Green Chemistry and Remediation: Synergy and Opportunity
Dr. John Warner founded the Warner Babcock Institute for Green Chemistry in 2007 with Jim Babcock and Bill Kunzweiler. From 2004 to 2007, Dr. Warner was a professor of Community Health and Sustainability and Plastics Engineering at the University of Massachusetts-Lowell. From 1996 to 2003, he was a professor of Chemistry at the University of Massachusetts-Boston, where he acted as the Chair of the Department of Chemistry between 2001 and 2003. Prior to that, Dr. Warner served as a senior research scientist and research group leader in exploratory and media research at the Polaroid Corporation. Dr. Warner is considered one of the founding fathers of Green Chemistry, and has worked extensively in the areas of semiconductor design, biodegradable plastics, personal care products, and polymeric photoresists. Dr. Warner holds an M.S. and a Ph.D. in Organic Chemistry from Princeton University and a B.S. in Chemistry from the University of Massachusetts-Boston. He has published over 100 patents, papers, and books and is co-author of the seminal book Green Chemistry: Theory and Practice with Paul Anastas. Dr. Warner is editor of Green Chemistry Letters and Reviews and associate editor of the journal Organic Preparations and Procedures International. He currently serves on the Board of Directors of the Green Chemistry Institute in Washington DC.
Over the past several years, the remediation industry has expended significant resources in first learning how to estimate impacts of remediation projects and then developing tools for estimating those impacts. A variety of approaches, methods, frameworks, and tools have been developed, discussed at industry meetings and conferences, and deployed on projects. Through this evolution and learning process, some questions were answered but even more were raised.
The Sustainable Remediation Forum (SURF) is at the forefront of providing guidance to understanding and addressing the challenges facing the remediation industry with respect to estimating impacts for green and sustainable remediation projects. Through this process, SURF has identified a number of frequently asked questions (FAQs) and has proposed solutions as to how these FAQs may be answered and addressed.
Some of the more frequently asked FAQs are:
•What is the easiest way to access reliable and verifiable data for my assessments?
•How do I determine which boundaries are appropriate for my study?
•How do I integrate my LCA results into reports reviewed by regulatory agencies?
•What resources (cost and schedule) are needed for the different types of assessments?
•What steps should be taken to insure I am comparing “apples to apples”?
•What information should be considered in an effective review of a sustainability assessment?
•What are the attributes of a Life Cycle Assessment? Do my methods rise to the standard of a LCA? Do they need to?
This presentation will answer the above questions in detail and provide elements from case studies to provide context for the answers.
Paul Favara received his BS in Business Oriented Chemistry from Western Michigan University and his MS in Environmental Engineering from Illinois Institute of Technology. He has over 25 years of experience in site characterization and remediation engineering and construction. He leads the Sustainable Remediation and Decision Analysis practices at CH2M HILL, where he is a Technology Fellow. Paul is a registered engineering the State of Florida and works in CH2M HILL’s Gainesville, FL office.
Key considerations for establishing a corporate green and sustainable remediation program
Brian Quillia, National Grid; James Morgan, National Grid; Chris Carleo (Presenter), Dave Woodward and Amanda McNally, AECOM
National Grid USA Service Company (National Grid) initiated development of a Corporate Green and Sustainable Remediation (GSR) Program for its Site Investigation and Remediation (SIR) Department. Implementation of this Program will assist National Grid in meeting its corporate greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction targets while conducting cleanups in an environmentally and socially responsible manner. For National Grid, GSR includes consideration of the following three primary areas:
•Environmental Performance – technologies, approaches, and designs that reduce or mitigate the impacts of the site cleanup actions;
•Social Impacts – project approaches and remedial alternatives that provide a benefit to the community defined through a stakeholder engagement process; and,
•Economic or Financial Performance – project procedures and remedial actions that are cost-efficient and reduce the risk associated with the site for a lower cost when compared to conventional approaches.
A corporate GSR Program will guide National Grid to be in compliance with emerging state requirements for GSR considerations. New York State Department of Environmental Conservation’s (NYSDEC’s) Green Remediation Policy (DER-31), was issued on August 11, 2010, and applies to National Grid’s sites in New York that are conducted under the purview of the NYSDEC. National Grid initially identified objectives and metrics for the program and has subsequently evaluated software tools needed to support the program and developed a Program Guidance Document; Standard Operating Procedures; and Bid Specifications that provide instructions on how to implement the GSR program.
The presentation will identify why GSR is important to National Grid and will describe the approach that National Grid has taken for the development of its GSR program. This presentation will provide insights into important elements of a corporate GSR program and a step wise approach that builds upon objectives and metrics.
Chris Carleo received his BCE in Civil Engineering from Manhattan College and his MS in Civil Engineering from Northeastern University. He has over 25 years of experience in site characterization, remedial engineering and construction at a wide variety of sites regulated under state and federal programs. He is a member of AECOM’s Green and Sustainable Remediation (GSR) Team and presently serves as the Program Advisor of the Interstate Technology Regulatory Council (ITRC) Green and Sustainable Remediation Team. Chris is a Vice President in AECOM’s Global Remedial Consulting and Engineering group and works in AECOM’s Westford, MA office.
Green chemistry consists of chemicals and chemical processes designed to reduce or eliminate negative environmental impacts. The use and production of these chemicals may involve reduced waste products, non-toxic components, and improved efficiency. Green chemistry is a highly effective approach to pollution prevention because it applies innovative scientific solutions to real-world environmental situations. The 12 Principles of Green Chemistry, originally published by Paul Anastas and John Warner in Green Chemistry: Theory and Practice (Oxford University Press: New York, 1998), provide a road map for chemists to implement green chemistry.
EPA’s involvement in green chemistry began after the passage of the 1990 Pollution Prevention Act (PPA). The PPA includes a hierarchy of environmental management practices; the top of the hierarchy is: “pollution should be prevented or reduced at the source whenever possible.” Green chemistry is a way to achieve source reduction. Chemists and others working on remediation should design chemical products and processes that both are successful at cleaning up environmental problems and use or create less hazardous materials in the process. Although remediation methods do not typically involve source reduction and green chemistry, research is yielding practical, cost-effective green chemistry remediation. This talk will explore the interface between green chemistry and remediation.
Rick Fehir is an inorganic chemist in the Industrial Chemistry Branch of the Office of Chemical Safety and Pollution Prevention at the US Environmental Protection Agency. He obtained his Ph.D. in Inorganic Chemistry at Michigan State University in 2009.
There is growing and consistent business to business and public pressures for the development and utilization of “greener” chemical products in many applications. Accompanying this quest for greener chemicals comes the need to more consistently define what “green” is. Over the years, many programs, systems and labels have been developed for various aspects of evaluating products. However, recent trends show a growing public and regulator concern over often vague and ambiguous green marketing claims. How to recognize these issues and develop a credible and verifiable green evaluation system is a challenge.
This presentation describes a framework for the development, evaluation and implementation of a practical and quantitative process for ranking gas well servicing products based on their human health and ecological hazard and physical/chemical properties. This ranking process incorporates a quantitative analysis of relative inherent hazard and provides an approach that is aimed at facilitating product development and product selection. The process recognizes the practical availability of hazard data, utilizes the Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labeling of Chemicals (GHS) where possible, and provides a strategy for filling data gaps through database searches.
The issues identified in utilizing this process, obtaining useful and verifiable data, and in quantifying the results will be reviewed specific to this system as well in the more general context of meeting the growing challenges of defining green chemicals in commerce.
Mr. Grumbles has over 30 years experience in industrial hygiene and product safety compliance in the chemical industry including industrial and surfactant chemical businesses. He has led the implementation of global product stewardship programs and REACH compliance efforts for the Global Olefins and Surfactants business of Sasol. He also led compliance efforts with chemical regulations in North America under the US Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA), state regulations such as California Proposition 65 and multiple Global Chemical regulatory schemes. In addition, he has led the design and implementation of corporate programs on product safety, transportation safety, toxicology, epidemiology, industrial hygiene and occupational medicine. He has experience in toxic tort litigation support. His experience in industry included occupational hygiene/exposure assessment program development and implementation for a wide range of products including synthetic alcohols, hydrocarbon solvents, benzene, vinyl chloride, ethylene dichloride, ethylene oxide, nuisance and toxic dusts including lead, maintenance chemicals and operations and physical hazards including noise and heat stress. He has been with Cardno ENTRIX since November of 2009.
Liquid Nitrogen technology, USP7,631,506, uses Liquid Nitrogen to rain, evaporating into cryogenic Nitrogen gas, freezing fuel solid, and making skimming from water or picking up from shore easy. Lifted from water or shore as a solid, it is placed in melting sacks or barrels. Separating water from fuel is done with a “Frog” – a deep, multi-holed spacer filling the diameter of the barrel. Fuel is drained first and then the water component. No chemical changes occur. Fuel component is sold to a refinery and reprocessed.
Solid components are skimmed from the water surface on conveyors in front of the vessel where a holed material trough crosses the bow ahead of the conveyor. In rivers the trough can originate on one side and LN flow across the stream followed by a skimming means pulling solid fuel into melting pots. Shore work requires hand held dewars pouring LN into a holed material pan raining cryogenic Nitrogen gas captured in a veil with a chain weighted hem holding it to the surface. The solid fuel is lifted with a skimming tool like a doughnut flipper the shovel-sized for convenient use by one walking. Fuel is placed in a pouch where it melts and is then emptied into the barrel with the “Frog” separator allowing fuel to be sold to refineries and reprocessed.
This new science, Thermistry, uses temperature variance to do action carried by inert material, Nitrogen, without causing any chemical change. In collecting spilled fuels, Nitrogen gas is a recognized fire suppressant (NFPA Code 2000) preventing oxygen proximity to fuel during collection preventing explosions.
Liquid Nitrogen’s bulk cost is under $1 per gallon. It expands 230 times evaporating into cryogenically cold gas, expanding to 250 times as it warms. The coldest Nitrogen is at the surface solidifying the fuel. Nitrogen is 78% of the atmosphere.
Dr. DuBrucq started high tech inventing in 1982 and discovered the Thermistry technology using Liquid Nitrogen starting May, 2003 and has developed applications from fire and crises control to non-lethal weaponry; remediation and fuel extraction from oil shale and landfill seams. These patents are held in AirWars Defense lp and she is CEO of CryoRain Inc. to commercialize these technologies. Her across-science education at the University of Wisconsin, Madison 1955-62 allows her to pull together biological, chemical, and phyics concepts into new technologies. Her recent recognition that the Liquid Nitrogen Enabler technology is none of these fields allowed her, the first Thermist, to coin the new science field Thermistry. In her patents she applies this capability broadly hoping to end the trend to Global Warming.
She taught science at Aquinas Montessori School for ages 3-12 and science and math at Parkmont for ages 11-16 where she invented individualized learning tools including the patented life cycle puzzles. She earned her doctorate in Science Education at the University of Northern Colorado and consulted in R&D at Gallaudet College and taught math at their Model Secondary School for the Deaf. Her TactilEar lost to the Cochlear Implant as the preferred solution to deafness.
How does green remediation and ecological revitalization play into the redevelopment of a Superfund site? Can green remediation make economic and technological sense at some of the nation’s most contaminated lands? Green remediation is an important priority at EPA and the Superfund Redevelopment Initiative (SRI) is working to apply this priority to their efforts to support the reuse of Superfund sites. In 2010, EPA’s Superfund Redevelopment Initiative (SRI) began providing seed resources at Superfund sites to explore the link between reuse and green remediation. This session will provide an overview of Superfund redevelopment and introduce SRI’s new green remediation feasibility studies. These green remediation pilot projects assess the feasibility of EPA to use renewable energy to power the remediation at Superfund sites and, in some cases, supply energy to the local energy grid. Analyses have been undertaken in Massachusetts and California. In general, these analyses look at assessing the feasibility of various renewable energy technologies at the site; developing preliminary renewable energy system size estimates based on site parameters; developing electricity generation models based on different solar array options; identifying a preliminary set of applicable incentives; and developing preliminary financial information regarding the various energy systems. In addition, SRI tracks and supports ecological revitalization at Superfund sites across the country, and this session will include a discussion of sites where ecological reuse has been successfully integrated into the remediation and serves as a long-term reuse.
Ian Penn is an senior associate with Skeo Solutions, which supports EPA's Superfund Redevelopment Initiative. Ian has over 15 years of experience working in the private and public sectors on environmental management, environmental policy and sustainability projects and issues. His work background and experience includes: material and energy flow analysis; life cycle assessment; carbon footprint reduction strategies; renewable energy; regulatory and policy analysis; environmental policy innovation; program evaluation and performance measurement; sustainable development policy and practice; website development; and economic impact analysis. At Skeo, he oversees and manages work focusing on providing technical support to EPA on green remediation issues, including assessing the feasibility and potential implications of integrating renewable energy systems with cleanup activities at contaminated sites; developing green design specifications for contaminated site reuse; developing websites for EPA programs; assessing the link between Superfund liability, information transparency, and socially responsible investment; undertaking economic impact analyses; and developing life cycle costing tools for federal clients. Ian also has experience developing sustainability indicators and performance measures and developing greenhouse gas (GHG) inventories for corporate clients.
Development of sustainability criteria for remediation of contaminated land in construction projects
Petra Brinkhoff, Chalmers University of Technology, NCC Construction; Jenny Norrman, Chalmers University of Technology; Lars Rosén, Chalmers University of Technology; Malin Norin, NCC Construction
Construction companies face high costs and challenges when exploiting contaminated land in urban areas. Contractors want to reduce the negative impact on the environment and on society as a consequence of necessary remedial measures at those sites. Remediation of contaminated sites has traditionally been viewed as a sustainable action in itself. However, during the last few years a discussion has emerged where this is being questioned since remedial activities may cause several negative impacts. These impacts are typically not taken into account when evaluating remediation alternatives. Therefore, there is now a demand for tools which allow for a broader view on sustainability of remediation efforts. Such a tool can be based on a Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) which provides an opportunity to compare the sustainability of remediation alternatives. A vital part of an MCDA is to choose the appropriate criteria. These criteria should reflect all factors that are relevant to the decision situation: both on a local scale but also, in order to evaluate the sustainability, factors related to a more global scale. Based on an existing set of sustainability key criteria used in Swedish methods, this article presents a revised set of sustainability key criteria and corresponding sub-criteria. The set was compiled after a review of international examples in articles, decision support software and reports, dealing with sustainable remediation and MCDA. The revised set of key criteria is smaller than the original set despite adding new key criteria. This is due to a different grouping of the original key criteria. The revised set of key criteria with its corresponding sub-criteria will be evaluated further by means of case study applications on the development of contaminated sites. The final product is a hierarchy of criteria for evaluating the sustainability of remediation alternatives prior to exploiting contaminated land in urban areas.
Petra Brinkhoff is an industrial PhD- student at the Civil and Environmental Engineering Department of the Chalmers University of Technology since October 2010. Her employment is at the construction company NCC where she works as an Environmental Consultant.
Implementing green and sustainable remediation (GSR) practices at a site should be considered at every stage of a project. A vital stage to implement GSR practices is during the remedial selection, design and action. The effect a specific remedial technology has on the environment is an important factor in determining the chosen technology for a contaminated site. Several tools are available to assist in evaluating the sustainability metrics of a remediation technology, such as carbon footprint, energy usage, and the social and economic impact to local community. These tools can provide a range of results–in the form of metrics–based on existing project elements, environmental and cost factors, and methodologies used to provide a point of comparison between interim response options (IROs).
In this case study, two tools were used to determine the environmental effects of each IRO. The tools included the Air Force Center for Engineering and the Environment (AFCEE) Sustainable Remediation Tool (SRT) and Naval Facilities Engineering Command (NAVFAC) SiteWise program. This evaluation reviewed each tool’s remediation elements, as well as the environmental and sustainable metrics analyzed. This paper discusses the project and operational boundaries established by each tool, sources of emission and cost factors, and a comparison to existing life-cycle assessment (LCA) standards, such as ISO 14040/14044 and PAS 2050 (for carbon life cycles, specifically).
The IROs evaluated for this analysis included a combination of excavation, in situ chemical oxidation, in situ thermal remediation, monitoring (installation and sampling of monitoring wells), and monitoring natural attenuation. The IROs previously mentioned varied among targeting the chlorinated benzene source material within an unsaturated zone and the migrating plume. The data set was gathered during a remedial investigation at an urban Brownfield redevelopment project encompassing an 85-acre municipal landfill.
Jessica R Beattie, PG is a senior project manager at Camp Dresser & McKee Inc. She has over 14 years of experience managing and performing environmental projects, with an emphasis on site assessments and investigations. Ms. Beattie’s background in both geology and environmental engineering provide a foundation suited to the evaluation of contaminant fate and transport as well as designing and evaluating remediation techniques. Ms. Beattie has been the Project Manager for major contracts for private clients, New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (NYSDEC) and New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection (NJDEP). These contracts included Environmental Site Assessments, Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Studies (RI/FSs); Remedial Designs (RDs); and Remedial Actions (RAs).
Ms. Beattie earned her BA degree in Geological Science from the State University of New York at Geneseo and her MEng degree in Environmental Engineering from Stevens Institute of Technology in Hoboken, NJ. She is a registered as a Professional Geologist in the State of Delaware.
Development of a fourth generation of policy concept for remediating contaminated land in Europe
Dominique Darmendrail, Common Forum on Contaminated Land in Europe; Dietmar Müller, Environment Agency Austria
Policy perspectives concerning this contamination issue have changed gradually in the industrialised countries during the last 30 years. Three types of national policies were successively generated:
a systematic approach (inventories, protocols) with a drastic control of soil contamination, in the early 80s,
around 1990, a contaminated land and risk assessment approach, with a real focus on land use as the main criteria for assessing and decision-making,
Since 2000, in a few countries (framework (e.g. the Netherlands, France, Austria) a risk based land management (RBLM concept) and solution design, which integrates spatial planning, soil & water management, socio-economy issues.
Recently the Common Forum on Contaminated Land in Europe, a regulators network, agreed to start working on discussion paper regarding sustainability and possible refinements of approaches towards a fourth generation of policy concepts.
The regulatory environment at the European level is evolving rapidly and different legislative documents aim to take soil issues into consideration (i.e. Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control Directive or Environmental Liability Directive). At its core a Soil Protection Strategy has been published and a draft Directive is being discussed at the time. Hence a couple of Member States having advanced policy generation approaches have main concerns on recent developments of EU legislation.
To look out for gaining a better common understanding and building consensus within Europe discussions started identifying different options on the way forward:
to develop of a joint position paper, which might be published by existing networks and initiatives like, national SuRFs, as well as NICOLE, COMMON FORUM, EURODEMO+
drafting a guidance issued via a voluntary European standard (CEN Workshop Agreement) or within the International Standards Organisation (ISO/TC190 “Soil quality”).
On the short term European initiatives decided to work together on a Joint Statement paper.
The presentation will focus on the development of land management concepts being considered risk-informed and sustainable as well as on the results of the actions taken for reaching the consensus between the different initiatives and stakeholder communities involved to contaminated land management in Europe.
Dominique Darmendrail is the current secretary general of the Common Forum on Contaminated Land in Europe (www.commonforum.eu), European network of contaminated land policy experts and advisors created in 1994. She is also in parallel European Affairs Coordinator for BRGM, the French Geological Survey. She obtained her PhD in Hyrdrogeochemistry at Bordeaux University in 1987. She worked afterwards in the Nord-Pas-de-Calais - Picardie Regional Branch of BRGM where she was involved mainly, as engineer and project leader, in water and environmental studies, specializing in pollution diagnosis and resorption methods, the impact of subsurface activities on the environment. From September 1993 to June 1998, she ran the French Geological Survey's thematic centre on "Waste – Abandoned Industrial Land – Polluted Soils". Based at Lille, this unit was given the responsibility, in January 1994, of carrying out expert assessments and methodological and general studies concerning the three defined topics in support of public policies. In all these activities, Dr. Darmendrail participated in developing the technical tools necessary for carrying out national policies concerning the rehabilitation of contaminated sites and waste, and was also coordinator of the "site investigations" sector of the European CARACAS (Concerted Action on Risk Assessment on Contaminated Sites) programme. In July 1998, Dr. Darmendrail was appointed Head of BRGM's "Contaminated soils, Waste, Mining environment" Department where she continued her previous activities. This post she held unitl October 1999 when she was promoted to her present position as Head of BRGM’s Environment and Process Division. She is also a member of the Steering Group for the European research project CLARINET (Contaminated Land Risk Network) where she is particularly concerned with water protection work. She was also scientific advisor in several national, European and international working groups (e.g. Metaleurop commission, Tchernobyl Commission, ADEME funding commission, evaluation of research proposals for DG Research, NICOLE, etc.). In November 2007, she became advisor to the Directorate General of BRGM on management and rehabilitation of contaminated land.
New guidance from the Department of the Navy (DON) on green and sustainable remediation (GSR) provides a clear and consistent approach for incorporating GSR considerations into the cleanup process. The DON recognizes that opportunities to increase sustainability can be considered throughout all phases of remediation (i.e., site investigation, remedy selection, remedy design and construction, operation, monitoring, and site closeout) regardless of the selected cleanup remedy. This document provides relevant background information and a step-wise approach for Navy RPMs and contractors to understand and apply GSR techniques at projects in various phases of the environmental restoration process. Evaluation and implementation of GSR approaches will be reported by site and tracked within the Navy’s environmental restoration database.
Key points from the guidance document will be discussed, and will cover the Navy’s approach in the following areas:
• GSR Metrics
• Metric Calculation Methods and Tools
• General Footprint Reduction Methods
• GSR Considerations during Remedial Investigations
• GSR Considerations during Remedy Selection
• GSR Considerations during Remedial Design and Construction
• GSR Considerations during Remedial Action Operation and Long Term Monitoring
This guidance and other resources to assist in the implementation of GSR can be found at the Navy’s GSR Web Portal available from the NAVFAC Environmental Restoration Technology Transfer Website (www.ert2.org).
Tanwir Chaudhry provides technical consulting services to the Naval Facilities Engineering Service Center, Port Hueneme, CA. His current projects include optimization of remedial actions, technology transfer, and development and validation of cost estimating models. He is also assisting the Navy for developing guidance on green and sustainable remediation, conducting GSR case studies, and evaluating and enhancing tools for calculating GSR metrics. Mr. Chaudhry has over 25 years of experience in projects related to soil and groundwater remediation, fuel leak detection, industrial waste water treatment, and demonstration and validation of environmental technologies. He holds a BS degree in chemical engineering from the University of Punjab, Pakistan , and an MS in chemical engineering from the University of Oklahoma.
The purpose of the MOU is to document the partnership between Naval Weapons Station (NWS) Earle and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) on sustainable initiatives. As part of this MOU, NWS Earle will participate in the following voluntary EPA environmental stewardship programs:
1) EPA Energy Star Building and Plant Partnership Program
2) WasteWise Partnership
3) Green Building
4) Environmentally Preferable Purchasing
NWS Earle will submit a status report to EPA two times per year beginning six months after the official signing of the MOU. The report will include an update on the various activities identified in the agreement. EPA will use this data to determine environmental benefits associated with NWS Earle's "green" activities.
Jessica Mollin is a Remedial Project Manager in the Federal Facilities Section in EPA's Region II office in New York City. She received her B.A. in Economics from the University of Massachusetts in 1989 and an MS in Environmental Health from Hunter College in New York City. Jessica joined the EPA in 1993, starting out in Enforcement in the Division of Enforcement and Compliance Assistance and eventually moving into the Federal Facilities Section of the Emergence Response and Remediation Division.
A novel green synthesized catalyst system for hydrogen peroxide: Part 1; Synthesis and characterization
Rajender Varma1, Mallikarjuna Nadagouda1, George Hoag2, and John Collins2 ; 1US Environmental Protection Agency, 2VeruTEK Technologies, Inc.
Greener pathways to nanometals and a single-step one-pot green approach to the synthesis of nanoscale zero valent iron (nZVI) and nanoscale bimetallic (Fe0/Pd) particles using tea (Camellia sinensis); Sorghum bran (Sorghum bicolor) and red grape pomace extracted polyphenols are described. The expedient reaction of plant polyphenols and dissolved or chelated iron (FeCl3 or FeNO3) occurs within a minute at room temperature and is indicated by a color change from pale yellow to dark green/black as the iron nanoparticles are formed. Tea and Sorghum bran polyphenols form complexes with metal ions in solution and reduce them to them to a Fe0 valence state at the nanoscale. The synthesis of bimetallic nanoparticles using PdCl2 acting as a co-metal which coats the outer layer of the nanoscale iron particles, increases catalytic potential of the nZVI with both sodium persulfate and hydrogen peroxide. It was found that nanoparticle synthesis is possible in the presence of VeruSOL-3®, a plant oil based mixture of surfactants and cosolvents. Resultant properties of the nZVI particles synthesized in the presence or absence of VeruSOL-3® greatly vary depending on the relative concentrations of each reactant. Characterization of the synthesized iron nanoparticles is presented using TEM, UV-visible spectroscopy, XRD, as well as particle sizing and zeta potential measurements using dynamic light scatter laser methods. These novel green synthesized nanoparticles provide superior catalysis for persulfate and peroxide oxidants; work over a wide pH range and at significantly lower Fe concentrations, in comparison to chelated iron catalysts.
Dr. Rajender Varma obtained his PhD from Delhi University in 1976. After postdoctoral research at Robert Robinson Laboratories, University of Liverpool, UK, he was faculty member at Baylor College of Medicine, Senior Scientist at Houston Advanced Research Center and Research Professor at Sam Houston State University prior to joining the EPA's Clean Processes Branch 1999. He has over 35 years of research experience in management of multi-disciplinary technical programs ranging from natural products chemistry, pulp and paper technology and therapeutics, to development of genosensor technology, specifically the applications and interface of chemical science with biology, solid state chemistry, bioelectronics, and development of environmentally friendlier alternatives for synthetic methods using microwaves, ultrasound etc. He has published over 300 scientific peer-reviewed papers and has been awarded 7 US Patents.
A novel green synthesized catalyst system for hydrogen peroxide: Part 2; Reactions and kinetics
George Hoag1, John Collins1, Mallikarjuna Nadagouda2, and Rajender Varma2 ; 1VeruTEK Technologies, Inc.; 2US Environmental Protection Agency
A single-step one-pot green synthesis of nanoscale zero valent iron (nZVI) and nanoscale bimetallic (Fe0/Pd) particles utilizing polyphenols from tea, Sorghum bran and red grape pomace is described. In this study, we present the results of several oxidation reactions using hydrogen peroxide catalyzed by green synthesized nanoiron. The effects of oxidant and nZVI concentrations were investigated using an experimental design that included a model compound, bromothymol blue (BTB) which is not degradable by peroxide alone, thus isolating radical-initiated reactions without interference by direct oxidation. At initial BTB and hydrogen peroxide concentrations of 500 mg/L and 2%, respectively, pseudo first order rate constants increased from 0.0062 min-1 to 0.1448 min-1, with nZVI concentrations varying from 0.03 to 0.33 mM as Fe. An overall relationship between the pseudo first order degradation rate constant of BTB (mg/L) and the millimolar concentration of the green synthesized nZVI was found to be KBTB[min-1]=0.4694[Fe(mM)]-0.011 with R2=0.9989. The comparative rate constants for bromothymol blue oxidation using a GT-nZVI catalyst were more than an order of magnitude greater that with Fe-EDTA and Fe-EDDS. Tricholoethylene (TCE) oxidations were conducted using initial concentrations of TCE and hydrogen peroxide at 0.251 mM and 1%, respectively with green synthesized nZVI varying from 0.27 mM to 1.33 mM as Fe. Pure phase TCE was solubilized with 2.5 g/L of VeruSOL-3®, then diluted to obtain a TCE concentration of 33 mg/L (0.251 mM) for subsequent tests. Pseudo first order rate constants varied from -0.021 to 0.558 min-1 over the studied concentration range of green synthesized nZVI. An overall relationship between the pseudo first order degradation rate constant of TCE (mM) and the millimolar concentration of the green synthesized nZVI was found to be KTCE[min-1]=0.515[Fe(mM)]-0.132 with R2=0.9968. Several lab studies of contaminated soil and groundwater from field sites will be presented using green synthesized nZVI for the catalysis of hydrogen peroxide and sodium persulfate.
Dr. George Hoag is Senior Vice President and Director of Research and Development at VeruTek Technologies. He received his Ph.D. in Environmental Engineering in 1983. He founded and directed the Environmental Research Institute at the University of Connecticut until 2002. He has over 200 peer-reviewed scientific papers, 4 patents and is considered one of the fathers of In Situ Chemical Oxidation (ISCO), Soil Vapor Extraction and other environmental remediation methods.
Biopharmaceutical Industry over the last decade has evolved into a full scale manufacturing industry. This development necessitates industry to focus on manufacturing practices which are lean and clean to minimize the impact on environment and make the process cost and resource efficient. With current work we are trying to evaluate use of ozone as a green oxidant and sterilant for cleaning and sterilization of bioreactors. This will considerably reduce the harsh cleaning chemical usage along with reduction in water and energy requirements.
Cleaning and sterilization has been a resource intensive step in biopharmaceutical industry and various options have been explored in past to replace conventional processes. Second generation sanitizing and sterilizing agents were chlorine based either in dissolved salt form or gaseous chlorine dioxide. These processes were of limited use to industry due to on site generation constraints and disposal of access or spent chlorine dioxide. Another major issue with chlorine based agents was formation of Trihalomethanes (THM) when they reacted with organics. Studies suggest that THM are potential carcinogens and mutagens. Although these processes did offer certain advantages, reduced cycle time as it did not require a cool down cycle, more energy efficient and potential reduction in equipment cost since high temperature and pressure ratings were no longer required. Still the critical issues with implementing the technology outweighed the benefits; the traditional methods still continue to be used.
Current method which we like to refer to as the third generation is based on aqueous ozone and gaseous ozone used for CIP and SIP of bioreactors. This technology offers green and clean alternative for cleaning and sterilizing bioreactors and process equipment in place. There are no issues related to generation of Trihalomethanes, the residual ozone gets converted back to oxygen and water and energy requirements are considerably lower. Essentially provides all the benefits of second generation but at the same time is environmentally friendly and has no disposal issues associated with it.
Results from recent study conducted at Massachusetts Biomanufacturing Center suggest a significant reduction in water and energy consumption without compromising the cleanability. Current work gives a brief overview of ozone and showcases potential applications of ozone in field of biopharmaceutical industry with a focus on cleaning and sanitization.
Akshat Gupta is a doctoral candidate at Chemical Engineering Department of the University of Massachusetts Lowell. He obtained his MS in chemical engineering from University of Massachusetts Lowell. He has been working at Massachusetts Bio Manufacturing center for past four years on various projects related to fermenter and bioreactor CIP and SIP, evaluation of charged membranes for protein recovery and purification, evaluation of cell culture harvest technologies and bio polymer synthesis and recovery.
Since the early part of the 20th Century, General Electric Company (GE) conducted manufacturing operations, producing plastics, military equipment, and manufactured transformers at its Pittsfield site. Those operations ceased leaving behind environmental contamination and an unusable site. PCBs were released into the environment from the former GE facility site, which led to contamination of the property, neighboring commercial and residential properties, and the Housatonic River. GE has subsequently been in the process of cleaning up PCB contamination, including the cleanup of the former facility site in Pittsfield. As part of an agreement, GE committed to site remediation, building demolition, and transfer of 52 acres of the former facility to the Pittsfield Economic Development Authority (PEDA). Collectively, the parcels that have been acquired by PEDA as well as those planned to be are referred to as "William Stanley Business Park". The parcels are subject to an environmental restriction and easement (ERE) that allows commercial and industrial redevelopment while protecting human health and the environment. PEDA recently completed redevelopment projects on 26 acres that have been transferred to them. MassDEP oversaw and assisted with these redevelopment activities, including assistance with ensuring compliance with the ERE and other environmental issues that arose during the course of the work. As part of the recently completed redevelopment projects, Western Mass Electric Company (WMECo) approached PEDA regarding installation of solar panels on a portion of the former GE site adjacent to an existing WMECo substation. Along with various other agencies, MassDEP worked with PEDA and WMECo to facilitate development of the 1.8 megawatt solar collector facility at this formerly unused, contaminated property. Currently the largest such facility in New England, it is situated on eight acres, consists of 6,500 solar panels, and will produce enough energy to power 300 homes.
Eva Tor is the Deputy Regional Director of the Bureau of Waste Site Cleanup, Western Regional Office in Springfield. She has been with MassDEP for 12 years and currently oversees cleanup of contaminated sites in the region. Prior to coming to MassDEP, Eva worked in private industry. She is a registered Professional Engineer in Massachusetts and received a B.S. in Civil Engineering and an M.S. in Environmental Engineering from the University of Illinois in Urbana Champaign.
The Former West Pullman Works (the site) was a former manufacturing facility located in Chicago, Illinois. The site’s manufacturing activities date between 1893 and the 1980’s. The Former West Pullman Works conducted industrial processes including painting, plating, forging, punching, woodworking, machining, heat treating and on-site power generation.
Navistar Inc. is a previous owner of the site. Between 1999 and 2009, Navistar and the City of Chicago conducted and completed site investigations and remediation activities under the Illinois Environmental Protection Agency voluntary Site Remediation Program to prepare the property for redevelopment.
The remedial actions completed are:
•Classification and delineation of soil and groundwater impacts,
•Establishing risk based site remediation objectives,
•Removal of twenty six USTs,
•Inspection and removal of ACM,
•Removal of debris and cleaning of basements, tunnels, foundations, pipe trenches and wood block flooring,
•In-situ treatment of groundwater impacted with chromium engineered barriers (soil ingestion pathway)
•Removal of LNAPL in subsurface soils and sewers,
•Removal of soil containing PCBs, PNAs, TPH and metals exceeding the site specific remedial objectives,
•Removal of soil and oil containing PCB concentrations greater than 100 parts per million to a permitted Toxic TSCA landfill, and
•Removal of soil exhibiting the toxicity characteristic of hazardous waste.
In 2008 Exelon Generation reviewed 20 sites for a solar power plant. The site was selected due to excellent road access, existing transmission line equipment, the support of neighbors and city government, and its symmetry for solar power generation. All involved desired to turn a brownfield site into a green energy facility.
In 2009 Exelon began construction of the Exelon City Solar power plant and the solar plant was commissioned January 1, 2010.
Exelon City Solar is a 10-megawatt solar installation comprised of 32,292 solar photovoltaic panels generating enough clean electricity to power up to 1,500 homes per year.
Ms. Edith M. Ardiente, PE, QEP is Vice President of Environmental and Energy Affairs for Navistar, Inc., a world-wide manufacturer of heavy and medium duty trucks, diesel engines, school buses and military vehicles. In her capacity as Navistar's senior environmental and energy officer, Ms. Ardiente is responsible for all aspects of environmental compliance, energy use and conservation at Navistar, as well as their sustainability programs. She is a registered professional engineer with a B.S. in chemical engineering and an M.S. in environmental engineering.
Redevelopment of brownfields, and the tools associated therewith, can contribute to the development of the green energy industry. Ventower Industries is building a wind turbine tower manufacturing facility on 35 acres of a former industrial waste landfill at the Port of Monroe, Michigan. Over $8,000,000 in EPA, other federal, state and local brownfield incentives are funding environmental response actions, soil improvements to support manufacturing buildings, and infrastructure improvement and expansions. Environmental response actions and soil stabilization engineering were designed to protect nearby Lake Erie coastal ecosystems and reduce generation and off-site disposal of contaminated soil and groundwater to near zero. Several brownfield incentives, including EPA Brownfields Revolving Loan Fund Grant loans, state brownfield grants and loans, and local tax increment financing, were used to help fund environmental response actions that were designed to be green and also to contribute to the actual development components. Because of the availability of brownfield funding, numerous green remediation and construction techniques also were able to be incorporated into the project.
Dr. James Harless, CHMM is Vice President, Principal, and Environmental Practice Leader for Soil and Material Engineers, Inc., a Midwestern environmental and consulting engineering firm. Dr. Harless holds bachelor and Ph.D. degrees in chemistry and is a Certified Hazardous Materials Manager. He has over 34 years environmental consulting and brownfield redevelopment experience. Over the past 15 years, he has helped revitalize communities by supporting efforts to identify, assess, and safely and sustainably redevelop brownfields. Dr. Harless has acquired and managed over $90,000,000 in local, state, and federal brownfield and other development funding to catalyze successful redevelopment projects valued at over $1,000,000,000. His expertise in environmental liability and risk management, site assessment, site remediation, site use planning, and use of engineering controls plays an important role in the success of industrial, commercial, and sustainable residential developments, which have won state and national recognition, including three coveted U.S. EPA Phoenix Awards and two Brownfield Renewal Awards. Example projects include transforming a 45-acre former paper mill into a sustainable new urbanism residential neighborhood, construction of a wind turbine tower manufacturing plant on an industrial waste landfill, and reclamation of the first brownfield to be incorporated into the National Park System.
Technology assessment on stressor impacts to green infrastructure BMP performance, monitoring and integration
Douglas Grosse, US Environmental Protection Agency ORD Remediation and Redevelopment Branch
This presentation will document, benchmark and evaluate state-of-the-science research and implementation on BMP performance, monitoring and integration for green infrastructure applications, to manage wet weather flow, storm-water runoff stressor relief and remedial sustainable water quality improvements to the environment. This information will be drawn from work being done within ORD, EPA program and regional offices, other governmental, nongovernmental and international organizations. Information will be provided describing current research efforts, potential data gaps and future research efforts addressing adverse stressor impacts and remediation of contaminated substrates. BMP performance and monitoring has been in existence for quite some time as it relates to stormwater management, which historically includes what may be considered to be grey infrastructure such as: detention basins, retention ponds, hydrodynamic devices media filters, percolation trenches and dry wells, to name a few (3). More recently, a variety of newer innovative green infrastructure (GI) BMPs have come into prominence, such as: rain gardens and barrels, green roofs, swales, wetlands and walls which require further evaluation and performance assessment. This movement was spurred by increasing attention given to reducing and/or eliminating stressors at various temporal/spatial scales, reducing the carbon footprint, conserving energy, promoting sustainability and protecting the habitat (aesthetics). This presentation will offer current practices and state-of-the-science implementation of remedial approaches.
Douglas W. Grosse has a B.A. in English Literature from Ohio University and an M.S. in Environmental Engineering from the University of Cincinnati. He has worked as an Environmental Engineer at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in Cincinnati, Ohio for the past 32 years. Mr. Grosse is currently working in EPA's National Risk Management Research Laboratory (NRMRL) as a Senior Environmental Engineer. Past experiences have included: in-house research at EPA's pilot plant facilities in wastewater and hazardous waste research; pilot facility manger and project officer (Center Hill Laboratory); Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program; RCRA corrective action coordinator and technical assistance in Superfund, RCRA and treatability study assistance, as an aqueous treatment specialist, Acting Branch chief, Technology Transfer Branch, and ETV/AMS Center PO. Currently, Mr. Grosse is working in the Remediation and Redevelopment Branch and Engineering Technical Support Center, as a specialist in site remediation and technology transfer.
A third-party Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) was conducted at a DNAPL site in Reerslev, Denmark where Soil Vapor Extraction (SVE) and In Situ Thermal Desorption (ISTD) were compared with excavation/off-site treatment, and where several years of SVE operation were followed by rapid implementation of ISTD to protect one of the major municipal water supply well fields serving the city of Copenhagen. The LCA performed for the site-specific conditions concluded that SVE would consume more energy, produce more waste and generate more greenhouse gases (GHG) than ISTD, while requiring an indefinite period of time (>100 yr) to remove sufficient contaminant mass to achieve site closure. Whether or not excavation/off-site disposal or treatment compared well with ISTD depended primarily on the transport distance to a suitable disposal or treatment site. The LCA selected ISTD as the most preferable alternative, as it offered the reduced neighborhood (i.e., social) impacts of an in situ remedy (no need to move families and demolish homes), combined with the least overall environmental and economic impacts. Subsequent implementation of ISTD at the site, completed in 2009 and treating 12,560 m3 of contaminated soil to attain the treatment goals actually consumed less energy, produced less GHG, took less time and cost less than the LCA had assumed, i.e., it proved to be even more sustainable than estimated in the LCA. The GHG associated with digging and hauling the soil approx. 140 km (85 mi) equates to the GHG associated with electrically heating the soil for the 5.5 months remediation period, meaning that transport distances exceeding approx. 140 km would be expected to have larger GHG impacts than ISTD.
Ralph S. Baker is the Chairman and Chief Scientist of TerraTherm, Inc., a remediation technology firm located in Fitchburg, Massachusetts. A Certified Soil Scientist with an M.S. in soil chemistry and a Ph.D. in soil physics, he has 30 years' experience in the evaluation, design and implementation of technologies for in-situ and on-site treatment of wastes in soil and groundwater. Dr. Baker has served as an expert on a wide range of innovative physical, chemical and biological treatment technologies as a consultant to industry and government. Over the past twelve years and particularly since co-founding TerraTherm, Inc. in 2000, Dr. Baker has focused his attention on application of in-situ thermal remediation of contaminated soils . He has authored over 70 scientific publications on in-situ/on-site remediation and soil physics.
Incorporation of GSR into Army environmental remediation: Results from pilot projects
Carol Dona, Deborah Dixon Walker, Mike Bailey, Jeffrey Lester, and Dave Becker, US Army Corps of Engineers; Kevin Roughgarden, OACSIM; Michelle Caruso, Tetra Tech; Rob Greenwald and Doug Sutton, GeoTrans Inc.
The Department of Defense has requested (DoD 2009) that Green and Sustainable Remediation (GSR) practices be considered and implemented “when and where they make sense.” The Office of Assistant Chief of Staff for Installation Management (OACSIM) is currently sponsoring a Study to determine which GSR practices make sense, and when and where these practices make sense. The Study results will be used as the basis for consideration and development of Army-wide guidance and policy. The study is being conducted for OACSIM by the US Army Corps of Engineers Environmental & Munitions Center of Expertise and their contractor support, Tetra Tech/Geotrans.
GSR evaluations are being performed on 12 Army remediation projects. The consideration and incorporation of the suggestions of the GSR evaluations by the project teams are being followed and documented by the Study team. Remediation projects across the Army components, the different phases in the environmental remedial life-cycle, and the environmental and munitions programs are included. Approaches by which GSR can be initiated and integrated into the environmental remediation process are also being determined and documented.
Evaluation of which GSR practices make sense (and when and where they make sense) will be presented. The approaches developed in the Study for integration of GSR into Army remediation project work will also be discussed. The approaches will include the conditions found in the Study under which project teams agreed to participate in the GSR incorporation process and the ways the GSR evaluations were integrated into the project teams’ existing remedial processes. In addition, the results of selected pilots, including best management practices and quantification of GSR metrics will be presented.
Carol Lee Dona, Ph.D., P.E., is a chemical engineer at the US Army Corps of Engineers Environmental and Munitions Center of Expertise in Omaha, Nebraska. Her areas of interest are incorporation of green and sustainable remediation (GSR) practices into environmental remediation, and evaluation, implementation, and optimization of in-situ and ex-situ remedies. She is primary author of the USACE Interim Guidance “Decision Framework for Incorporation of Green and Sustainable Practices into Environmental Remediation” and is lead on a GSR Study for the Army collecting information from pilot projects for the purpose of consideration and development of Army-wide GSR guidance and policy. Dr. Dona received her BS in Chemistry from University of Washington, her MS in mechanical engineering from University of Missouri, and her PhD in chemical and petroleum engineering from University of Kansas.
This presentation will present the recovery, reuse and recycling of fuels and solvent via soil vapor extraction (SVE) as a green and sustainable practice. Three case studies will demonstrate the ability of cryogenic cooling and compression (C3) technology to recover fuel and solvent vapors in liquid form, thereby creating a valuable resource stream. Technology comparisons will demonstrate that C3 technology created the lowest possible carbon footprint versus competing remediation alternatives. Additional sustainability aspects such as electricity use offsets and air emissions will be discussed.
The first case study will focus on a former refinery where 200,000 gallons of gasoline have been recovered. The recycling of this recovered gasoline created a revenue stream that substantially offset the O&M costs of the project. The second case study will demonstrate the onsite reuse of TCE and PCE recovered via SVE at a solvent collection facility. The third case study will provide data on the sustainability of recycling freons and chloroform recovered via SVE at a former manufacturing facility.
Carol Winell is the President and C.E.O. of G.E.O. Inc., headquartered in Corona, California. She obtained her B.S. in Chemistry at the University of California at Irvine, and later co-founded G.E.O. Inc. in 1989. Thereafter, she pioneered various compression-condensation and vapor recovery technologies. Her ongoing research focuses on green remediation strategies for projects having high levels of chlorinated solvent or fuel contamination.
Background/Objectives: A former chemical plant was demolished and the property has lain dormant for two decades in an economically-depressed area in central New Jersey. The large site (100 acres) with deep water access was attractive for industry, however depressed economic conditions and high remediation costs hampered redevelopment. Soil and groundwater in part of the site were impacted with VOCs (primarily chlorobenzene, carbon tetrachloride and its breakdown products, including a DNAPL phase) and pesticides. Interest in the site was renewed for construction of an innovative “green” power plant, in which energy production, chemical production, and greenhouse gas sequestration are linked with a near zero carbon footprint. Redevelopment first requires remediation. An initial remedial design for the DNAPL-impacted area called for sheet piling, dewatering, and soil excavation. This alternative would require transport of thousands of truckloads of heavily contaminated soil through urban and residential areas, followed by incineration and offsite disposal. In light of the cost and sustainability implications, alternative solutions were evaluated that could also address the site rapidly and cost-effectively.
Approach/Activities: The suite of chemicals present included compounds that can only be oxidized (e.g., chlorobenzene) and compounds that can only be reduced (e.g., carbon tetrachloride) as major components, thus commonly used methods such as in-situ chemical oxidation or bioremediation were unlikely to be effective. Based upon previous academic research, manganese (as MnI(V)) is known to catalyze hydrogen peroxide at neutral pH to form superoxide radicals (a nucleophile and reductant capable of destroying chloromethanes), which was further investigated. A formulation was developed to utilize sodium permanganate to distribute manganese dioxide (containing Mn(IV)) in the subsurface. This is followed by hydrogen peroxide in phosphate-buffered, neutral-pH conditions. The manganese catalyzes the peroxide to form superoxide. Hydrogen peroxide was also found to form hydroxyl radicals, presumably by reaction with native iron in soil. Bench-scale testing confirmed that the approach effectively destroyed all of the contaminants and DNAPL in soil and groundwater samples from the site. A field pilot test was undertaken to confirm the laboratory results and develop scale-up design information for a full-scale treatment program. The six-month pilot test evaluated field-scale buffering effects, reagent requirements, radius of influence, injection rate, and overall treatment effectiveness. VOCs and pesticides were reduced by 67-97% in groundwater and by 98-99.7% in soil within the pilot test treatment area.
Results/Lessons Learned: Based upon results of the bench study and field pilot test, a full-scale program has been designed to address a DNAPL-impacted area that is approximately 2.4 acres in size. Implementation will begin at the end of 2010 or in early 2011, is anticipated to require approximately 1.5 years, and will be accomplished at a much lower cost. The chemistry being utilized for the in-situ treatment is a novel application of reagents (permanganate and peroxide) that are usually considered incompatible, but when properly applied can produce superoxide and hydroxyl radicals that can destroy a wide range of oxidizable and reducible compounds. In addition to the novel chemical approach, the in-situ treatment is far more sustainable than the next preferred option of excavation, transportation, incineration, and offsite disposal. The remedial alternative is cost-effective, time-effective, and fits well within the overall objective of developing sustainable practices for site remediation and energy production.
Dr. Bryant has a B.S. and a M.S. in Geology from the University of Florida, and a Ph.D. in Geochemistry from Columbia University. Dr. Bryant is the Vice President of Geo-Cleanse International, Inc. His experience includes 13 years of experience in management and implementation of innovative remediation technologies. He has designed, managed, and implemented a wide range of remediation projects, including in-situ chemical oxidation with several oxidants, aerobic and anaerobic bioremediation, zero-valent iron, dual-phase extraction, and soil blending. Dr. Bryant holds patents in heavy metal remediation, anaerobic bioremediation, and in-situ chemical reduction.
Controlled-release permanganate: Reactive barrier for green and sustainable remediation of organic-contaminated groundwater
Pamela Dugan and Beth Vlastnik, Carus Corporation; Lindsay Swearingen, Specialty Earth Sciences
The intention behind site cleanup is inherently green; however, remedial activities use energy, water, and materials resources to achieve cleanup objectives. Traditional remediation technologies (e.g., pump and treat, air sparging, soil vapor extraction, or multiphase extraction) require electricity and fossil fuel to power equipment to remove contamination from soil and ground water. Extracted fluids are then processed aboveground, or disposed of in landfills when filters are used. The intractable nature of subsurface contamination suggests the need to explore the use of innovative technologies that reduce the environmental footprint of remedial treatments. Reactive materials in permeable reactive barriers (PRBs) have proven very useful for transforming or destroying organic waste in situ. Once emplaced they typically do not require a continued supply of electrical power and have the added benefit of creating a reactive zone for the destruction of contaminants in place.
Controlled-release techniques have been utilized extensively in diverse fields such as pharmaceutical and agrochemical technologies. However, controlled-release of an oxidant during in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) is an emerging concept that is extremely relevant to the field of environmental remediation, yet to-date has received little attention. ISCO using the oxidants permanganate, persulfate, and catalyzed hydrogen peroxide has shown great promise for remediation of many recalcitrant organic contaminants of concern (COC). Because the oxidant also reacts with natural organic matter, inorganic soil constituents, and other reduced compounds, the presence of a protective barrier that controls oxidant release may enhance the efficiency of ISCO. To this end, controlled-release permanganate (CRP) was developed. Paraffin wax was used as the environmentally benign and biodegradable matrix material for encapsulating the solid potassium permanganate (KMnO4) particles. The paraffin matrix protects the solid KMnO4 particles from fast dissolution and potentially undesirable nonproductive reactions but allows release of permanganate in the presence of dense nonaqueous phase liquids (DNAPL). One-dimensional (1-D) CRP-PRB column experiments were conducted to evaluate permanganate release behavior using water as the influent or COC removal efficiency using dissolved trichloroethene (TCE) as the influent. The results of 1-D CRP-PRB column experiments with water as the influent indicate that paraffin wax effectively protected solid potassium permanganate particles from rapid dissolution and the release of CRP in water was characterized by a relatively fast initial rate followed by a significantly slower rate in the later phases (>50 days). The results of 1-D CRP-PRB column studies with dissolved TCE as the influent resulted in TCE removal efficiencies ranging from 100% to 35% over 30 days. Decreased TCE removal efficiency was observed as permanganate was reacting and being depleted from the CRP with 30% mass loading of KMnO4.
To improve TCE removal efficiencies increased mass loadings of permanganate were developed (60%-80% KMnO4) with a paraffin matrix and evaluated in 1-D CRP-PRB column studies. In addition, batch experiments were conducted with a number of hydrophilic and hydrophobic polymer blends in order to enhance permanganate release behavior in dissolved TCE. The results of these experimental studies will be presented.
Pamela Dugan has a B.S. in Geology from Indiana University, a Ph.D. in Environmental Engineering from the Colorado School of Mines, and is a certified professional geologist. She has significant experience in the field of dense nonaqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) site characterization and remediation with particular expertise in coupling surfactants with oxidants for DNAPL mass removal. She has published numerous technical papers and has presented at over 30 national and international conferences. She currently serves as the Technical Development Manager for Carus Remediation Technologies. In this role, she oversees the research and development of innovative remedial technologies to broaden the line of products currently offered by Carus Remediation Technologies. She also provides technical support in today’s ever-changing remediation market in support of the current line of Carus technologies for in situ chemical oxidation, bioremediation, and acid mine drainage.
A green and sustainable (GSR) Engineered Wetland Treatment System (EWTS) is being implemented at the former Wurtsmith Air Force Base (AFB) located in Oscoda, Michigan as part of an overall military landfill groundwater remediation system. Former landfills LF-30/31 operated from approximately 1960 to 1979 and were used to dispose of a variety of base generated wastes including general refuse and industrial waste. Previous disposal operations have resulted in the creation of a mixed chemical constituent landfill groundwater plume approximately 1600ft wide by 2000ft long. Engineered wetlands provide a more sustainable remedial alternative when compared with more typical mechanical based systems such as air stripping, carbon adsorption, and metals precipitation systems. The EWTS was selected due to long-term concerns with maintenance of mechanical based systems to address fouling likely to occur from iron, calcium carbonate, and bacteria buildup and for a desire to have the most passive remedial system over the long-term. The 400 gpm leachate and groundwater EWTS utilizes passive remedial technologies including cascade aeration, precipitation, free water surface wetlands, and submerged surface flow wetlands. Treated groundwater is returned to the subsurface below Michigan Part 201 and 22 requirements via a series of infiltration trenches. The system is designed to operate via gravity to transfer water between all phases of treatment and discharge. Construction of the system commenced in 3rd quarter 2010 and will be completed in the 2nd quarter of 2011. Emergent wetland vegetation is anticipated to be 70% established at the end of the first growing season with full treatment capacity being realized during the second operational season. Primary chemical constituents in the influent groundwater stream include TCE, BETX, Iron, Manganese, and general landfill constituents including TOC, Ammonia, Nitrate, and Phosphorous. Components of the EWTS were constructed with recycled concrete generated from demolition of former military housing.
Thomas Barzyk, P.E. is a principal engineer at BB&E, LLC, a Michigan based environmental engineering consulting firm specializing in providing environmental restoration support services to both federal and industrial clients. He is a graduate of the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan with degrees in Environmental and Mechanical Engineering. During his 19 years of professional environmental engineering experience, he has focused on the design, implementation, and optimization of various soil and groundwater remedial technologies.
With increasing energy costs and the need to operate in more sustainable ways, the environmental remediation sector is now integrating more energy efficient and sustainable solutions. The Air Force Center for Engineering and the Environment (AFCEE) has applied this approach to groundwater remediation systems at the Massachusetts Military Reservation (MMR).
This case study presents a more sustainable approach to remediation at the MMR through the use of renewable energy, in the form of three 1.5 MW wind turbines. Power costs for operating the treatment systems, which have processed up to 16 million gallons per day, amounted to approximately $2 million annually since 2007. The wind turbines are anticipated to reduce the program’s electricity costs and offset air emissions, generated indirectly through the use of electricity from fossil fuel based power plants, by close to 100%.
The presentation will discuss energy conservation initiatives as well as the planning, design, and acquisition process for construction of three utility class wind turbines. The wind turbine projects are jointly funded with Air Force and Army Environmental Restoration Accounts. AFCEE/MMR engaged multiple stakeholders and prepared Environmental Assessments for public comment and subsequent Findings of No Significant Impact during the planning process for each wind turbine project. In addition, AFCEE/MMR issued contracts for the wind turbine planning, design, Title II oversight and construction. One 1.5 MW wind turbine was installed in 2009 and construction activities for two new 1.5 MW wind turbines are underway. The current schedule for the two new wind turbines, which is dependent on turbine delivery date, indicates a Fall 2011 completion and start-up.
Rose Forbes is a Professional Engineer with 18 years experience in contaminated site investigation and remediation. Ms. Forbes is a project manager with the Air Force Center for Engineering and the Environment (AFCEE) and has worked on the Massachusetts Military Reservation (MMR) project since 1999 where she is responsible for construction, operation and maintenance of remediation systems, monitoring of the groundwater plumes, program optimization, energy conservation and renewable energy implementation. Ms. Forbes graduated with a B.S. (1992) and an M.S. (1993) degree in Chemical Engineering from the University of North Dakota (UND) School of Engineering and Mines.
Life cycle assessment of remediation approaches for a remote diesel-contaminated site
David Sanscartier, University of Toronto; Manuele Margni, École Polytechnique de Montréal; Ken Reimer and Barbara Zeeb, Royal Military College of Canada
Remediation of contaminated sites has obvious environmental benefits such as the minimization of the human and ecological risks associated with contaminants. However, remediation activities can cause negative environmental impacts such as the emission of greenhouse gases and air pollutants, and the use of non-renewable resources. These issues are of growing interest to site-remediation practitioners. Life cycle assessment (LCA) is a system analysis tool that can be used to quantify the overall environmental burden of systems over their entire life cycle. This tool can be used to examine and compare remediation technologies; it can help in selecting the most environmentally efficient remediation approach, in improving their environmental performance, and in preventing pollution shifting. The literature on the subject demonstrates that environmental impacts differ among technologies and, not surprisingly, that the use of fossil-based fuels and material is often a major contributor to the overall burden. Impacts are likely to be greater at remote sites than in more populated areas due to transport over long distances, but no study has explored this specific aspect. In this retrospective study, the environmental performance of three treatment options is compared, using LCA, for remediation of a remote diesel-contaminated site. The study focuses on the secondary impacts of remediation (i.e. those associated with the remedial activities); the primary impacts (i.e. those associated with the contaminants) are handled through risk assessment. On-site ex-situ bioremediation in a temporary facility, followed by disposal in an unlined landfill, is found to have environmental impacts similar to in-situ treatment, but far less than those of off-site treatment. Transportation of material, soil and personnel is the main contributor to overall pollution. Combining risk assessment with LCA may allow for more holistic management of contaminated sites, combining the benefits of site-specific and broad assessments.
David Sanscartier obtained a doctorate degree in environmental engineering from the Royal Military College of Canada, Kingston, Ontario in 2009. During his graduate studies, he investigated the bioremediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated soils in Canada’s North, and the life cycle assessment of remediation technologies. He is currently a Postdoctoral Fellow at the Department of Civil Engineering at the University of Toronto working on the life cycle assessment of bioenergy systems.