The University of Massachusetts Amherst
Electronic Materials

Electronic Materials

This is a multi-user, fee-based facility that includes a line of state-of-the-art tools and instruments for solution-based fabrication of electronic and optoelectronic devices, including polymer- and perovskite-based photovoltaic cells, and for characterization of their performance. The laboratory also offers a range of analytical techniques for characterization of optical, electronic structure, electrical, and electrochemical properties of materials.

  • BASi Epsilon Basic with C3-cell stand

    A Potentiostat/galvanostats/potentiometer that enables:

    • Linear Sweep Voltammetry
    • Chronoamperometry/Chronocoulometry
    • Controlled Potential Electrolysis
    • DC Potential Amperometr
    • Chronopotentiometry
    • Open Circuit Potential vs. Time methods in pulse, square wave, and stripping modes

    This instrument is the most common techniques for electrochemical characterization of new redox systems.

  • Device fabrication line

    The following tools and resources are available in the EM&D Center for fabrication of devices:

    • Materials storage cabinet (N2 purged)
    • Analytical Balances (A&D, model HR-60)
    • Ultrasonic cleaner (Branson, Model 4200) - used to remove assortment of organic contaminants from a variety of surfaces including the Indium Tin Oxide - coated glass substrates typically used in the process of organic solar cell fabrication.
    • StableTemp Gravity Convection Oven (used for glass baking, Cole-Parmer, Model UX-52120-02)
    • UV/Ozone Cleaner (Jelight Company Inc., UVO Cleaner)
    • Spin-coater (Specialty Coating Systems, Spincoat G3P-8) for aqueous solution - a compact spin-coater that provides the ability to hold your product wafer with a vacuum chuck and spin that chuck at precise speeds and for controlled periods of time. The user-friendly settings and available multiple operation steps, with each step being extremely repeatable and settable to 0.1 sec, give a freedom of varying the deposition conditions for optimizing the morphology of deposited films.
    • Precision Hot Plate (Electronic Microsystems LTD, model 1000-1) - for film annealing at temperatures from 50°C to 150°C and with accuracy to ±1% across working surface.
    • Laboratory Vacuum Oven (Lindberg/Blue M, model VO914SA-1) – designed for drying, curing, outgassing, aging, process control and other applications which require elevated temperature in reduced atmospheres or vacuum/purge with non-flammable and inert atmospheres

    The subsequent device fabrication steps are typically done inside of the glove box system. Our custom-designed, two-compartment glove box system (MBraun) is operated using nitrogen gas and enables the users to store and handle substances which are sensitive to oxygen and/or moisture in non-reactive atmosphere of < 1 ppm.

    The following instruments for device fabrication are located inside the glove box system:

    • Spin-coater (Specialty Coating Systems, Spincoat G3P-8) – for spin-coating of active layers
    • Precision Hot Plate (Electronic Microsystems LTD, model 1000-1) – for pre-annealing of active layers and post-annealing of photovoltaic devices
    • Two-Source Thermal Evaporator (MBraun) – for metal and metal oxide film deposition
    • E-beam Evaporator (MDC vacuum products) – for metal and metal oxide film deposition
  • Agilent 4294A Impedance Analyzer

    Provides measurements of impedance (conductivity, reactivity).

    • Frequency: 40 Hz to 110 MHz
    • Basic accuracy: +/- 0.08 %

  • Photon Technology International (PTI) Photoluminescence Spectrometer

    This spectrometer utilizes an “open architecture” design that has been configured to include the PTI’s QuantaMaster™ Spectrofluorometer and TimeMaster™ Lifetime Fluorometer to measure steady-state fluorescence and phosphorescence as well as fluorescence and phosphorescence lifetimes.

  • Newport/Oriel Instruments QE-PV-SI Measurement Kit

    The instrument consists of a 150 W Xe arc lamp, monochromator and a calibrated silicon reference cell with power meter. It is used for Quantum efficiency (QE) / Incident Photon to Charge Carrier Efficiency (IPCE) measurement for solar cells, detectors, or any other photon-to-charge converting device over the 400 - 1100 nm spectral range. Two configurations of the instrument, in a dc and ac modes, allow for testing photovoltaic devices with long photo-response times and with low power conversion efficiencies, respectively. The current device configuration is "dc".

  • Solar Simulator 1 and I-V station (in glovebox)

    300W Solar Simulator, equipped with AM1.5G spectral correction filter - produces a uniform, collimated, 2x2 inch output beam with close spectral match to sunlight and with a power equivalent to up to ~2 Suns. The KG5-filtered Silicon reference cell (Newport/Oriel, Model 91150V) is used for the irradiance calibration. The current-voltage characteristics of the solar cells under standard illumination conditions are measured using the SourceMeter (Keithley, model 2400).

    • Model: 91160, (Newport/Oriel Instruments)
    • Source-Meter 2400 (Keithley)

  • Solar Simulator 2 and I-V station (in air)

    300W Solar Simulator equipped with AM1.5G spectral correction filter - produces a uniform, collimated, 2x2 inch output beam with close spectral match to sunlight and with a power equivalent to up to ~2 Suns. The KG5-filtered Silicon reference cell (Newport/Oriel, Model 91150V) is used for the irradiance calibration. The current-voltage characteristics of the solar cells under standard illumination condition.

    • SOL2A (Newport/Oriel)
    • SourceMeter 2635 (Keithley)

  • Spincoat G3P-8 (Specialty coating systems)


  • KLA Tencor Alpha-Step IQ Surface Profiler

    A computerized, high-sensitivity stylus-based surface profiler that features the ability to measure micro-roughness, with up to 1 Å or less resolution, over short distances, and waviness in a scan over a full surface length of 10 mm, as well as step-height in a variety of applications.

    • Highest vertical range at 1200 μm
    • Low force measurements at 0.03 to 15 mg
    • Step height repeatability of 5 Å on a 1 μm step
    • High resolution 5 MP color camera with 4x digital zoom

  • Custom-built Time-of-Flight

    The instrument is based on pulsed Nd:YAG laser (Surelite II-10, Continuum Lasers), and provides measurements of electron and hole mobilities in materials with low intrinsic charge carrier density. The instrument is equipped with an INSTEC HSC302 hotstage and an mK1000 temperature controller for temperature-dependent measurements of mobilities which allows to do the measurements in the range from a room temperature to 400°C.

  • MBRAUN Thermal Evaporator

    Two-source thermal evaporator. Common materials used for evaporation are Al, Au, Ag, Ca, LiF, MoO3, Cu.

  • Ultraviolet Photoelectron Spectroscopy

    A UHV-based system in the Ultraviolet Photoelectron Spectroscopy configuration, provides spectral analysis of kinetic/binding energies of electrons emitted from the material surface under the UV (He I line, 21.2 eV) photo-excitation. The instrument is equipped with an Ar+ sputtering gun and state-of-the-art Zalar™ for depth-profiling.

    • ESCA+S, Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis Instrument

  • Shimadzu UV-3600 UV-VIS-NIR Spectrophotometer

    The instrument provides the measurements of transmittance for solutions and thin-film samples over the spectral range from 185 nm to 3300 nm. TCC-240A thermo-electrically temperature-controlled cell holder provides a range of temperature control from 7° to 60° Celsius. The specular reflectance attachment enables precise and convenient measurements of reflectance. The Praying-MantisTM diffuse reflection accessory enables reliable diffuse reflectance studies of powders and other rough-surface solid samples as well as of solutions with high scattering.

  Campus Users Other Academic Institutions Industry
Unassisted Use - Hourly Rates
Omicron UPS $50 $60 $100
Shimadzu UV vis NIR Spectrometer $15 $20 $50
PTI PL Spectrometer $15 $20 $50
SCS Spin Coater $10 $12.50 $20
Mbraun Thermal Evaporator $25 $30 $100
Oriel Solar Simulator $20 $25 $30
Newport QE Station $20 $25 $25
Basic CV Instrument $20 $25 $30
TOF Instrument $40 $50 $75
Agilent Impedance Analyzer $25 $40 $50
Oriel Solar Simulator 2 $20 $25 $30
  Campus Users Other Academic Institutions Industry
Assisted Use - Hourly Rates
Omicron UPS $75 $80 $200
Shimadzu UV vis NIR Spectrometer $25 $30 $75
PTI PL Spectrometer $25 $30 $75
SCS Spin Coater $15 $18.75 $40
Mbraun Thermal Evaporator $35 $50 $150
Oriel Solar Simulator $30 $37.50 $60
Newport QE Station $30 $37.50 $50
Basic CV Instrument $30 $37.50 $60
TOF Instrument $80 $75 $100
Agilent Impedance Analyzer $50 $60 $100
Oriel Solar Simulator 2 $30 $35 $60
  Campus Users Other Academic Institutions Industry
Material Charges
Materials for Electronic Device Fabrication $1,250/annual $125/day $250/day
Materials for UPS Sample Fabrication $250/annual $75/day $100/day
Supplied Materials for Thermal Evaporation (Au) $50/pellet $50/pellet $50/pellet
Supplied Materials for Thermal Evaporation (Ag)
($50 minimum)
$5/pellet $5/pellet $5/pellet
ITO Substrates $4/pc $4/pc $5/pc
Other Materials Used
(gold, silver, etc.)
at cost at cost at cost
Rates are subject to change, contact facility to verify current fees.

FY21 Specialized Service Center Approved Fees

Electronic Materials: The facility is designed to support research in developing advanced materials and devices for electronic and optoelectronic applications, such as solar cells, photodetectors, light-emitting diodes, field-effect transistors, etc. It offers a range of analytical instruments for characterization of optical, electronic structure, electrical, and electrochemical properties of materials. A line of state-of-the-art tools for solution-based fabrication of devices in inert atmosphere and a selection of instruments for comprehensive characterization of device performance are available. Equipment includes:


  • UV-VIS-NIR Spectrophotometer, Shimadzu UV-3600
  • Photoluminescence Spectrometer, custom design, Photon Technology International
  • Glove box, MBRAUN two-compartment with spin-coater (Specialty Coating Systems, SP-8) and thermal evaporator (two-source, sequential)
  • Solar Simulator 1 (SOL2A, Newport) and I-V station (Keithley 2400)
  • Solar Simulator 2 (91160, Newport) and I-V station (Keithley 2635)
  • QE-PV-SI Measurement Kit, Newport/Oriel Instruments
  • Impedance Analyzer, Agilent 4294A
  • Surface Profiler, KLA Tencor Alpha-Step IQ
  • Time-of-Flight Instrument, Nd:YAG-laser-based custom-built
  • Ultraviolet Photoelectron Spectrometer, Scienta Omicron ESCA+S
  • Electrochemical workstation, BASi Epsilon Basic with C3-cell stand

FY21 Specialized Service Center Approved Fees

Updated January 2021

CORUM (access and reservations)

Publications resulting from use of the Electronic Materials Core Facility at UMass Amherst

User Publications:


  1. J.N. Pagaduan, N. Hight-Huf, A. Datar, Y. Nagar, M. Barnes, D. Naveh, A. Ramasubramaniam*, R. Katsumata*, and T. Emrick*, “Electronic Tuning of Monolayer Graphene with Polymeric “Zwitterists”, ACS Nano 2021, 15, 2762-2770. DOI: 10.1021/acsnano.0c08624
  2. H. Javaid, V.V. Duzhko*, and D. Venkataraman*, “Hole Transport Bilayer for Highly Efficient and Stable Inverted Perovskite Solar Cells”, ACS Appl. Energy Mater. 2021, 4, 1, 72-80, DOI: 10.1021/acsaem.0c01806.
  3. Burney-Allen, J. Shaw, D. Wheeler; L. Diodati, V. Duzhko, A. Tomlinson, M. Jeffries-EL,* “Benzobisoxazole cruciforms: A cross-conjugated platform for designing tunable donor/acceptor materials”, Asian Journal of Organic Chemistry, 2021, 10, 215-223, DOI: 10.1002/ajoc.2020.


  1. D. Bilger, K.W. Park, A. Abdel-Maksoud, T.L. Andrew, "Broadband-absorbing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon composite films on topologically complex substrates", Organic Electronics 2020, 85, 105862. DOI: 10.1016/j.orgel.2020.105862.
  2. E. Muller, J. Shaw, A. Burney-Allen, D. Wheeler, V. Duzhko, M. Jeffries-EL,* “Synthesis of 1,6-Didecylnaphtho[1,2-b:5,6-b']difuran-Based Copolymers by Direct Heteroarylation Polymerization”, Journal of Polymer Science 2020, DOI: 10.1002/pol.20200069.
  3. Ramesh, S. Kumar, A. Brouillard, D. Nandi, A. Kulkarni, "A Nitric Oxide (NO) Nanoreporter for Noninvasive Real‐Time Imaging of Macrophage Immunotherapy", Adv. Mater. 2020, 32, 2000648. DOI: 10.1002/adma.202000648
  4. Ramesh, A. Brouillard, S. Kumar, D. Nandi, A. Kulkarni, “Dual inhibition of CSF1R and MAPK pathways using supramolecular nanoparticles enhances macrophage immunotherapy,” Biomaterials 2020, 227, 119559. DOI: 10.1016/j.biomaterials.2019.119559
  5. P. Fan, D. Zhang, Y. Wu, J. Yu, T.P. Russell, “Polymer‐Modified ZnO Nanoparticles as Electron Transport Layer for Polymer‐Based Solar Cells”, Adv. Funct. Mater. 2020, 30, 2002932. DOI: 10.1002/adfm.202002932
  6. O. Singh, P.Y. Lee, S. Matysiak and H. Bermudez, “Dual mechanism of ionic liquid-induced protein unfolding”, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 2020, 22, 19779-19786. DOI: 10.1039/D0CP03138K
  7. H. J. Kim, B. Chen, Z. Suo, R.C. Hayward, “Ionoelastomer junctions between polymer networks of fixed anions and cations”, Science 2020, 367, 773-776. DOI: 10.1126/science.aay8467
  8. Y. Wu, Y. Liu, T. Emrick, T.P. Russell, "Polymer design to promote low work function surfaces in organic electronics", Progress in Polymer Science 2020, 103, 101222. DOI: 10.1016/j.progpolymsci.2020.101222
  9. M. Liu, P. Fan, Q. Hu, T.P. Russell, Yao Liu, “Naphthalene‐Diimide‐Based Ionenes as Universal Interlayers for Efficient Organic Solar Cells”, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2020, 59, 18131-18135. DOI: 10.1002/anie.202004432
  10. M.D. Cole, "Molecular design of organic semiconductors for interfacial and emissive material applications," Ph.D. Thesis, 2020.
  11. Margossian, M. Muthukumar, "Electric field-dependent metastable phenomena in polyelectrolyte solutions," Bulletin of the American Physical Society (2020).


  1. Z. Xiong, F.J. Hwang, F. Sun, Y. Xie, D. Mao, G.L. Li, G. Xu, "Spectrally Filtered Passive Si Photodiode Array for on-Chip Fluorescence Imaging of Intracellular Calcium Dynamics." Scientific Reports 2019, 9, 9083. DOI: 10.1038/s41598-019-45563-8
  2. J.J. Kim, L.K. Allison, T.L. Andrew, Vapor-printed polymer electrodes for long-term, on-demand health monitoring, Sci. Adv. 2019, 5(3), eaaw0463. DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aaw0463
  3. R. Chavez III, L. Diodati, D.L. Wheeler, J. Shaw, A.L. Tomlinson, M. Jeffries-EL, Evaluating the Impact of Fluorination on the Electro-Optical Properties of Cross-Conjugated Benzobisoxazoles, The Journal of Physical Chemistry A 2019, 123, pp 1343–1352. DOI: 10.1021/acs.jpca.8b07778
  4. D. Bilger, K.W. Park, T.L. Andrew, “A vapor printed electron-accepting conjugated polymer for textile optoelectronics”, Synthetic Metals 2019, 250, 1-6. DOI: 10.1016/j.synthmet.2019.02.005
  5. Ramesh, S. Kumar, D. Nandi, A. Kulkarni, CSF1R‐ and SHP2‐Inhibitor‐Loaded Nanoparticles Enhance Cytotoxic Activity and Phagocytosis in Tumor‐Associated Macrophages, Adv. Mater. 2019, 51, 1904364. DOI: 10.1002/adma.201904364
  6. Ramesh, S. Kumar, D. Nandi, A. Kulkarni, Dual Inhibitors-Loaded Nanotherapeutics that Target Kinase Signaling Pathways Synergize with Immune Checkpoint Inhibitor, Cellular and Molecular Bioengineering 2019, 12, 357–373. DOI: 10.1007/s12195-019-00576-1
  7. Y. Liu, M. Sheri, M.D. Cole, D. Man Yu, T. Emrick, T.P. Russell, Transforming Ionene Polymers into Efficient Cathode Interlayers with Pendent Fullerenes, Angewandte Chemie International Edition, 2019, 58, 5677. DOI: 10.1002/anie.201901536
  8. Y. Li, M.D. Cole, Y. Gao, T. Emrick, Z. Xu, Y. Liu, T.P. Russell, High Performance Perovskite Solar Cells with a Non-Doped Small Molecule Hole Transporting Layer, ACS Applied Energy Materials, 2019, 2, 1634. DOI: 10.1021/acsaem.9b00164
  9. H. Kim, S. So, A. Ribbe, Y. Liu, W. Hu, V.V. Duzhko, R.C. Hayward,* and T. Emrick,* Functional polymers for growth and stabilization of CsPbBr3 perovskite nanoparticles, Chemical Communications,2019, 55, 1833-1836. DOI: 10.1039/C8CC09343A


  1. Kulkarni, A., Chandrasekar, V., Natarajan, S.K. et al. "A designer self-assembled supramolecule amplifies macrophage immune responses against aggressive cancer", Nat Biomed Eng 2018, 2, 589–599. DOI: 10.1038/s41551-018-0254-6
  2. S. Karak, Z.A. Page,* S.Li, J.S. Tinkham, P.M. Lahti, V.V. Duzhko and T. Emrick*, Amino-fulleropyrrolidines as electrotropic additives to enhance organic photovoltaics, Sustainable Energy & Fuels 2018. DOI: 10.1039/C8SE00294K
  3. Ifeanyi K. Madu, Evan W. Muller, Hyungjun Kim, Jessica Shaw, Alfred A. Burney-Allen, Paul Zimmerman, Malika Jeffries-El, and Theodore Goodson III,* Heteroatom and Side Chain Effects on the Optical and Photophysical Properties: Ultrafast and Nonlinear Spectroscopy of New Naphtho[1,2-b:5,6-b′]difuran Donor Polymers, J. Phys. Chem. C, 2018, 122 (30), pp 17049–17066. DOI: 10.1021/acs.jpcc.8b03914
  4. B. Dunham, V. Vattipalli, C. Dimitrakopoulos, "Evaporation-Induced Self-Assembly of Semi-Crystalline PbI2(DMSO) Complex Films as a Facile Route to Reproducible and Efficient Planar p-i-n Perovskite Solar Cells", MRS Advances, 3, 1807 (2018). DOI: 10.1557/adv.2018.137
  5. Yao Liu, Madhu Sheri, Marcus D Cole, Todd Emrick,* Thomas P Russell,* Combining Fullerenes and Zwitterions in non‐Conjugated Polymer Interlayers to Raise Solar Cell Efficiency, Angewandte Chemie International Edition 2018, 57(31) , Pages 9675-9678. DOI: 10.1002/anie.201803748
  6. Emily C. Smith, Christie L. C. Ellis, Hamza Javaid, Lawrence A. Renna, Yao Liu, Thomas P. Russell, Monojit Bag, and D. Venkataraman*, Interplay between Ion Transport, Applied Bias, and Degradation under Illumination in Hybrid Perovskite p-i-n Devices, J. Phys. Chem. C 122(25), 13986-13994. DOI: 10.1021/acs.jpcc.8b01121
  7. Yao Liu, Marcus D. Cole, Yufeng Jiang, Paul Y. Kim, Dennis Nordlund, Todd Emrick,* Thomas P. Russell,* Chemical and Morphological Control of Interfacial Self‐Doping for Efficient Organic Electronics, Advanced Materials 2018, 30(15), 1705976. DOI: 10.1002/adma.201705976
  8. Yao Liu, Zachariah A. Page, Dongming Zhou, Volodimyr V. Duzhko, Kevin R. Kittilstved, Todd Emrick*, and Thomas P. Russell*, Chemical Stabilization of Perovskite Solar Cells with Functional Fulleropyrrolidines, ACS Central Science 2018, 4 (2), pp 216–222. DOI: 10.1021/acscentsci.7b00454


  1. Y. Liu, L.A. Renna, H.B. Thompson, Z.A. Page, T. Emrick, M.D. Barnes, M. Bag, D. Venkataraman, T.P. Russell, "Role of Ionic Functional Groups on Ion Transport at Perovskite Interfaces", Advanced Energy Materials 2017, 1701235. DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201701235
  2. V.V. Duzhko,* B. Dunham, S.J. Rosa, M.D. Cole, A. Paul, Z. A. Page, C. Dimitrakopoulos, and T. Emrick,* "N-Doped Zwitterionic Fullerenes as Interlayers in Organic and Perovskite Photovoltaic Devices", ACS Energy Letters 2017, 2, 957. DOI: 10.1021/acsenergylett.7b00147


  1. Y. Liu, V.V. Duzhko, Z.A. Page, T. Emrick, and T.P. Russell, "Conjugated Polymer Zwitterions: Efficient Interlayer Materials in Organic Electronics," Accounts of Chemical Research 2016, 49, 2478. DOI:10.1021/acs.accounts.6b00402
  2. L.A. Renna, M. Bag, T.S. Gehan, X. Han, P.M. Lahti, D. Maroudas, and D. Venkataraman, "Tunable Percolation in Semiconducting Binary Polymer Nanoparticle Glasses," Journal of Physical Chemistry B 2016, 120 (9), 2544-2556, DOI: 10.1021/acs.jpcb.5b11716
  3. M. Bag, L.A. Renna, S.P. Jeong, X. Han, C.L. Cutting, D. Maroudas, D. Venkataraman, "Evidence for reduced charge recombination in carbon nanotube/perovskite-based active layers," Chemical Physics Letters, 2016, 662,35. DOI: 10.1016/j.cplett.2016.09.004
  4. Y. Liu, L.A. Renna, Z.A. Page, H.B. Thompson, P.Y. Kim, M.D. Barnes, T. Emrick, D. Venkataraman, T.P. Russell, "A Polymer Hole Extraction Layer for Inverted Perovskite Solar Cells from Aqueous Solutions", Advanced Energy Materials 2016, 1600664. DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201600664
  5. P.D. Homyak, Y. Liu, J.D. Harris, F. Liu, K.R. Carter, T.P. Russell, E.B. Coughlin, "Systematic Fluorination of P3HT: Synthesis of P (3HT-co-3H4FT) s by Direct Arylation Polymerization, Characterization, and Device Performance in OPVs," Macromolecules 49 (8), 3028-3037, 2016. DOI: 10.1021/acs.macromol.6b00386
  6. Z.A. Page, Y. Liu, E. Puodziukynaite, T.P. Russell, T. Emrick, "Hydrophilic Conjugated Polymers Prepared by Aqueous Horner–Wadsworth–Emmons Coupling, Macromolecules 49 (7), 2526-2532, 2016. DOI: 10.1021/acs.macromol.5b02501
  7. Y. Liu, L.A. Renna, M. Bag, Z.A. Page, P. Kim, J. Choi, T. Emrick, "High Efficiency Tandem Thin-Perovskite/Polymer Solar Cells with a Graded Recombination Layer", ACS applied materials & interfaces 8 (11), 7070-7076, 2016. DOI: 10.1021/acsami.5b12740
  8. Y. Liu, M. Bag, L.A. Renna, Z.A. Page, P. Kim, T. Emrick, D. Venkataraman, "Understanding Interface Engineering for High‐Performance Fullerene/Perovskite Planar Heterojunction Solar Cells", Advanced Energy Materials 6 (2), 2016. DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201501606
  9. V.V. Duzhko, "Physical aging and charge transport in poly (3‐hexylthiophene)," Physica Status Solidi (a) 2016, 213, 419-423. DOI: 10.1002/pssa.201532307
  10. M. Bag, S. Banerjee, R. Faust, D. Venkataraman, "Self-healing polymer sealant for encapsulating flexible solar cells", Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells 2016, 145, 418-422. DOI: 10.1016/j.solmat.2015.11.004
  11. M. Bag, Z. Jiang, L.A.Renna, S.P. Jeong, V.M. Rotello, D. Venkataraman, "Rapid combinatorial screening of inkjet-printed alkyl-ammonium cations in perovskite solar cells", Materials Letters 2016, 164, 472-475. DOI: 10.1016/j.matlet.2015.11.058.
  12. Bhuwalka, M.D. Ewan, M. Elshobaki, J.F. Mike, B. Tlach, S. Chaudhary, M. Jeffries‐EL, "Synthesis and Photovoltaic Properties of 2,6-Bis(2-Thienyl) Benzobisazole and 4,8-Bis(thienyl)-Benzo 1,2-B:4,5-B ' Dithiophene Copolymers", Journal of Polymer Science Part A-Polymer Chemistry 2016, 54, 316-324. DOI: 10.1002/pola.27793


  1. Y. Liu, Z.A. Page, T.P. Russell, T. Emrick, "Finely Tuned Polymer Interlayers Enhance Solar Cell Efficiency," Angewandte Chemie International Edition 2015, 54 (39), 11485-11489. DOI: 10.1002/anie.201503933
  2. Y. Liu, Z. Page, S. Ferdous, F. Liu, P. Kim, T. Emrick, T. Russell, "Dual Functional Zwitterionic Fullerene Interlayer for Efficient Inverted Polymer Solar Cells," Advanced Energy Materials 2015, 5 (14). DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201500405
  3. Y. Liu, L. Zhang, H. Lee, H.W. Wang, A. Santala, F. Liu, Y. Diao, A.L. Briseno, "NDI‐Based Small Molecule as Promising Nonfullerene Acceptor for Solution‐Processed Organic Photovoltaics," Advanced Energy Materials 2015, 5 (12). DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201500195
  4. P. Homyak, Y. Liu, S. Ferdous, F. Liu, T.P. Russell, E.B. Coughlin, "Effect of Pendant Functionality in Thieno [3, 4-b] thiophene-alt-benzodithiophene Polymers for OPVs", Chemistry of Materials 2015, 27 (2), 443-449. DOI: 10.1021/cm503334h
  5. P. Homyak, Y. Liu, F. Liu, T.P. Russel, E.B. Coughlin, "Systematic Variation of Fluorinated Diketopyrrolopyrrole Low Bandgap Conjugated Polymers: Synthesis by Direct Arylation Polymerization and Characterization and Performance in Organic Photovoltaics and Organic Field-Effect Transistors", Macromolecules 2015, 48, 6978-6986. DOI: 10.1021/acs.macromol.5b01275
  6. Hongyu Wang, Yimin Ding, Yanbang Lai, Zhiwei Sun, Yao Liu, Bin Jiang, Ming Chen, Jian Yao, Feng Liu, Thomas P Russell, Ethynylene-linked benzo [1, 2-b: 4, 5-b′] dithiophene-alt-diketopyrrolopyrrole alternating copolymer: optoelectronic properties, film morphology and photovoltaic applications, Journal of Materials Chemistry A 3 (24), 12972-12981, 2015.
  7. Y. Liu, F. Liu, H.-W. Wang, D. Nordlund, Z. Sun, S. Ferdous, T.P.Russell, "Sequential Deposition: Optimization of Solvent Swelling for High-Performance Polymer Solar Cells," ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 2015, 7, 653-661, DOI: 10.1021/am506868g.
  8. S. Karak, Z.A. Page, J.S. Tinkham, P.M. Lahti, T. Emrick, and V.V. Duzhko, “Raising Efficiency of Organic Solar Cells with Electrotropic Additives”, Appl. Phys. Lett. 2015, 106, 103303. DOI: 10.1063/1.4914847
  9. H. Lee, E. Puodziukynaite, Y. Zhang, J.C. Stephenson, L.J. Richter, D.A. Fischer, D.M. DeLongchamp, T. Emrick, and A.L. Briseno “Poly(sulfobetaine methacrylate)s as Electrode Modifiers for Inverted Organic Electronics”, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2015, 137, pp 540–549, DOI: 10.1021/ja512148d
  10. M. Bag, L.A. Renna, R.Y. Adhikari, S. Karak, F. Liu, P.M. Lahti, T.P. Russell, "Kinetics of ion transport in perovskite active layers and its implications for active layer stability," Journal of the American Chemical Society 2015, 137 (40), 13130-1313. DOI: 10.1021/jacs.5b08535
  11. F. Liu, S. Ferdous, E. Schaible, A. Hexemer, M. Church, X. Ding, C. Wang, "Fast Printing and In Situ Morphology Observation of Organic Photovoltaics Using Slot‐Die Coating," Advanced Materials 2015, 27 (5), 886-891, 4. DOI: 10.1002/adma.201404040
  12. Bhuwalka, M.D. Ewan, J.F. Mike, M. Elshobaki, B. Kobilka, S. Chaudhary, M. Jeffries‐EL,"Synthesis, characterization, and photovoltaic properties of dithienylbenzobisazole-dithienylsilole copolymers", Journal of Polymer Science Part a-Polymer Chemistry 2015, 53, 1533-1540. DOI: 10.1002/pola.27603
  13. Z.A. Page, F. Liu, T.P. Russell, T. Emrick, "Tuning the energy gap of conjugated polymer zwitterions for efficient interlayers and solar cells," Journal of Polymer Science Part A: Polymer Chemistry 53 (2), 327-336, 3, 2015. DOI:10.1002/pola.27349
  14. H. Akpinar, Ş.C. Cevher, L. Wei, A. Cirpan, B.M. Wong, D. Venkataraman, P.M. Lahti, "Poly((2-alkylbenzo 1,2,3 triazole-4,7-diyl)vinylene)s for Organic Solar Cells," Journal of Polymer Science Part B-Polymer Physics 2015, 53, 1539-1545. DOI: 10.1002/polb.23785


  1. S Ferdous, F Liu, D Wang, TP Russell, Solvent‐Polarity‐Induced Active Layer Morphology Control in Crystalline Diketopyrrolopyrrole‐Based Low Band Gap Polymer Photovoltaics, Advanced Energy Materials 4 (2), 2014.
  2. S Koyuncu, HW Wang, F Liu, KB Toga, W Gu, TP Russell, A novel complementary absorbing donor–acceptor pair in block copolymers based on single material organic photovoltaics, Journal of Materials Chemistry A 2 (9), 2993-2998, 2014.
  3. F Liu, L Zhang, Y Zhang, SCB Mannsfeld, TP Russell, AL Briseno, Interpenetrating morphology based on highly crystalline small molecule and PCBM blends, Journal of Materials Chemistry C 2 (44), 9368-9374, 2014.
  4. Y Gu, C Wang, F Liu, J Chen, OE Dyck, G Duscher, TP Russell, Guided crystallization of P3HT in ternary blend solar cell based on P3HT: PCPDTBT: PCBM, Energy & Environmental Science 7 (11), 3782-3790, 2014.
  5. F Liu, W Zhao, JR Tumbleston, C Wang, Y Gu, D Wang, AL Briseno, Understanding the morphology of PTB7: PCBM blends in organic photovoltaics, Advanced Energy Materials 4 (5), 2014.
  6. BAG Hammer, MA Reyes-Martinez, FA Bokel, F Liu, TP Russell, Reversible, Self Cross-Linking Nanowires from Thiol-Functionalized Polythiophene Diblock Copolymers, ACS applied materials & interfaces 6 (10), 7705-7711, 2014.
  7. S Chantarak, F Liu, T Emrick, TP Russell, Solvent‐Assisted Orientation of Poly (3‐hexylthiophene)‐Functionalized CdSe Nanorods Under an Electric Field, Macromolecular Chemistry and Physics 215 (17), 1647-1653, 2014.
  8. F Liu, D Chen, C Wang, K Luo, W Gu, AL Briseno, JWP Hsu, TP Russell, Molecular Weight Dependence of the Morphology in P3HT: PCBM Solar Cells, ACS applied materials & interfaces 6 (22), 19876-1988, 2014.
  9. Page, Z. A., Liu, F., Russell, T. P. and Emrick, T. “Tuning the energy gap of conjugated polymer zwitterions for efficient interlayers and solar cells” J. Polym. Sci. A Polym. Chem. 2014, 53, 327–336. [doi: 10.1002/pola.27349]
  10. Hyunbok Lee, Yue Zhang, Lei Zhang, Timothy Mirabito, Edmund K. Burnett, Stefan Trahan, Ali Reza Mohebbi, Stefan C. B. Mannsfeld, Fred Wudl and Alejandro L. Briseno “Rubicene: a molecular fragment of C70 for use in organic field-effect transistors, J. Mater. Chem. C 2014, 2, 3361-3366. [DOI: 10.1039/C3TC32117G]
  11. Sujun Wei; Jianlong Xia; Emma J. Dell; Yivan Jiang; Rui Song; Hyunbok Lee; Philip Rodenbough; Alejandro L. Briseno; Luis M. Campos “Bandgap Engineering through Controlled Oxidation of Polythiophenes” Angew. Chem. Int. Edition 2014, 53, 1832–1836, [DOI: 10.1002/anie.201309398].
  12. Egle Puodziukynaite, Hsin-Wei Wang, Jimmy Lawrence, Adam J. Wise, Thomas P. Russell, Michael D. Barnes, and Todd Emrick “Azulene Methacrylate Polymers: Synthesis, Electronic Properties, and Solar Cell Fabrication” J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2014, 136, 11043–11049. [DOI: 10.1021/ja504670k]
  13. Supravat Karak, Paul J. Homnick, Lawrence A. Renna, D. Venkataraman, Joel T. Mague, and Paul M. Lahti “Solution-Processed Photovoltaics with a 3,6-Bis(diarylamino)fluoren-9-ylidene Malononitrile”, ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2014, 16476–16480 [DOI: 10.1021/am504993j]
  14. S. Karak, P.J. Homnick, A.M. Della Pelle, Y. Bae, V.V. Duzhko, F. Liu, T.P. Russell, P.M. Lahti, S. Thayumanavan, “Crystallinity and Morphology Effects on a Solvent-Processed Solar Cell using a Triarylamine-Substituted Squaraine”, ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2014, 6, 11376-11384.
  15. S. Karak, J.-A. Lim, S. Ferdous, V.V. Duzhko and A.L. Briseno, “Photovoltaic Effect at the Schottky Interface with Organic Single Crystal Rubrene”, Adv. Funct. Mater. 2014, 24, 1039-1046 (Journal cover - frontispiece).
  16. Y Liu, F Liu, HW Wang, D Nordlund, Z Sun, S Ferdous, TP Russell, Sequential Deposition: Optimization of Solvent Swelling for High-Performance Polymer Solar Cells, ACS applied materials & interfaces 7 (1), 653-661, 2014.
  17. Z.A. Page, Y. Liu, V.V. Duzhko, T.P. Russell and T. Emrick, “Fulleropyrrolidine interlayers lower cathode work function to raise organic solar cell efficiency”, Science 2014, 346, 441-444.
  18. S. Karak, F. Liu, T.P. Russell and V.V. Duzhko, “Bulk Charge Carrier Transport in Push-Pull Type Organic Semiconductor”, ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2014, 6, 20904-20912.
  19. Bag, Monojit; Gehan, Timothy S.; Renna, Lawrence A.; Algaier, Dana D.; Lahti, Paul M. ; and Venkataraman, Dhandapani Fabrication Conditions for Efficient Organic Photovoltaic Cells from Aqueous Dispersions of Nanoparticles RSC Advances, 4, 45325-45331 (2014). [DOI: 10.1039/C4RA07463G ]
  20. Timothy S. Gehan, Monojit Bag, Lawrence A. Renna, Xiaobo Shen, Dana D. Algaier, Paul M. Lahti, Thomas P. Russell, and Dhandapani Venkataraman “Multiscale Active Layer Morphologies for Organic Photovoltaics Through Self-Assembly of Nanospheres” Nano Letters 2014 14 (9), 5238-5243 [DOI: 10.1021/nl502209s]
  21. Han, Xu; Bag, Monojit; Gehan, Timothy S.; Venkataraman, Dhandapani; and Maroudas, Dimitrios Analysis of hole transport in thin films and nanoparticle assemblies of poly(3-hexylthiophene Chem. Phys. Lett., 610-611, 273-277 (2014). [DOI: 10.1016/j.cplett.2014.07.022]
  22. Page, Zachariah; Liu, Feng; Russell, Thomas P.; and Emrick, Todd “Rapid, facile synthesis of conjugated polymer zwitterions in ionic liquids” Chemical Science, 5, 2368-2373 (2014).


  1. F Liu, Y Gu, X Shen, S Ferdous, HW Wang, TP Russell, Characterization of the morphology of solution-processed bulk heterojunction organic photovoltaics, Progress in Polymer Science 38 (12), 1990-2052, 2013.
  2. F Liu, C Wang, JK Baral, L Zhang, JJ Watkins, AL Briseno, TP Russell, Relating chemical structure to device performance via morphology control in diketopyrrolopyrrole-based low band gap polymers, Journal of the American Chemical Society 135 (51), 19248-19259, 2013.
  3. H Wang, F Liu, L Bu, J Gao, C Wang, W Wei, TP Russell, The Role of Additive in Diketopyrrolopyrrole‐Based Small Molecular Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells, Advanced Materials 25 (45), 6519-6525, 2013.
  4. M Bag, TS Gehan, DD Algaier, F Liu, G Nagarjuna, PM Lahti, TP Russell, Efficient Charge Transport in Assemblies of Surfactant‐Stabilized Semiconducting Nanoparticles, Advanced Materials 25 (44), 6411-6415, 2013.
  5. Bag, TS Gehan, DD Algaier, F Liu, G Nagarjuna, PM Lahti, TP Russell, Charge Transport: Efficient Charge Transport in Assemblies of Surfactant‐Stabilized Semiconducting Nanoparticles (Adv. Mater. 44/2013), Advanced Materials 25 (44), 6410-6410, 2013.
  6. Y Huang, F Liu, X Guo, W Zhang, Y Gu, J Zhang, CC Han, TP Russell, Manipulating backbone structure to enhance low band gap polymer photovoltaic performance, Advanced Energy Materials 3 (7), 930-937, 2013.
  7. JW Jung, F Liu, TP Russell, WH Jo, Semi-crystalline random conjugated copolymers with panchromatic absorption for highly efficient polymer solar cells, Energy & Environmental Science 6 (11), 3301-3307, 2013.
  8. JW Jung, F Liu, TP Russell, WH Jo, Synthesis of pyridine-capped diketopyrrolopyrrole and its use as a building block of low band-gap polymers for efficient polymer solar cells, Chemical Communications 49 (76), 8495-8497, 2013.
  9. Z.A. Page, V.V. Duzhko and T. Emrick, “Conjugated Thiophene-containing Polymer Zwitterions: Direct Synthesis and Thin Film Electronic Properties”, Macromolecules 2013, 46, 344-351.
  10. B.M. Kobilka, B.J. Hale, M.D. Ewan, A.V. Dubrovskiy, T.L. Nelson, V.V. Duzhko, and M. Jeffries-EL, “Influence of heteroatoms on photovoltaic performance of donor-acceptor copolymers based on 2,6-di(thiophen-2-yl)benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b’]difurans and diketopyrrolopyrrole”, Polym. Chem. 2013, 4, 5329-5336.
  11. F. Liu, Z.A. Page, V.V. Duzhko, T.P. Russell and T. Emrick, “Conjugated Zwitterionic Polymers as Efficient Interlayers in Organic Solar Cells”, Adv. Mater. 2013, 25, 6868-6873.
  12. X. Shen, V.V. Duzhko and T.P. Russell, “A Study on the Correlation between Structure and Hole Transport in Semi-Crystalline Regioregular P3HT”, Adv. Energy Mater. 2013, 3, 263.


  1. F. Liu, Y. Gu, C. Wang, W. Zhao, D. Chen, A.L. Briseno, T.P. Russell, Efficient Polymer Solar Cells Based on a Low Bandgap Semi‐crystalline DPP Polymer‐PCBM Blends, Adv. Mater. 2012, 24 (29), 3947-3951. DOI: 10.1002/adma.201200902
  2. F. Liu, Y. Gu, J.W. Jung, W.H. Jo, T.P. Russell, On the morphology of polymer‐based photovoltaics, Journal of Polymer Science Part B: Polymer Physics 2012, 50 (15), 1018-1044. DOI: 10.1002/polb.23063
  3. Y. Gu, C. Wang, T.P. Russell, Multi‐length‐scale morphologies in PCPDTBT/PCBM bulk‐heterojunction solar cells, Adv. Energy Mater. 2012 2 (6), 683-690. DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201100726
  4. D. Chen, W. Zhao, T.P. Russell, P3HT nanopillars for organic photovoltaic devices nanoimprinted by AAO templates, ACS nano 2012, 6 (2), 1479-1485. DOI: 10.1021/nn2043548


  1. H Lu, B Akgun, TP Russell, Morphological Characterization of a Low‐Bandgap Crystalline Polymer: PCBM Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells, Advanced Energy Materials 1 (5), 870-878. DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201100128
  2. D Chen, F Liu, C Wang, A Nakahara, TP Russell, Bulk heterojunction photovoltaic active layers via bilayer interdiffusion, Nano letters 11 (5), 2071-2078. DOI: 10.1021/nl200552r
  3. D Chen, A Nakahara, D Wei, D Nordlund, TP Russell, P3HT/PCBM bulk heterojunction organic photovoltaics: correlating efficiency and morphology, Nano letters 11 (2), 561-567. DOI:
  4. Usowicz, M. T., Kelley, M. J., Singer, K. D. & Duzhko, V. V. Tailored One- and Two[1]Dimensional Self-Assembly of a Perylene Diimide Derivative in Organic Solvents. Journal of Physical Chemistry B 2011, 115, 9703-9709. doi:10.1021/jp203703e
  5. Bae, W. J., Scilla, C., Duzhko, V. V., Jo, W. H. & Coughlin, E. B. Synthesis and Photophysical Properties of Soluble Low-Bandgap Thienothiophene Polymers with Various Alkyl Side-Chain Lengths. Journal of Polymer Science Part a-Polymer Chemistry 2011, 49, 3260-3271. doi:10.1002/pola.24761.