WAGS 11 Cross-Cultural Construction of Gender Michele Barale Rose Olver Introduces students to the issues involved in the social and historical construction of gender and gender roles from a cross-cultural and interdisciplinary perspective. Topics will include the uses and limits of biology in explaining human gender differences; male and female sexualities including homosexualities; women and social change; women’s participation in production and reproduction; the relationship among gender, race and class as intertwining oppressions; and the functions of visual and verbal representation in the creating, enforcing and contesting of gender norms. WAGS 16 HIST 92 English Women in the Age of the Enlightenment Margaret Hunt Investigates the history of European women in the period approximately 1680 to 1830 in both Western and Eastern Europe. Looks at female philosophers and scientists, women monarchs (including Queen Anne of England and Catherine the Great of Russia), prophetesses, revolutionaries (including Olympe de Gouges and Mme. Roland), peasants, prostitutes and cross-dressers. There will be attention to original sources (autobiographies, political tracts, and court cases) and to the ways modern-day historians make sense of this formative period in the history of both modern gender roles and European culture. Knowledge of one or more European languages other than English recommended but not required. WAGS 30 In Their Own Words: Autobiographies of Women Rose Olver Susan Snively How does the writing of autobiography help a woman affirm, construct, or reconstruct an authentic self? How does she resolve the conflict between telling the truth and distorting it in making her life into art? Is the making of art, indeed, her chief preoccupation; or is her goal to record her life in the context of her times, her religion, or her relationship to others? Reading autobiographies of women writers helps us raise, if not resolve, these questions. We shall also consider how women write about experiences particular to women as shown in their struggles to survive adversity; their sense of themselves as authorities or challengers of authority, as well as their sense of what simply gives them pain or joy. Readings from recent work in the psychology of woman will provide models for describing women’s development, as writings of women in turn will show how these models emerge from real lives. Includes traditional autobiography, historical memoir, poetry, journals and personal narratives, psychological studies, criticism and theory: Maxine Hong Kingston’s The Woman Warrior, Maya Angelou’s I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings, poetry and prose by Elizabeth Bishop, Shirley Abbot’s Womenfolks, Charlotte Bronte’s Jane Eyre, Jamaica Kincaid’s Annie John, Carol Gilligan’s In a Different Voice, Mary Field-Belenky, et al., Women’s Ways of Knowing, and recent work by Janet Surrey, as well as selections from works by Paule Marshall, Virginia Woolf, Toni Morrison, Alice Walker, Lorene Cary, and, of course, Anonymous. WAGS 31 Sexuality and Culture Benigno Sanchez-Eppler Will examine genders and sexualities in Latin America. This will be an interdisciplinary course making use of literary documentation. Will expose students to the variety and complexity of issues surrounding gender and sexuality in a continental field that itself denies easy definition. By proceeding ahistorically at times, the course will begin to revise conventional accounts of conquest and colonization as sexual-political processes in which rape, miscegenation, collusion, and all sorts of sexual co- dependencies - both violent and negotiated - appear as important grounds of identity formation. Special attention will be focused on figures or tropes such as Malinche; on the development of racial castes through miscegenation; and on comparative analysis of the rhetorics of differentiation between the Spanish and Portuguese sexual models of colonial reproductions. WAGS 32 Sex, Self and Fear Stephanie Sandler Freud located identity formation in the emotion of fear - a boy’s fear of castration, a girl’s terror at lack. Later theories have agreed that worries about exposure, ridicule, and confession shape the sexual self. Our course will explore the gendered origins and effects of fear, asking how fear of the other sex, and fear about the self, ground identity. We will try to differentiate among forms of fear, comparing anxiety, obsession, trauma, and phobia. Course material will be studied for the ways in which it condenses and substitutes various forms of dread. Course material will include fiction (Pat Barker, Regeneration; Lydia Chukovskaya, Sofia Petrovna; Toni Morrison, Jazz; Mary Shelly, Frankenstein), poetry (by Anna Akhmatova, Rita Dove, Thom Gunn, Elizabeth Macklin); theory (Freud, Torok and Abraham); quasi- autobiography (Kenzaburo Oe, A Quiet Life; Nathalie Sarrute, Childhood), and film (Carrie, M, Perfect World, Psycho, Vertigo). We will ask what cultural and psychological work fear performs: what fears are required for liberation from social taboos? How do adults contain (and repeat) the fears that ruled childhood? Why do we like to be frightened? WAGS 64 HIST 49 Women’s History, America: 1866-1975 Saxton Begins with an examination of the experience of women from different racial, ethnic and economic backgrounds during Reconstruction. It will look at changes in family life as a result of increasing industrialization and the westward movement of settler families, and will also look at the settlers’ impact on Native American Women and families. Topics will include the work and familial experiences of immigrant women (including Irish, German, and Italian), women’s reform movements (particularly suffrage, temperance and anti-lynching), the expansion of educational opportunities, and the origins and programs of the Progressives. Examines the agitation for suffrage and the subsequent split among feminists, women’s experience in the labor force, and participation in the world wars. Finally, we will look at the origins of the Second Wave and its struggles to transcend its white middle-class origins. WAGS 66 HIST 43 Church, Family and Culture in Nineteenth-Century America Martha Saxton Looks at women’s experience through the lenses of religion, family and literary culture from the beginning of the nineteenth century through the Gilded Age. Using a mix of primary and secondary sources, students will trace the changing moral values guiding female education as well as the varieties of Christianity that gave shape to different forms of activism. It will also track changing family ideologies, the responsibilities of mothers and constructions of childhood. The course will include women’s texts reflecting on their experiences as daughters, mothers, reformers, slaves, Christians and professionals. Looks at the development of various strands of feminist thought and the production of a class of educated middle-class women interested in blunting the brutalities of capitalism. BRUSS 18 Bodies of Memory Wendy Woodson Over the past twenty years the body has come into sharp focus in a wide range of disciplines. Recent developments in literary and cultural studies, feminist theory, art, dance, theater, religion, technology, and medicine, have given us multiple ways to view and consider the body. At one end of the spectrum we find the “lived body” where we are fully in and responding to the bodies that we inhabit; at the other, we find out-of-body travel, near-death experiences, virtual bodies in cyberspace. Explores some of these interdisciplinary views and use the questions and images that emerge in the process as jumping off points for creative experimentation and expression in different media. What are the images that emerge when we explore the body as a container of memory, an aesthetic ideal, a social and cultural construct, a series of biological and chemical systems, a subordinate vehicle for carrying the mind, a site of contest and conquest? How do different body practices-- ranging from sports to yoga to fire walking to ballet -- influence our attitudes about life? Projects might include writing a body autobiography, a series of poems, a script for performance, a choreographed dance, a book of body maps, a video piece, or formal research paper. BLKSTU 44 ENG 75 Issues of Gender in African Literature C.R. Cobham-Sander Explores the ways in which issues of gender are presented by African writers and perceived by readers and critics of African writing. We will examine the insights and limitations of selected feminist, post-structural and post- colonial theories when they are applied to African texts. Also looks at the difference over time in the ways that female and male African writers have manipulated socially acceptable ideas about gender in their work. Tests will be selected from the oeuvres of established writers like Soyinka, Achebe, Ngugi and Head, as well as from among more recent works by writers like Farah, Aidoo, and Dangaremba. Preference will be given to students who have completed a previous course on African literature, history, or society. ENG 4 Representing Sexualities in Word and Image Jay Grossman Traces the cultural production of sexual knowledge over the last century, beginning with print and video representations of the AIDS crisis and concluding with Whitman’s daring projections of same-sex desire in the “Calamus” poems first published in 1860. Syllabus undertakes a kind of reverse genealogy, beginning in the present with a range of representations associated with the HIV pandemic (AIDS as “a gay disease” and as “the disease of gayness”) and then moving backward: first to the 1950s and the 1960s (periods often seen, respectively, as those of normative heterosexuality and of sexual revolution), and then to the nineteenth century and an appraisal of Walt Whitman’s writings. Undertakes the sequence of materials partly to answer the question how “we” came to be where “we” are today. Largely directed toward the texts and contexts out of which emerges the “sexual orientation” called “gay male,” but issues of “straightness,” “lesbianism,” “bisexuality,” and recently alternative called “queer” will necessarily arise as well. ENG 75 Hysteria and America: Stories and History K. Sanchez-Eppler During the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries the medical practice of treating hysteria with the physical confinement of bed-rest was gradually replaced by the verbal outpourings of the psychoanalytic “talking cure.” This transition reflects changing attitudes towards women -- who are always associated with hysteria -- alterations in the preferred mechanisms of social control from the external to the internal, and a changing understanding of the relation between representation -- telling one’s story -- physical and social realities. Explores these changes and the relations between them through the reading of medical texts and female advice books, Freud’s works on hysteria, especially his case study “Dora,” selections from the writings of Cixous and Foucault, and a variety of American literary texts including Charlotte Perkins Gilman’s The Yellow Wallpaper, Alice James’ Letters and Journals, Henry James’s The Bostonians, Sylvia Plath’s Ariel, and Hilda Doolittle’s Tribute to Angels as well as selections from her Tribute to Freud. GERMAN 53 Women and Social Change in Germany Ute Brandes For centuries, German women have sought to add their voices to the dominant political and cultural discourse. Emphasizing the last 200 years, this interdisciplinary course will first review female self-assertions from the Age of Chivalry up to the eighteenth century. Then focuses on the emerging bourgeois images of femininity and contrast these with late nineteenth century female demands for education and suffrage. In discussing the twentieth century, we will trace the sharply diverging ideological prescriptions for ideal womenhood in the political contexts of the Weimar Republic, in Hitler Germany, and in both post-war states, communist East and democratic West Germany. Readings in literary, political and autobiographical texts, plus music, art, and films. Works studied will be music by Hildegard von Bingen and Clara Schumann; literature by Benedikte Naubert and Bettina von Arnim, Sopie La Roche’s The History of Lady Sophia Sternheim, Fanny Lewald’s Autobiography, Anna Seghers’ The Excursion of the Dead Girls, and Christa Wolf’s Kassandra; art by Kethe Kollwitz and Paula Modersohn-Becker; speeches by Louise Aston, Rosa Luxemburg, and Alice Schwarzer; films by Leni Riefenstahl, Helma Sanders-Brahms, Margarethe von Trotta, and Ulrike Ottinger. Conducted in English, with German majors required to do a substantial portion of the reading in German. PS 39 LJST 39 Re-Imagining Law: Feminist Interpretations Kristin Bumiller Feminist theory raises questions about the compatibility of the legal order with women’s experience and understandings and calls for a reevaluation of the role of law in promoting social change. It invites us to inquire about the possibilities of a “feminist jurisprudence” and the adequacy of other critical theories which promise to make forms of legal authority more responsive. Will consider women as victims and users of legal power. Will ask how particular practices constitute gendered subjects in legal discourse. How can we imagine a legal system more reflective of women’s realities? The nature of legal authority will be considered in the context of women’s ordinary lives and reproductive roles, their active participation in political and professional change, their experiences with violence and pornography as well as the way they confront race, class and ethnic barriers. RUSSIAN 26 Gender, Identity Russia Janet Gyatso Susan Niditch As the study of Russian culture opens itself to new questions about gender and identity, and as the identity of Russia itself is changing before our eyes, we will examine the ways in which notions of sex and self have changed in Russian history and across genres. How have genders and identities been imagined by heroes, narrators, poets, memoirists, fiction writers, and readers? Readings come from works by Pushkin, Pavlova, Tolstoy, Gippius, Kollontai, Platonov, Akhmatova, Tsvetaeva, Ginzburg, Palei, Vasilenko, Petrushevskaya, and Ahvarts, with some recent feminist scholarship about Russia and selected feminist theorists whose work is pertinent to questions of identity. Special attention will be paid to the boom of Russian women’s writing since 1987, to the complex and long-standing hostility toward feminism among members of the Russian intelligentsia, and to the emergence of feminist and lesbian and gay movements in the 1990s. All readings and discussions in English.