UMass Extension
Integrated Pest Management

Tomato spacer Agriculture & Landscape Program
 

IPM Guidelines

Greenhouse Tomato

by Craig S. Hollingsworth, Linda Massad, John C. Howell and Robert L. Wick

  Media Nutrient Management and Cultural Practices  
  Cultural practices may be of value in management of nutrients, weeds, diseases or insects  
1. Last season's crop residue is disposed of in a manner to prevent it from providing disease inoculum to this year's crop.
5
2. Growing medium used for last year's crop is discarded or steam sterilized.
5
3. All plants are removed from the greenhouse at least one month before introducing the crop.
5
4. Minimum and maximum temperatures are recorded throughout the crop cycle.
5
5. Greenhouses are managed in a sanitary manner. All surfaces and tools are sanitized with an appropriate disinfectant at the beginning of the season.
5
6. The irrigation system is disinfected.
5
7. Screening is installed over air-intake louvers and vents to prevent insect entry.
Note: screening decreases airflow. Before screening is added, the air-intake system design should be re-evaluated.
5
8. Humidity level is maintained low enough to prevent condensation on greenhouse parts and plant surfaces.
10
9. Bag culture: Fertilizer injectors are calibrated a minimum of once during the production season.
*5
10. Hydroponics: Status of nutrient solution and medium is recorded daily, including the following: Amount fed per plant, electrical conductivity (EC) of nutrient solution, pH of nutrient solution. EC and pH are adjusted to normal ranges.
*5
11. Suckers are removed regularly while still small (less than 2").
5
12. n bag culture or hydroponics, when lowering plants, horizontal stems are kept off the greenhouse floor by stakes or other means to reduce Botrytis.
5
13. Horizontal airflow is maintained to improve air movement through the crop canopy.
5
14. If workers come from a tomato field, they change clothes and boots, and scrub their hands before entering the greenhouse.
*5
   
  Category Total
75
  Adjusted Total  
   
  Pesticides Application and Records  
  Only pesticides approved and registered in the state are used. Records of pesticide applications including date, location, targeted pest, pesticide name, formulation, rate and area treated, and environmental conditions are maintained. Pesticide drift is minimized. Re-entry and pre-harvest intervals are adhered to.
1. If pesticides are used, application equipment is calibrated for rate and droplet size at least once during the growing season.
*5
2. If pesticides are used, any worn nozzles are replaced and routine sprayer equipment maintenance is performed prior to the growing season.
*5
3. If pesticides are used, sprayer coverage of leaf surface is tested using water/oil sensitive cards during calibration.
*5
     
  Category Total
15
  Adjusted Total  
   
  Insect Management    
1. Aphids are monitored by inspection of a minimum of 50 leaves each week. Records of active and parasitized aphids are maintained.
5
2. Spider mites are monitored by examining 50 leaves each week and recording the number of infested leaves.
5
3. Whiteflies are identified to species.
5
4. Appropriate colored sticky cards are deployed (1 per 250 ft2) and inspected each week. The number of thrips and whiteflies captured are recorded.
5
5. Horizontal sticky cards are deployed to monitor for fungus gnats. Fungus gnat numbers are recorded weekly.
5
6. If aphids occur, lacewings or predacious midges are released when aphids appear. Additional releases are made as necessary.
*5
7. If spider mites appear, releases of Phytoseilus persimilus are made when 10 percent of the leaves are infested.
*5
8. When thrips appear on plants or sticky cards, Neoseilus cucumeris is released (slow release cones are recommended). OR If thrips were problematic in the previous year, N. cucumeris are released at first flower opening. N. cucumeris are released until plants are topped (no more flowers).
5
9. Monitoring for leafhoppers (fruit clusters for whiteapple LH and rose LH; terminal growth for potato LH) is conductedIf thrips numbers show increase after N. cucumeris is released, Orius is released.
*5
10. If appropriate, Encarsia or Encarsia/Eretmocerus (dependent on whitefly species)
are released for whitefly.
*5
11. Where pear thrips have been noted previously, they are monitored using yellow sticky traps or weekly bud counts.
5
   
  Category Total
50
  Adjusted Total  
 
  Disease Management  
  Many cultural practices previously listed address disease management concerns. In a well managed greenhouse, fungicides are usually not needed to produce a crop.
1. Hot-water treated seeds are used.
5
2. Tomato cultivars are disease-resistant (fulvia leaf mold, fursarium wilt, powdery mildew, virus, verticillium wilt or root-knot nematode).  
 
3. Only Tomatoes are grown in the greenhouse..
5
4. Each plant is inspected weekly. Diseased and broken plants are removed.
5
5. Plants are dry when pruned or otherwise handled.
5
6. Lower leaves are removed to just below the developing cluster and cluster stems are removed after the cluster is harvested to improve air flow and minimize disease development.
5
7. Flower parts are removed from bottom of fruit to minimize disease spread.
5
8. Plants are not touched by anyone who handles or uses tobacco or tobacco products.
5
9. Anyone who touches plants washes their hands and disinfects tools before entering a greenhouse and moving from one greenhouse to another.
5
   
  Category Total
45
  Adjusted Total  
   
  Weed Management  
1. Greenhouse is kept weed-free (hand-pulling is generally sufficient).
5
2. A weed-free area around the greenhouse is maintained. Decorative vegetation is not grown near air intakes.
5
 
  Category Total
10
  Adjusted Total  
 
  Education  
1. Manager attends an appropriate greenhouse or vegetable workshops during the
current year.
5
 
  Category Total
  Adjusted Total
5
   
  POINT SUMMARY  
   
  Grand Total
200
  Adjusted Grand Total  
  Percentage of adjusted total
%

by Douglas A. Cox and Roy Van Driesche

Acknowledgment
The authors thank Tina Smith for her contributions to these guidelines.

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