal. 2006. Multivariate landscape trajectory analysis: An example using simulation modeling of American marten habitat change under four timber harvest scenarios. Pages 119-140 in J.A. Bissonnette and I. Storch, eds., Temporal Dimensions of Landscape Ecology: Wildlife Responses to Variable Resources. Springer, New York.

McGarigal, K, and SA Cushman. 2005. The gradient concept of landscape structure. Pages 112-119 in J. Wiens and M. Moss, eds. Issues and Perspectives in Landscape Ecology. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. (pdf)

McGarigal, K. 2002. Landscape pattern metrics. Volume 2, pp 1135-1142 in A. H. El-Shaarawi and W. W. Piegorsch, eds. Encyclopedia of Environmetrics. John Wiley & Sons, Chichester, England. (pdf)

McGarigal, K, and WC McComb. 1999. Forest fragmentation effects on breeding birds in the Oregon Coast Range. Pages 223-246 in J.A. Rochelle, L.A. Lehman, and J. Wisniewski, eds. Forest fragmentation: wildlife and management implications. Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, The Netherlands.


Technical Publications

Jackson, S, B Compton, and K McGarigal. 2012. Critical linkages: assessing connectivity restoration potential for culvert replacement, dam removal and construction of wildlife passage structures in Massachusetts. Proceedings of the 2011 International Conference on Ecology and Transportation. August 21-25, Seattle, WA.

Cushman, SA, JS Evans, K McGarigal, and JM Kiesecker. 2010. Toward Gleasonian landscape ecology: From communities to species, from patches to pixels. Res. Pap. RMRS-RP-84. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station. 12 p.

McGarigal,K. 2007. Habitat fragmentation. Encyclopedia of Geographic Information Science, K. K. Kemp, ed. Sage Publications.

McGarigal, K, and WH Romme. 2003. Simulate landscape changes. Geoworld 16(7):38-43.

McGarigal, K, SA Cushman, MC Neel, and E Ene. 2002. FRAGSTATS: Spatial Pattern Analysis Program for Categorical Maps. Computer software program produced by the authors at the University of Massachusetts, Amherst. Available at the following web site:

Berry, JK, DJ Buckley, and K McGarigal. 1998. Fragstats.arc: Integrating ARC/INFO with the Fragstats landscape analysis program. Proceedings of the 1998 ESRI User Conference, San Diego, California.

Berry, JK, DJ Buckley, and K McGarigal. 1998. Integrating landscape structure programs with ARC/INFO. Proceedings of the 1998 GIS-98 Resource Technology Conference, Toronto, Canada.

Berry, JK, DJ Buckley, and K McGarigal. 1997. Seamlessly linking ARC/INFO to forest growth and landscape analysis models. Proceedings of the 1997 ESRI User Conference, San Diego, California.

For more information, please contact:
Dr. Kevin McGarigal
Department of Environmental Conservation
University of Massachusetts
304 Holdsworth Natural Resources Center
Box 34210, Amherst, MA 01003
Fax: (413) 545-4358; Phone: (413) 577-0655

Copyright 2000 University of Massachusetts Amherst, Massachusetts, 01003. (413) 545-0111. This is an official page of the University of Massachusetts Amherst campus. All material in this website is made available according to the Fair Use Statute of the U.S. Copyright Act