Abstracts for Fri. June 3 Presentations
The EPA has demonstrated success using soil amendments (i.e. biosolids, compost, and lime) to remediate and reuse hazardous waste sites originating from mining activities. This paper presents EPA’s experience with application of this green remediation technique, including lessons learned. Site-specific information will be presented, highlighting the challenges and opportunities.
Some of the lessons learned from EPA’s experience in using soil amendments include:
•Critical risks posed by mining sites can be specific to site conditions and change within the site depending upon the specific habitat;
•Risk reduction can be demonstrated through measures of toxicity and contaminant mobility however, the acceptability of the remediation may remain an issue;
•Future land use plays a part in the acceptability of the remediation technology especially in relation to human health risk;
•Reduced cost of the remedy over traditional remedy options is critical to implementation;
•Water availability is critical to successful revegetation efforts;
•A site strategy must be developed to accomplish the site goals and establish realistic expectations and remedy success evaluation benchmarks.
Mark Sprenger is an environmental scientist with the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency’s - Office of Superfund Remediation and Technology Innovation - Environmental Response Team. He received a BS in Biology from the State University of New York at Stony Brook, and a MS and Ph.D. in Environmental Science from Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey. His doctorate research and post-doctorate work focused on alteration in metals availability resulting from acid deposition as well as post-doctorate work on the impacts of DDT on a salt marsh. He has worked within the EPA for 20 years and is a coauthor of the national superfund ecological risk assessment guidance and has been active in the development of ecological risk assessments both in terms of new technical applications and national consistency. His current responsibilities are nationwide and international in scope, with a focus on ecological risk assessments, contaminant fate and transport, Site environmental monitoring; and most recently on the assessment of innovative remedial technologies and ecological restoration in the context of Site remediation.
Different remediation strategies to what is normally applied are increasingly required to deliver the best sustainable solution for a site. Integrated remediation solutions are one such method where multiple remediation solutions are combined in application. This method is typically used where infrastructure, such as buildings or plant, is left in place and/or remediation does not have to be undertaken immediately. However, there is often a risk likely of causing environmental damage which has to be addressed immediately. Thus, application of integrated remediation solutions will typically include at least two components, an aggressive solution to address a short term hazard and a less aggressive long term solution to address the residual risk.
Integrated remediation solutions can be implemented either simultaneously or in a staged approach. This provides numerous options for remediating a site whilst adhering to specific site limitations, cost, sustainability considerations and technical feasibility.
An operational site in NSW had levels of TPH and PAH in soil and groundwater requiring remediation due to historic spillages of distilled gasworks tar residue (creosote). The source of the leaks was confirmed as no longer active, and a maintenance program implemented to ensure that continued to be the case. Remediation of soil and groundwater was necessary but tanks, tank bunds and associated pipe work were to remain in place.
We implemented an integrated remediation solution which combined in-situ bioremediation, phyto-remediation together with ex-situ bioremediation. Tar beneath a tank had migrated vertically through a sand profile onto the bedrock and horizontally along the bedrock under the bund. The tar had the potential to migrate to a nearby drainage channel. A halo of dissolved naphthalene within groundwater was in advance of the tar. The client required the tar that had already flowed under the bund to be removed, ongoing tar seepage to be captured and the naphthalene in groundwater to be treated whilst the site remained operational.
The Integrated Remediation Solution involved:
• Excavation of accessible tar stockpiled for ex-situ bioremediation;
• Installation of a cutoff trench to capture the further tar flowing under the bund;
• Immediately down gradient of the collection trench, Vetiver grass was planted to drop the water table; and
• Where naphthalene contamination was widespread, nitrogen in the form of urea was injected at low concentration to stimulate attenuation.
Philip Mulvey is the Chief Executive Officer/Senior Principal and Hydrogeologist with Environmental Earth Sciences. He is CPPS Leading Professional Stage 3, an Environmental Auditor (Contaminated Land) Vic EPA and Site Auditor (CLM Act) NSW EPA (Australia). Phil is a specialist in soil and water chemistry as well as interactions between the two media. He has over 30 years experience in soil sciences, hydrogeology, water resource assessment, contamination studies, geological mapping and aquifer modeling. He has conducted numerous projects involving contamination assessments, remediation planning, remediation supervision and validation of contaminated sites; geochemical and hydrogeological studies at mine sites throughout Australia; landfill design, management and decommissioning; mine closure planning and supervision. Often, in so doing, providing innovative new solutions that have impacted on industry practices.
Sustainability and system optimization at two PCE sites
Chris Koerner, Eric Kenney, Lynne France, and Joan Knapp, CDM; Anthony Iacobone and Laura Johnson, US Environmental Protections Agency, Region 3
At the Vienna, West Virginia Tetrachloroethene (PCE) Superfund Site, releases from dry cleaning facilities created two groundwater plumes, shutting down six city wells. CDM, supporting USEPA, installed four air sparging/soil vapor extraction (AS/SVE) systems to address vadose zone and groundwater contamination. After cleanup goals were achieved at one Vienna source, the entire treatment system/building was moved to the Ravenswood PCE Site, where three city wells are contaminated.
CDM had two sustainability goals for Vienna: 1)build a system that quickly and efficiently achieved cleanup goals, and 2)design the smaller system as a self-contained unit suitable for reuse (Ravenswood was envisioned). The computer system and solenoid valves on every AS/SVE well create short pulses of sparge air across the well networks. This enhanced sparging increased system effectiveness and allowed smaller, more energy-efficient compressors and blowers. Three planned, data-supported optimization sequences minimized vapor intrusion risk, maximized sparge effectiveness, and reduced electrical costs >40%. After 3½ years of operation, site-wide PCE levels decreased > 95%, cleanup goals were achieved at the smaller plume, and the system became available for reuse.
CDM's conceptual site model for Ravenswood led EPA to authorize an AS/SVE treatability study. The Vienna building was transported to Ravenswood and connected to nine AS and three SVE wells. The system has undergone two optimization sequences and is operating at full capacity.
The Vienna system reuse significantly decreased energy use by not having to redesign, procure, construct, manufacture, or transport a new system, while accelerating groundwater treatment at Ravenswood. At both sites, more traditional sustainable activities were employed, including treating water on site, reusing/recycling all road/drilling debris, donating an existing building to the police department, and using local contractor labor. CDM worked closely with Vienna Public Works to share road construction; CDM removed/recycled the road bed while the City resurfaced the new road.
Chris Koerner, P.E., B.C.E.E., a Senior Remediation Engineer with CDM, is a recognized expert in the remediation of toxic contamination and corporate environmental planning. With 32 years experience as a licensed professional engineer (ten states), general engineering contractor, experienced scientist, and former regulator, he is uniquely qualified to develop and implement strategies to solve environmental problems. His combination of scientific and engineering training, business training (MBA), and experience as an engineering contractor allows him to provide insightful practical guidance while considering regulatory and financial aspects to define the right total solution. Mr. Koerner has championed innovative and sustainable technologies and is an established leader in effective subsurface remediation. He has developed cost-effective, risk-reducing solutions at hundreds of sites and facilities, in most US states and twelve foreign countries. Mr. Koerner leads strategy development, design, and implementation teams, managing many multi-million dollar characterization, remediation, and waste minimization programs. He has served as senior project manager for numerous high-profile sites and advised EPA, Fortune 50 clients, DOE, and all branches of DOD in the implementation of cost-effective and sustainable solutions to complex waste remediation challenges.
For decades since the advent of the Superfund-style site assessment and remedial action process, many diesel fuel release sites in the U.S. have undergone resource intensive remedial actions similar to those implemented at high toxicity chemical release sites. The regulatory requirements and legal liability ramifications that drive the remedial response requirements at diesel fuel release sites have often failed to keep pace with the expanded understanding of the toxicity and fate and transport of diesel fuel (particularly in its “weathered” form) in the subsurface environment. An abundance of high quality scientific information about the risks posed by diesel fuel in the subsurface environment has been one of the dividends of the billions of dollars invested in environmental cleanup since the 1980s. When the principles of sustainability are coupled with the improved scientific tools available to understand the implications of diesel fuel in the environment, the contradiction between the goal of improving environmental quality and the environmental impacts of remedial actions occurring at some diesel fuel release sites is becoming increasingly apparent. In some cases, the environmental degradation caused by the remedial actions themselves outweighs any overall benefit. Reluctant to concede that, in light of better information, certain diesel fuel remediation efforts may have been misguided; some regulators and activists perpetuate requirements to implement outdated and unnecessarily aggressive diesel fuel remedial actions that do not provide a net benefit to the environment. This presentation examines some of the technical issues and contradictions pertaining to remedial action at diesel fuel release sites and attempts to answer the question: when is it green?
Mr. Norris is a Principal Scientist and Vice President of Kennedy/Jenks Consultants, Inc. He is a licensed Professional Geologist with over 30 years of experience in the assessment and remediation of contaminated sites and waste disposal facilities. His experience includes scoping and managing large site investigations and cleanup programs for private industrial and military clients. He has developed and implemented facility-wide remedial action strategies at large industrial complexes, and has worked extensively in the investigation and remediation of diesel fuel in the subsurface environment.
Uncertainties in multi-criteria analysis for sustainability appraisal of remediation alternatives
Lars Rosen1, Tommy Norberg1,2, Jenny Norrman1, Andreas Lindhe1; 1Chalmers University of Technology; 2University of Gothenburg
Sustainability appraisal of remedial actions at contaminated sites requires consideration of economic, environmental and socio-cultural issues. Some factors can be measured and assessed quantitatively, e.g. air emissions, whereas other factors are by necessity subject to qualitative assessments, e.g. public acceptance or preservation of historic values. To facilitate a comprehensive appraisal of sustainability, multi-criteria analysis (MCA) is often suggested. Due to the often wide array of quantifiable and non-quantifiable criteria, the inputs to the MCA may be of very different character, including quantifications based on existing data, expert judgments, and opinions expressed in interviews. The input information is typically normalized into performance scores of selected criteria. In order to evaluate the reliability of the MCA results, some form of uncertainty analysis is necessary. However, because of the very different types of input data, a formal analysis of uncertainties of MCA results may be rather challenging and is often not performed. This study presents three alternative approaches to uncertainty assessment for different types of input information in an MCA. A discrete probability distribution model is presented for estimating the uncertainty of categorical scores based on expert judgments. A multi-dimensional beta-distribution (Dirichlet) model is described for modeling the uncertainties of categorical scores when the input data is based on interviews with a specific number of respondents. Finally, a beta-distribution model is described for modeling the uncertainties that a specific performance level will be met. The three uncertainty models described here cover many of the situations typically present in an MCA regarding sustainability of remedial actions. It is shown how uncertainty estimations of criteria can be practically integrated into an uncertainty analysis of MCA results using standard Monte Carlo simulations in commercial spreadsheet software.
Lars Rosen is professor in Engineering Geology at Chalmers University of Technology in Göteborg, Sweden. Lars has twenty years of research and consulting experience in hydrogeology and environmental engineering. Research has mainly been directed at vulnerability assessments, risk assessment and decision support methods for water protection and remediation of soil and groundwater. He is author and co-author of many scientific publications in Ground Water, AMBIO, Water Research, Environmetrics, Mathematical Geology, among other journals. Lars has authored four handbooks for Swedish Authorities. He is currently the manager of the competence centre Forum for Risk Investigation and Soil Treatment (FRIST) at Chalmers.
The U.S. Army recently completed the remediation of PCB-contaminated sediment at a Superfund site in Natick, Massachusetts while incorporating a number of green and sustainable remediation (GSR) practices. This was one of the first Superfund projects to undertake green remediation activities consistent with the 2010 EPA Region 1 Clean and Green Policy for Contaminated Sites and the 2010 DoD Policy Memorandum Consideration of GSR Practices in the Defense Environmental Restoration Program. The clean up, which involved hydraulic dredging and geotextile tube dewatering, was performed to reduce the potential for human health risks due to PCBs in fish caught from a heavily used recreational lake. Most importantly, the implemented remedy met the threshold CERCLA criteria of being protective of human health and the environment, and it complied with applicable statutes and regulations. Additionally, the remedy embraced a number of the goals stated in the EPA and DoD GSR policies, including minimizing total energy use, maximizing use of renewable fuels, minimizing air emissions and GHG generation, and minimizing impacts to water resources. A few examples of the GSR components included implementing a passive geotextile tube dewatering process which had a lower energy usage than other dewatering technologies (e.g., mechanical presses); use of bio-based materials for all hydraulic mechanisms in place of traditional petroleum-based hydraulic oils; powering water treatment system components and lighted warning signs with solar panels; reuse of lake water in the slurry makeup and polymer conditioning phases of the dewatering process; and use of double silt curtains to minimize impacts to water resources. Collectively, these components reduced the overall environmental footprint of the cleanup and restoration activities at the site. This project demonstrated how GSR practices can be successfully and cost-effectively incorporated into a sediment remedial approach, while maintaining the ultimate goal of protection of human health and the environment.
Kevin Palaia is a Principal at ICF International in Lexington, Massachusetts with 16 years of experience in environmental due diligence, hazardous waste site investigation, brownfields assessment, and remediation. He is a licensed Professional Geologist, and received a M.S. in Hydrology from the University of New Hampshire and a B.S. in Environmental Geology from Northeastern University. Mr. Palaia is a program manager for large CERCLA investigation and remediation programs at sites with PCB-contaminated lake sediments, solvent-contaminated ground water, and DNAPL in fractured bedrock. He is also the project director for a nationwide Targeted Brownfields Assessment (TBA) contract with U.S. EPA’s Office of Brownfield and Land Revitalization (OBLR), and has trained over 1,750 individuals across the country in conducting All Appropriate Inquiries (AAI) assessments, Phase II assessments, and remedial actions.
Optimizing state remediation program funds for systems employed at drycleaner sites
Sheila Gleason, Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection (co-presenter), Vicky Kugler, Missouri Dept. of Natural Resources (co-presenter), Don Friday, Connecticut DECD (co-presenter), Bob Jurgens, Kansas Dept of Health & Environment, William Linn, Florida Dept. of Environmental Protection
The State Coalition for Remediation of Drycleaners (SCRD) and United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) have developed a strong partnership to facilitate information sharing that optimizes limited funding in state drycleaner remediation programs in the United States. Benefits of the SCRD/EPA partnership include helping state project managers guide projects to sustainable systems, while maintaining efficient use of innovative and traditional technologies. A two hour block panel will include three national experts presenting case studies of innovative technologies and approaches being used to remediate the almost 4,000 sites currently accepted in state drycleaner remediation programs. Past estimates indicate there are up to 36,000 drycleaning plants and possibly up to 90,000 former facilities in the USA. State programs continue to develop green initiatives to help guide states through the process of sustainable remedial approaches. The case studies will incorporate the thought process behind the use of such policies.
Contaminated source areas at drycleaning facilities are commonly the most difficult and costly part of remediation and extremely hard to perform. State programs have developed highly innovative approaches using limited funding. Vadose zone remedial technologies include the innovative designs to treat/remove highly contaminated source area soils inside of active businesses, but limit the long-term energy use during the operation & maintenance phase. Case studies will include technologies such as the use of indoor excavation with chemical oxidation injection and flood systems. Ground water treatment designs are also taking into account long term operational costs to ensure the system optimizes the limited funding available in most state programs.
Integrating technology and aesthetics into the remediation of soils at abandoned gasoline stations
Frances Whitehead, School of the Art Institute of Chicago; Paul Schwab, Purdue University; Dave Graham, City of Chicago Department of Environment
Abandoned gasoline service stations are commonplace throughout the United States but are particularly problematic in urban areas. The abandoned properties are nearly always contaminated with the residuum of their past history. Gasoline, diesel fuel, TCE, and a variety of heavy metals are frequently detected at levels that require regulatory attention. Until the contamination issues are addressed, the sites remain vacant because liability concerns outweigh the value of the land, particularly in residential areas. The City of Chicago has teamed with research institutions to find cost-effective means of remediating these sites that also will enhance the appeal of the site and the surrounding neighborhood. We are executing a whole systems approach to site remediation designed to increase the net environmental benefits from plant based remediation processes. The designed plantings will contribute to the aesthetics and passive economic revitalization of the site areas, while simultaneously adding environmental value by creating habitat, green corridor connections, reduced heat islanding, carbon sequestration and biofuel generation. Chicago Department of Environment, working together with academic, community, and conservation partners, established the first field trial test plots in Fall 2010. Nine other specific sites are in final evaluation or under development. Parallel to the field trials, bench trials will be performed to further evaluate specific plants as part of proof of concept. Piloting the use of ornamental, flowering, and fruiting plants, along with the typical agronomic plants most associated with phytoremediation, this enhanced cleanup program aims to increase the plant palette for this alternative approach. Practical hurdles like depth of toxins will provide opportunities to "sculpt" the land, while necessities like fences will be designed for visual interest and access control. These phyto-scapes will be interpreted for the public to enhance awareness.
Professor Frances Whitehead is a specialist in systemic-based sustainability frameworks as they pertain to the industrial and social dimensions of land use, landscape, and plant-based practices of all kinds. She has worked extensively in highly disturbed industrial sites and has focused on slag materials, water quality, and plant-based interventions and implementations. Whitehead has worked for 30 years between Art and Science and on urban sustainability issues for a decade. Other relevant expertise includes innovative environmental education/outreach, ethnobotany, and garden design.
The Midvale Slag Superfund Site (Midvale), approximately 20 miles south of Salt Lake City, Utah, will be deleted from the National Priority List (NPL) this year. The 446 acre site hosted smelting operations for nearly a century, leaving the area’s groundwater and soil contaminated with heavy metals. EPA partnered with the local government and property owners to cleanup and plan for future re-development. Once land and groundwater use controls were implemented and the Superfund Redevelopment Initiative was completed, a Ready for Reuse determination for this site was signed in 2008. The site’s redevelopment, known as Bingham Junction, is currently underway with residential, commercial and recreational land projects. Site redevelopment also spurred the construction of a new Utah Transit Authority rail line and station to support this growing community. The Midvale site use restrictions, the riparian restoration, and a photo gallery of before and after construction photographs will be presented.
Erna Waterman is an Environmental Engineer who has worked on numerous superfund Sites for Region 8 EPA for the past 20 years.
Energy costs for a successful phytoremediation demonstration site in Elizabeth City, NC
Elizabeth Guthrie Nichols and Rachel Cook, North Carolina State University; J.-P. Messier, U.S. Coast Guard; Brad Atkinson, North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Resources; George Shaw, W.L. Gore & Associates, Inc.; James E. Landmeyer, US Geological Survey
We will present energy costs for installation, continued maintenance, and verification of a phytoremediation site in Elizabeth City, NC. The site is a 5-acre, mixed tree phytoremediation demonstration site that was planted in 2006 and 2007. The goal of this project is to use trees to decrease groundwater recharge, flow, and mixed-fuel contaminant concentrations in a shallow, water-table aquifer that discharges to the Pasquotank River. The site was planted with 2,700 trees in 2007 and 300 in 2006. Trees species include: hybrid poplars (Populus spp.; 94%); willow (Salix sp.; 5%); and loblolly pine (Pinus taeda; 1%). Since installation, we have monitored changes to soil gas masses, concentrations of fuels in groundwater, tree survival and growth, changes to free product thickness, fuel concentrations in soils, and hydrologic flux. Tree mortality was 21% in 2008 and 20% in 2010. Mortality persists in two areas with the highest amounts residual free product. In 2010, the percent mean loss of total petroleum hydrocarbons at soil gas wells (n=32) is -87 + 16. Energy costs for site installation primary includes fuel costs for soil augering, clean soil transportation to and on-site for each tree, tree cutting delivery, and manual labor transportation. Maintenance energy costs for the site involve mowing the site twice monthly 8 months out of the year. Lithium/NiCd batteries for pressure transducers in wells require replacement every three years. The site utilizes a solar weather station and wind energy for passive biovents.
Elizabeth Guthrie Nichols is an Associate Professor in the Environmental Technology and Management Program, Department of Forestry and Environmental Resources at North Carolina State University. She is also associate faculty with the NCSU Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology. She has a M.Sc. and Ph.D. in Environmental Sciences and Engineering from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. She did post-doctoral research in environmental chemistry and biogeochemistry with Dr. Patrick Hatcher at The Pennsylvania State University and The Ohio State University. Her research interests are focused on the use of isotopic tracers to study contaminant C and N cycling in terrestrial and aquatic environments with an emphasis on contaminant cycling and bioavailability in vegetated systems. Current research involves use of (1) 13C tracer studies (13CO2 and 13C-PAHs) and radiocarbon dating to study the fate of petroleum chemicals in vegetated sediments; (2) chemical fingerprinting to monitor the impact of vegetation on petrogenic and pyrogenic PAHs at field sites; (3) use of stable isotope ratios (N,C,O, and D) to delineate nitrogen contamination in ground water from specific agricultural sources. She currently teaches undergraduate and graduate courses in Environmental Monitoring and Analysis, Environmental Forensics, and the Practice of Environmental Technologies.
This presentation will feature a retrospective case study of a contaminated floodplain soil and sediment site where remedy selection was recently completed by USEPA using the conventional nine criteria NCP approach leading to a targeted removal/dredging remedy. The NCP criteria include considerations relevant to an evaluation of sustainability; however, the CERCLA process is generally not implemented in a way that explicitly considers the overall sustainability of various remedial options. The alternatives considered in the Feasibility Study for this site (No Action, monitored natural recovery, and dredging/removal options) and a hypothetical fourth alternative are evaluated in terms of the sustainability metrics of environmental, social, and economic performance using a recently developed tool for evaluating the sustainability of remedial options (GoldSET©). A transparent analytical framework for scoring and weighting (including estimation of the energy demands and greenhouse gas emissions of each alternative) will be discussed, leading to ranking of the alternatives.
The advantages and challenges associated with implementing this approach on future projects will also be explored, including:
•Inclusion of a broader range of remedial alternatives based on sustainability considerations
•Incorporating the approach in existing regulatory frameworks
•Explicit incorporation of effectiveness measures such as net environmental benefit
•Meeting corporate social responsibility commitments to sustainability
Dr. Heather Lin is a Senior Project Geochemist with ten years of experience. She received her B.S. in Geology at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute and her Ph.D. in Geology from UCLA. She then worked as a postdoctoral fellow at the University of Bristol, UK before becoming an Environmental Consultant. She
assists in evaluating site contamination data with regards to sources, transport, and physical/chemical/biological transformation processes; plans, implements and supervises site investigation/characterization projects including laboratory testing and in-situ testing; assists in the development of conceptual site models for use in understanding the physical environment, and is a part of Golder Associates' Sustainability Group.
An evaluation of sustainable elements for a large-scale bioremediation project was performed. The project is currently underway in Connecticut, with the objective of remediating groundwater impacted with chlorinated solvents that is discharging to a wetland. The project involves injection of dilute emulsified oil substrate followed by bioaugmentation into 500+ small-diameter wells. Sustainable remediation aspects were incorporated into the design, construction and operation phases of the project.
The evaluation consisted of analyzing three categories of the project: design; construction; and operations. Sustainable design considerations incorporated substrate selection, automation of substrate injection, bioaugmentation, well construction/installation pilot testing, and future site restoration techniques and phasing. Sustainable construction aspects included the use of renewable resource-derived materials, well installation construction and methods, and preservation of native wetland shrubs within an on-site nursery. Sustainable operations account for logistics, injection system and remediation performance monitoring, waste minimization, labor resource planning, and controlled carbon dosing. Calculations of greenhouse gas emissions, water use, and waste generation are incorporated into the evaluation. Constraints against using certain sustainable approaches, as well as possibilities for making the remediation project more sustainable, are also discussed.
James Honda earned his Bachelor’s of Science Degree in Environmental Engineering from the University of Connecticut. He joined AECOM in 2009 and has been an active member of a team performing enhanced bioremediation of chlorinated solvents at a site in Connecticut. James is based in AECOM’s Rocky Hill, Connecticut office.
A natural gas processing station is impacted with TPH and BTEX in soil and scheduled to be decommissioned. Incorporated with the concepts of remedial process optimization and green remediation, a remedial technology evaluation was conducted regarding vadose zone chemicals of concern (COC) under the screening criteria of cost effectiveness, sustainable technology implementability, and life-cycle cost estimate. A wind-driven bioventing system and limited shallow excavation was proposed for implementation subsequent to the scheduled decommission of the processing station.
A bioventing pilot study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of COC removal and collect parameters for full-scale design and installation. To maximize existing resources, an existing dry groundwater monitoring well was used as the air injection well. The pilot study indicated that bioventing would be effective to remove COCs with a promising 77-foot radius of influence, air permeability of 42 Darcy, and oxygen utilization rate of 9.4% per day under injection pressure of 0.7 psi and air flow of 70 scfm. To evaluate the potential to use wind-driven bioventing technology, two mobile weather stations were installed for one month. Collected wind speed was shown to have 97% correlation with a local public weather station which was used to predict the wind speed at the site on an annual basis.
From the pilot test data and wind speed research, 12-inch diameter funnel/vane 360o wind collectors with check valves and monitoring ports were designed as passive wind-driven air injection devices, which were installed at the header of existing 2-inch diameter dry groundwater monitoring wells. Measured air velocity ranged from 20 to 110 fpm during the start-up and the first two months of O&M. Monitored 20% oxygen delivery and more than 90% reduction in COC concentrations within two months indicate a successful sustainable remediation with no power requirement and minimal operation and maintenance.
Kelly Steffen is a Project Scientist with Parsons Corporation in Walnut Creek, CA. Ms. Steffen earned a BS in Soil Science and Environmental Management from California Polytechnic University in San Luis Obispo, CA in 2008, and is a certified LEED Green Associate. Ms. Steffen’s current practice is focused on sustainable soil and groundwater assessment and remediation. Her experience encompasses environmental site assessments; remedial investigation/feasibility studies; innovative remedial design and implementation specializing in In-Situ Chemical Oxidation, Bioventing, Soil Vapor Extraction, Groundwater Pump and Treat, BioSparging, and Air Sparging.
Finding funding for renewable energy to power remediation, Part 1 and Part 2
Lura Matthews, US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response; Gerald Robinson, Lawrence Berkeley National Lab
Through its RE-Powering America’s Land initiative, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is encouraging renewable energy development on current and formerly contaminated land and mining sites. Under this umbrella, renewable energy is powering remediation at dozens of contaminated sites across the country as a sustainable remediation practice or due to the remote location of some contaminated sites. However, for many projects, integrating a renewable energy system may not be financially feasible. In response, an array of funding resources have been made available by local, state, and federal governments to support the use of these smaller-scale renewable energy systems.
In this session, representatives from EPA will discuss the unique challenges to finding funding options for renewable energy to power green remediation. Topics will include the use of special accounts and securing funding for fund-lead sites. Other speakers will share their first-hand experience by highlighting success stories from the field with a special focus on the characteristics of sites that led the remediation designers to consider renewable energy for remediation, the financing mechanisms and incentives that helped make this a cost-effective choice, and the short- and long-term cost savings and other benefits resulting from the use of renewables to power remediation.
Lura Matthews is the project lead for EPA’s RE-Powering America’s Land: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites initiative. Ms. Matthews has been at EPA since July 2006, where she has worked on climate change issues related to land and materials for several years, including helping to document and report how materials management and land management decisions relate to greenhouse gas emissions. Ms. Matthews has a Masters in Public Policy from Indiana University’s School of Public and Environmental Affairs and a BA in Economics from Lawrence University in Appleton, WI.
Gerald Robinson is Program Manager - Federal Renewables, Lawrence Berkely National Lab
Brownfield remediation and sustainable development: A decision-support and prioritization tool for fund allocation
Maria Chrysochoou, Geeta Dahal, Kweku Brown, Catalina Granda, Norman Garrick, Kathleen Segerson and Amvrossios Bagtzoglou; University of Connecticut
Redevelopment of brownfields is a widely accepted as an important step to revitalization of inner cities and promotion of smart growth principles for sustainable development. However, the large number of brownfields (estimated to 300,000 across the US) and the limited availability of funds to remediate and redevelop these properties pose the following problem: which brownfields should be redeveloped first and on the basis of which criteria would funding agencies at the state or town level allocate the limited available funds? Current practice focuses on a first come – first serve approach, where specific proposals for redevelopment are evaluated for criteria such as viability of project , creation of jobs and tax revenue, and in a few cases, smart growth potential of the project. In other words, a brownfield site will never be considered for redevelopment by funding agencies unless a third party such as a private developer or a town would come up with a specific development project for this site. Additionally, there is no long-term planning for the systematic investment on targeted sites or neighborhoods for projects that could alter the livability and appeal of the urban environment. This study presents a tool that was developed with this end goal: to assess brownfield sites based on their location-specific characteristics, independently of the end use and specific development project and to rank them according to three sets of criteria: socioeconomic (e.g. unemployment, property values), smart growth (street density, transit availability) and environmental (prior use, proximity to sensitive receptors). A case study is presented for the state of Connecticut and the City of New Haven.
Maria Chrysochoou is an assistant professor at the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering of the University of Connecticut. She received her Ph.D. in Environmental Engineering at Stevens Institute of Technology in 2006, where she continued as a post-doctoral fellow. In 2007 she joined the University of Connecticut, where she conducts research and teaching in geoenvironmental engineering. Her research interested include the geochemistry and remediation of metal contaminants, reuse and recycling of industrial waste and stabilization of soils.