The University of Massachusetts Amherst

The Plant Cell Culture Library

Cynara cardunculus
Cell Line ID CC-04646
Media Type B88
Lowest Tolerable USDA Zone 7a
Drought Tolerance Average
Availability medium
Order Asterales
Family Compositae
Genus Cynara
Antiviral Genus Level ➡ 101 citations
Antibacterial Genus Level ➡ 33 citations
Antifungal Species Level
Insecticidal Species Level
Anticancer Species Level
Common Names Cardoon
Culture Initiation Site Lausanne
Plant Habit Herb Perennial
Plant Habitat Warm Temperate
Culture Start Material Seed
Native Range South West Mediterranean/Morocco
Plant Supplier Botanical Garden Lausanne
Antiviral Citations
  1. Aldrich Library of FT-IR Spectra, 1st edn., 1985, 2, 288C (ir)
  2. Aldrich Library of 13C and 1H FT-NMR Spectra, 1992, 2, 1235C (nmr)
  3. Fischer, H.O.L. et al., Ber. Dtsch. Chem. Ges., 1932, 65, 1037- 1040 (3-Caffeoylquinic acid)
  4. Corse, J. et al., Tetrahedron, 1962, 18, 1207- 1210 (3-Feruloylquinic acid) [https://doi.org/10.1016/0040-4020(62)80001-5]
  5. Waiss, A.C. et al., Chem. Ind. (London), 1964, 1984- 1985 (pmr)
  6. Pierpoint, W.S. et al., Biochem. J., 1966, 98, 567- 580 (Chlorogenoquinone) [https://doi.org/10.1042/bj0980567]
  7. Pierpoint, W.S. et al., Biochem. J., 1969, 112, 609- 616 (Chlorogenoquinone) [https://doi.org/10.1042/bj1120609]
  8. Karrer, W. et al., Konstitution und Vorkommen der Organischen Pflanzenstoffe, 2nd edn., Birkhäuser Verlag, 1972, no. 990 (occur)
  9. Shatokhina, R.K. et al., Chem. Nat. Compd. (Engl. Transl.), 1974, 10, 525 (3-O-Sinapoylquinic acid) [https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00563829]
  10. Kelley, C.J. et al., J. Org. Chem., 1976, 41, 449- 455 (cmr) [https://doi.org/10.1021/jo00865a007]
  11. Nagels, L. et al., Phytochemistry, 1976, 15, 703- 706 (biosynth) [https://doi.org/10.1016/S0031-9422(00)94425-X]
  12. Herrmann, K., Fortschr. Chem. Org. Naturst., 1978, 35, 73- 132 (rev)
  13. Nishizawa, M. et al., Chem. Pharm. Bull., 1987, 35, 2133- 2135 (3-Sinapoylquinic acid) [https://doi.org/10.1248/cpb.35.2133]
  14. Corthout, J. et al., Phytochemistry, 1992, 31, 1979- 1981 (butyl ester) [https://doi.org/10.1016/0031-9422(92)80344-E]
  15. Stevenson, P.C. et al., J. Chem. Ecol., 1993, 19, 2917- 2933 (Arachis paraguaiensis constit,activity) [https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00980592]
  16. Ida, Y. et al., Phytochemistry, 1994, 35, 209- 215 (3-Feruloylquinic acid) [https://doi.org/10.1016/S0031-9422(00)90536-3]
  17. Fuchs, C. et al., J. Mass Spectrom., 1996, 31, 602- 608 (hplc, ms)
  18. Gentry, E.J. et al., J. Nat. Prod., 1998, 61, 1187- 1193 (Hycandinic acid ester 1) [https://doi.org/10.1021/np9701889]
  19. Haribal, M. et al., Phytochemistry, 1998, 49, 103- 108 (muco isomer) [https://doi.org/10.1016/S0031-9422(97)00804-2]
  20. De Almeida, A.P. et al., Phytother. Res., 1998, 12, 562- 567 (activity)
  21. Jung, H.A. et al., Arch. Pharmacal Res., 1999, 22, 213- 218 (Eriobotrya japonica constit,activity)
  22. Lin, L.-C. et al., J. Nat. Prod., 1999, 62, 405- 408 (cmr) [https://doi.org/10.1021/np980153o]
  23. Pauli, G.F. et al., Magn. Reson. Chem., 1999, 37, 827- 836 (pmr, cmr)
  24. Sefkow, M., Eur. J. Org. Chem., 2001, 1137- 1141 (synth)
  25. Kweon, M.-H. et al., J. Agric. Food Chem., 2001, 49, 4646- 4655 (1-Me ether, 4-Me ether) [https://doi.org/10.1021/jf010514x]
  26. Whitaker, B.D. et al., J. Agric. Food Chem., 2003, 51, 3448- 3454 (5-Acetyl-3-caffeoylquinic acid) [https://doi.org/10.1021/jf026250b]
  27. Ma, J. et al., J. Nat. Prod., 2003, 66, 983- 986 (4-Galloylchlorogenic acid) [https://doi.org/10.1021/np020576x]
  28. McNamara, C.E. et al., J. Nat. Prod., 2004, 67, 1818- 1822 (GPFQ) [https://doi.org/10.1021/np049868j]
  29. Zhu, X.-D. et al., Helv. Chim. Acta, 2005, 88, 339- 342 (Me ester)
  30. Liu, J. et al., Phytochemistry, 2007, 68, 1775- 1780 (Erycibe obtusifolia ester) [https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phytochem.2007.05.001]
  31. Frank, O. et al., J. Agric. Food Chem., 2008, 56, 9581- 9586 (roasted coffee constits) [https://doi.org/10.1021/jf802210a]
  32. Lee, E.J. et al., Food Chem., 2010, 120, 134- 139 (Me ester) [https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2009.09.088]
  33. Song, S. et al., J. Nat. Prod., 2010, 73, 177- 184 (Erycibe hainanensis constits) [https://doi.org/10.1021/np900593q]
  34. Ma, C. et al., J. Agric. Food Chem., 2011, 59, 9645- 9651 (3-Caffeoyl-5-malonylquinic acid) [https://doi.org/10.1021/jf202028y]
  35. Dahmani-Hamzaoui, N. et al., Helv. Chim. Acta, 2012, 95, 564- 576 (Atrtemisia herba-alba constit, pmr, cmr)
  36. Jain, R. et al., J. Pharm. Res., 2012, 5, 4934- 4935 (Acacia senegal eicosyl ester)
  37. Mishra, D.P. et al., Trends Carbohydr. Res., 2012, 4, 42- 46 (pentyl ester)
  38. Nakamura, S. et al., Phytochemistry, 2013, 92, 128- 136 (Prunus mume constits) [https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phytochem.2013.04.012]
  39. Fan, L. et al., Planta Med., 2013, 79, 1558- 1564 (4-syringoyl Me ester, activity)
  40. Yu, Y. et al., Acta Pharm. Sin. B, 2015, 5, 210- 214 (Lonicera 4'-glucoside) [https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apsb.2015.01.012]
  41. Forino, M. et al., Food Chem., 2015, 178, 306- 310 (4-Epichlorogenic acid) [https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2015.01.109]
  42. Lewis, R.J., Sax's Dangerous Properties of Industrial Materials, 8th edn., Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1992, CHK175
  43. Corse, J. et al., Nature (London), 1953, 172, 771- 772 (Prunus persica constit)
  44. Scarpati, M.L. et al., Tetrahedron Lett., 1963, 4, 1147- 1150 (struct) [https://doi.org/10.1016/S0040-4039(01)90792-0]
  45. Ruveda, E.A. et al., Chem. Ind. (London), 1964, 239- 240 (lactone, synth)
  46. Waiss, A.C. et al., Chem. Ind. (London), 1964, 1984- 1985 (pmr)
  47. Haslam, E. et al., J. Chem. Soc., 1964, 2137- 2146 (synth)
  48. Weinges, K. et al., Justus Liebigs Ann. Chem., 1966, 691, 181- 185 (Z-form)
  49. Machida, K. et al., Phytochemistry, 1992, 31, 3654- 3656 (Me ester) [https://doi.org/10.1016/0031-9422(92)83751-J]
  50. Stevenson, P.C. et al., J. Chem. Ecol., 1993, 19, 2917- 2933 (activity) [https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00980592]
  51. Ida, Y. et al., Phytochemistry, 1994, 35, 209- 215 (5-Feruloylquinic acid) [https://doi.org/10.1016/S0031-9422(00)90536-3]
  52. Fuchs, C. et al., J. Mass Spectrom., 1996, 31, 602- 608 (hplc, ms)
  53. Gentry, E.J. et al., J. Nat. Prod., 1998, 61, 1187- 1193 (Hycandinic acid ester 2) [https://doi.org/10.1021/np9701889]
  54. Pauli, G.F. et al., Magn. Reson. Chem., 1999, 37, 827- 836 (pmr, cmr)
  55. Kwon, H.C. et al., Chem. Pharm. Bull., 2000, 48, 1796- 1798 (Aster scaber constit, activity) [https://doi.org/10.1248/cpb.48.1796]
  56. Nakatani, N. et al., J. Agric. Food Chem., 2000, 48, 5512- 5516 (Prunus domestica constit) [https://doi.org/10.1021/jf000422s]
  57. Wang, S.J. et al., Chin. Chem. Lett., 2001, 12, 509- 510 (Neochlorogenic γ-lactone)
  58. Sefkow, M. et al., Eur. J. Org. Chem., 2001, 2735- 2742 (synth)
  59. Zhang, W.-D. et al., Yaoxue Xuebao, 2001, 36, 360- 363 (butyl ester)
  60. Silva, B.M. et al., J. Agric. Food Chem., 2004, 52, 4705- 4712 (coffee constit) [https://doi.org/10.1021/jf040057v]
  61. Zhu, X.-D. et al., Helv. Chim. Acta, 2005, 88, 339- 342 (Me ester)
  62. Farah, A. et al., J. Agric. Food Chem., 2005, 53, 1505- 1513 (lactone, 3'-Me ether lactone,isol) [https://doi.org/10.1021/jf048701t]
  63. Kondo, T. et al., Tetrahedron Lett., 2005, 46, 6645- 6649 (Hydrangea supramolecular pigment) [https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tetlet.2005.07.146]
  64. Toyama-Kato, Y. et al., Heterocycles, 2007, 72, 239- 254 (Hydrangea supramolecular pigment)
  65. Ogawa, Y. et al., Chem. Nat. Compd. (Engl. Transl.), 2013, 49, 991- 995 (Hemerocallis fulva salts)
  66. Liu, J. et al., Chem. Pharm. Bull., 2013, 61, 655- 661 (Hydrangea macrophylla constit,activity) [https://doi.org/10.1248/cpb.c13-00160]
  67. Jaiswal, R. et al., Phytochemistry, 2014, 108, 252- 263 (Z-form, Lonicera henryi constit,activity) [https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phytochem.2014.08.023]
  68. Yu, Y. et al., Acta Pharm. Sin. B, 2015, 5, 210- 214 (Lonicera 4''-glucoside) [https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apsb.2015.01.012]
  69. Haslam, E. et al., J. Chem. Soc., 1964, 2137- 2146 (coffee constit)
  70. Scarpati, M.L. et al., Tetrahedron Lett., 1964, 5, 2851- 2853 (Isochlorogenic acid A) [https://doi.org/10.1016/S0040-4039(00)70434-5]
  71. Corse, J. et al., Phytochemistry, 1965, 4, 527- 529 (uv, pmr) [https://doi.org/10.1016/S0031-9422(00)86209-3]
  72. Nichiforescu, E.A. et al., Khim. Prir. Soedin., 1970, 7, 546 (Vaccinium arctostaphylos constit)
  73. Nichiforescu, E.A. et al., Plant. Med. Phytother., 1970, 4, 56- 62 (Cynara scolymus constit)
  74. Timmermann, B.N. et al., J. Nat. Prod., 1983, 46, 365- 368 (Chrysothamnus paniculatus constit, pmr, cmr, ms) [https://doi.org/10.1021/np50027a012]
  75. Nishizawa, M. et al., Chem. Pharm. Bull., 1988, 36, 87- 95 (4-3-hydroxy-3-methylglutarate) [https://doi.org/10.1248/cpb.36.87]
  76. Chen, M. et al., Yaoxue Xuebao, 1994, 29, 617- 620 (Macroantoin G)
  77. Tatefuji, T. et al., Biol. Pharm. Bull., 1996, 19, 966- 970 (propolis constit) [https://doi.org/10.1248/bpb.19.966]
  78. Chudo, Y. et al., J. Agric. Food Chem., 1996, 44, 2037- 2039 (4-succinate) [https://doi.org/10.1021/jf960182+]
  79. Kodoma, M. et al., Phytochemistry, 1998, 47, 371- 373 (Pyrus pyrifolia constit, activity) [https://doi.org/10.1016/S0031-9422(97)00621-3]
  80. Miketova, P. et al., J. Mass Spectrom., 1999, 34, 1240- 1252 (ms)
  81. Heilmann, J. et al., Phytochemistry, 1999, 51, 713- 718 (Dicaffeoyl-1-isobutyrylquinic acid) [https://doi.org/10.1016/S0031-9422(99)00082-5]
  82. Kwon, H.C. et al., Chem. Pharm. Bull., 2000, 48, 1796- 1798 (3,5-Dicaffeoylmucoquinic acid) [https://doi.org/10.1248/cpb.48.1796]
  83. Peng, L.Y. et al., Fitoterapia, 2000, 71, 713- 715 (butyl ester) [https://doi.org/10.1016/S0367-326X(00)00212-4]
  84. Zhang, W.-D. et al., J. Asian Nat. Prod. Res., 2000, 2, 283- 288 (Macroantoin G)
  85. Zhang, W.-D. et al., Yaoxue Xuebao, 2001, 36, 360- 363 (1-Me ether Me ester)
  86. Silva, B.M. et al., J. Agric. Food Chem., 2004, 52, 4705- 4712 (Cydonia oblonga constit) [https://doi.org/10.1021/jf040057v]
  87. Teramachi, F. et al., J. Nat. Prod., 2005, 68, 794- 796 (Dicaffeoyl-4-coumaroylquinic acid) [https://doi.org/10.1021/np0500631]
  88. Kim, H.J. et al., Planta Med., 2005, 71, 871- 876 (3,5-Dicaffeoylepiquinic acid) [https://doi.org/10.1055/s-2005-873115]
  89. Dini, I. et al., J. Agric. Food Chem., 2006, 54, 8733- 8737 (Ipomoea batatas constit) [https://doi.org/10.1021/jf061687v]
  90. Kim, H.J. et al., J. Nat. Prod., 2006, 69, 600- 603 (4-O-(4-carboxy-3-hydroxy-3-methylbutanoyl) Me ester, 5'-methoxy 3'-Me ether Et ester) [https://doi.org/10.1021/np050447r]
  91. Sprogøe, K. et al., J. Nat. Prod., 2007, 70, 1472- 1477 (Hubertia constits) [https://doi.org/10.1021/np0702741]
  92. Antognoni, F. et al., Fitoterapia, 2011, 82, 950- 954 (Irbic acid) [https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fitote.2011.05.008]
  93. Jaiswal, R. et al., J. Agric. Food Chem., 2011, 59, 4033- 4039 (Arnica montana constits) [https://doi.org/10.1021/jf103545k]
  94. Raheem, K.S. et al., Tetrahedron Lett., 2011, 52, 7175- 7177 (synth) [https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tetlet.2011.10.127]
  95. Ela, M.A.A. et al., Helv. Chim. Acta, 2012, 95, 61- 66 (1-Me ether)
  96. Dahmani-Hamzaoui, N. et al., Helv. Chim. Acta, 2012, 95, 564- 576 (Artemisia herba-alba constit)
  97. Xiong, J. et al., Food Chem., 2013, 138, 327- 333 (activity) [https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2012.10.127]
  98. Stojakowska, A. et al., Food Chem., 2013, 138, 1250- 1255 (Lactuca tuberosa constit) [https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2012.11.062]
  99. Chen, J. et al., Fitoterapia, 2014, 99, 1- 6 (Gynura divaricata constits) [https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fitote.2014.08.015]
  100. Znati, M. et al., Molecules, 2014, 19, 16959- 16975 (Ferula lutea constit)
  101. Zou, X. et al., Phytochem. Lett., 2014, 7, 133- 136 (MTCQA, activity) [https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phytol.2013.11.002]
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Antibacterial Citations
  1. Haslam, E. et al., JCS, 1964, 2137- 2146 (coffee constit)
  2. Scarpati, M.L. et al., Tet. Lett., 1964, 5, 2851- 2853 (Isochlorogenic acid A) [https://doi.org/10.1016/S0040-4039(00)70434-5]
  3. Corse, J. et al., Phytochemistry, 1965, 4, 527- 529 (uv, pmr) [https://doi.org/10.1016/S0031-9422(00)86209-3]
  4. Nichiforescu, E.A. et al., Khim. Prir. Soedin., 1970, 7, 546 (Vaccinium arctostaphylos constit)
  5. Nichiforescu, E.A. et al., Plant. Med. Phytother., 1970, 4, 56- 62 (Cynara scolymus constit)
  6. Timmermann, B.N. et al., J. Nat. Prod., 1983, 46, 365- 368 (Chrysothamnus paniculatus constit, pmr, cmr, ms) [https://doi.org/10.1021/np50027a012]
  7. Nishizawa, M. et al., Chem. Pharm. Bull., 1988, 36, 87- 95 (4-3-hydroxy-3-methylglutarate) [https://doi.org/10.1248/cpb.36.87]
  8. Chen, M. et al., Yaoxue Xuebao, 1994, 29, 617- 620 (Macroantoin G)
  9. Tatefuji, T. et al., Biol. Pharm. Bull., 1996, 19, 966- 970 (propolis constit) [https://doi.org/10.1248/bpb.19.966]
  10. Chudo, Y. et al., J. Agric. Food Chem., 1996, 44, 2037- 2039 (4-succinate) [https://doi.org/10.1021/jf960182+]
  11. Kodoma, M. et al., Phytochemistry, 1998, 47, 371- 373 (Pyrus pyrifolia constit, activity) [https://doi.org/10.1016/S0031-9422(97)00621-3]
  12. Miketova, P. et al., J. Mass Spectrom., 1999, 34, 1240- 1252 (ms)
  13. Heilmann, J. et al., Phytochemistry, 1999, 51, 713- 718 (Dicaffeoyl-1-isobutyrylquinic acid) [https://doi.org/10.1016/S0031-9422(99)00082-5]
  14. Kwon, H.C. et al., Chem. Pharm. Bull., 2000, 48, 1796- 1798 (3,5-Dicaffeoylmucoquinic acid) [https://doi.org/10.1248/cpb.48.1796]
  15. Peng, L.Y. et al., Fitoterapia, 2000, 71, 713- 715 (butyl ester) [https://doi.org/10.1016/S0367-326X(00)00212-4]
  16. Zhang, W.-D. et al., J. Asian Nat. Prod. Res., 2000, 2, 283- 288 (Macroantoin G)
  17. Zhang, W.-D. et al., Yaoxue Xuebao, 2001, 36, 360- 363 (1-Me ether Me ester)
  18. Silva, B.M. et al., J. Agric. Food Chem., 2004, 52, 4705- 4712 (Cydonia oblonga constit) [https://doi.org/10.1021/jf040057v]
  19. Teramachi, F. et al., J. Nat. Prod., 2005, 68, 794- 796 (Dicaffeoyl-4-coumaroylquinic acid) [https://doi.org/10.1021/np0500631]
  20. Kim, H.J. et al., Planta Med., 2005, 71, 871- 876 (3,5-Dicaffeoylepiquinic acid) [https://doi.org/10.1055/s-2005-873115]
  21. Dini, I. et al., J. Agric. Food Chem., 2006, 54, 8733- 8737 (Ipomoea batatas constit) [https://doi.org/10.1021/jf061687v]
  22. Kim, H.J. et al., J. Nat. Prod., 2006, 69, 600- 603 (4-O-(4-carboxy-3-hydroxy-3-methylbutanoyl) Me ester, 5'-methoxy 3'-Me ether Et ester) [https://doi.org/10.1021/np050447r]
  23. Sprogøe, K. et al., J. Nat. Prod., 2007, 70, 1472- 1477 (Hubertia constits) [https://doi.org/10.1021/np0702741]
  24. Antognoni, F. et al., Fitoterapia, 2011, 82, 950- 954 (Irbic acid) [https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fitote.2011.05.008]
  25. Jaiswal, R. et al., J. Agric. Food Chem., 2011, 59, 4033- 4039 (Arnica montana constits) [https://doi.org/10.1021/jf103545k]
  26. Raheem, K.S. et al., Tet. Lett., 2011, 52, 7175- 7177 (synth) [https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tetlet.2011.10.127]
  27. Ela, M.A.A. et al., Helv. Chim. Acta, 2012, 95, 61- 66 (1-Me ether)
  28. Dahmani-Hamzaoui, N. et al., Helv. Chim. Acta, 2012, 95, 564- 576 (Artemisia herba-alba constit)
  29. Xiong, J. et al., Food Chem., 2013, 138, 327- 333 (activity) [https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2012.10.127]
  30. Stojakowska, A. et al., Food Chem., 2013, 138, 1250- 1255 (Lactuca tuberosa constit) [https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2012.11.062]
  31. Chen, J. et al., Fitoterapia, 2014, 99, 1- 6 (Gynura divaricata constits) [https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fitote.2014.08.015]
  32. Znati, M. et al., Molecules, 2014, 19, 16959- 16975 (Ferula lutea constit)
  33. Zou, X. et al., Phytochem. Lett., 2014, 7, 133- 136 (MTCQA, activity) [https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phytol.2013.11.002]
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