Platform Presentation Abstracts
The overall goal of a NEBA is to enable stakeholders to manage remediation costs while at the same time maximize benefits to the public and demonstrate environmental sustainability and stewardship. In developing a remedial action plan, stakeholders must understand the potential ecosystem service (ecological and human use) benefits and costs, associated with the implementation of various remedial alternatives and their relationship to predicted risks and financial costs. The NEBA approach, consistent with United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) guidance and direction, provides for the formal quantification of the change in ecosystem service values that would be associated with the implementation of a remedial action using scientifically defensible and quantifiable ecological and economic metrics to supplement decisions regarding the selection of an appropriate remedy.
In addition to understanding how potential remedial alternatives affect both ecological and human use values, a NEBA also incorporates the consideration of restoration actions that enhance ecosystem values within the remedial alternative selection process. For example, once high risk areas are addressed through remediation, marginal risk areas may have the potential to be offset using a restoration project that creates ecological and/or human use value, especially given projected fate and transport mechanisms associated with the marginal risk areas. A NEBA, incorporating quantified ecosystem service metrics, provides a scientific basis for balance between effort and benefit gained. A NEBA can help identify the “breakpoint” where remedial costs become disproportionate to benefits gained and in doing so facilitate the design of remedial alternatives that maximize value to the public. The overall package of remedial and restoration alternatives are evaluated to assess their combined impact on the total ecological and human use services provided by a site. Evaluating these changes in services can help demonstrate the environmental sustainability of overall actions.
Derek Pelletier is a senior associate of ENVIRON and has more than eight years of experience in environmental consulting. Mr. Pelletier is an aquatic ecologist specializing in water quality issues, ecological risk assessments, and natural resource damage assessments related to contaminated sediments and groundwater. He has extensive expertise in the use of habitat equivalency analysis to estimate natural resource damages and net environmental benefits, modeling food web transfer/bioaccumulation, chemical fate and transport, and hydrologic transport, and the development of screening levels, toxicity reference values, and species sensitivity distributions for evaluating potential effects or injuries to aquatic life. Mr. Pelletier has an MS degree in Ecology and Evolutionary Biology from Cornell University and a BA degree in Environmental Studies from Boston University.
U.S. EPA defines green remediation as the practice of considering all environmental effects of remedy implementation and incorporating options to maximize the environmental benefit of cleanup actions. To this end, green remediation involves the use of quantifying the environmental effects of a remedy and then taking steps to reduce negative environmental effects and enhance positive environmental effects, while meeting the regulatory requirements governing the remedy.
Two concepts are central to quantifying the environmental effects of a remedy. The first is to establish those parameters (or metrics) that are to be quantified, and the second is to establish a straightforward methodology for quantifying those metrics. The term “footprint,” which is commonly applied to quantifying the emissions of carbon dioxide (i.e., “carbon footprint”) refers to the quantification or measure of a specific metric that has been assigned some meaning. For example, the carbon footprint is the quantification or measure of carbon dioxide (and other greenhouse gases) emitted by a particular activity, facility, individual, or remedy because emissions of carbon dioxide (and other green house gases) have been linked to global warming and climate change. The term “footprint” can be expanded to other environmental metrics such as energy use, water use, land use, and air emissions or to encompass many environmental effects in a single “environmental footprint.”
This presentation summarizes work under way and intended to assist U.S. EPA with reviewing environmental footprint analyses that are conducted as part of a green remediation effort during the remedy selection, design, implementation, or operation phase. It will include discussion of metrics and quantification methodologies for the core elements of green remediation.
Carlos’ overall focus at EPA is on identifying and advancing best practices and new technologies in cleaning up contaminated sites. Through his analytical work he contributes significantly to the pool of knowledge and information on the use of technologies in Superfund. He is currently engaged in advancing green remediation across EPA cleanup programs (the topic of his presentation), engaging in several cross-program efforts to reduce the environmental footprint of cleaning up contaminated sites. In recent years he also served as Deputy Director for Environmental Reviews with the United States Trade Representative, and worked as a special assistant to EPA Administrator Johnson. Previously, his EPA duties included the development and delivery of key training Superfund courses such as Remedial Design & Remedial Action. He has held other positions outside the Agency, notably as a forecast Hydrologist with the US Snow Survey Program. He has a BS in Watershed Management from Colorado State University and graduate degrees in environmental and business management from Duke University (Durham, NC) and a Georgetown University (Washington, DC) respectively.
Engineering Plants for Arsenic Containment: What We Know and Where Should We Go?
Om Parkash Dhankher, Bibin Paulose, Sudesh Chhikara, Kundan Kumar and Karim Ali Mosa, Department of Plant, Soil, and Insect Sciences, University of Massachusetts Amherst
Arsenic is an extremely toxic carcinogenic metalloid pollutant that adversely affects the health of more than 300 million people worldwide. Arsenic contaminated soil, sediments and water supplies are a major source of food chain contamination and further cause significant loss of crop production due to arsenic toxicity. Therefore a proper understanding of the molecular and biochemical mechanisms of arsenic uptake and detoxification in plants is needed to develop cost-effective strategies for phytoremediation as well as engineering arsenic resistant food crops with reduced arsenic accumulation. Previously, we engineered Arabidopsis thaliana plants co-expressing the E. coli arsC gene (arsenate reductase) in leaves and the γ-ECS (g-glutamylcysteine synthetase) genes, constitutively. These plants showed significantly greater arsenic tolerance and accumulation than control plants. Arsenate (AsV), a phosphate analog, has been shown to be taken up via the phosphate uptake system and further, most of the arsenic in roots gets reduced to arsenite (AsIII) endogenously and thus get trapped in roots. To further enhance arsenic movement from roots to the above ground tissues, we examined the endogenous plant activity that affects the electrochemical state and binding of arsenic in roots. We identified an endogenous arsenate reductase, AtACR2 (Arath; CDC25), from Arabidopsis that reduces AsV to AsIII in plants. Inactivation of AtACR2 by RNAi caused the translocation of 10-16 fold more arsenic from root to shoot tissues when these plants were exposed to AsV. In order to further characterize AtACR2, we overexpressed the AtACR2 in Arabidopsis and the AtACR2 transgenic lines were highly resistant to AsV, presumably due to binding of resulting AsIII to cysteine-rich C-terminal domain. These AtACR2 transgenic lines accumulated 2-3 fold less arsenic in shoot tissues and attained 6 to 7-fold more biomass. Currently we are combining the expression of all these genes into a high biomass, fast growing, non-food plant Crambe abyssinica for phytoremediation of arsenic contaminated soil and water.
Apart from the contamination in drinking water, accumulation of As in food crops, particularly in rice, is a significant health concern. We engineered rice for enhanced tolerance and reduced arsenic uptake by overexpressing AtACR2 under a constitutive promoter. Our results showed that the AtACR2 overexpressing rice lines were highly tolerant to arsenate, attained 5-6 fold more biomass and accumulated 2- to 3-fold less arsenic in rice straw and seed grains. This is a first report of engineered arsenic tolerant rice with significantly less arsenic in seed grains. Additionally, we are exploring the rice, Arabidopsis, and Crambe genome and isolating genes to understand the molecular and biochemical mechanisms of arsenic uptake, transport, tolerance, and detoxification in plants for commercial phytoremediation as well reducing the arsenic uptake in plants to block arsenic contamination in food chain.
Dr. Parkash (Dhankher) is currently an Assistant Professor in the department of Plant, Soil, and Insect Sciences, University of Massachusetts, Amherst. He also holds an Adjunct Faculty status in the Graduate Programs of Molecular & Cell Biology (MCB), and Plant Biology (PB). He received his PhD degree in Plant Molecular Biology from Durham University, United Kingdom in 1998. Prior to joining UMass-Amherst, Dr. Parkash worked as Senior Postdoctoral Associate and later as an Assistant Research Professor at the Department of Genetics, University of Georgia, where he worked extensively on phytoremediation of toxic metals and metalloids. Dr. Parkash has published numerous research publications in international journals including Nature Biotechnology and Proceedings of National Academy of Sciences, USA (PNAS) and three International Patents. Dr. Parkash’s research specialty areas are: phytoremediation of heavy metals and metalloids (Cd, Pb, Cr, and As) with special emphasis on engineering non-food high biomass plants with enhanced phytoremediation capabilities; engineering non-food industrial oil rapeseed for increased biomass and oil contents for biofuels; engineering food crops (rice and canola) for blocking the uptake of toxic pollutants in to food-chain in order to improve human health.
Green practices and sustainability concerns have become part of the landscape of environmental remediation as a result of increasing federal mandates, stakeholder concerns, and public awareness. Figuring prominently into this analysis are CO2 emissions and energy consumption, both of which can widely vary among the various remedial technologies. Remediation systems are facing increased scrutiny regarding the environmental footprint and legacy they create. Remediation systems can easily emit millions of pounds of CO2 while also consuming enormous quantities of natural resources during the life cycle of such projects.
A calculator is presented allowing quantification of CO2 emissions and energy consumption from several commonly employed remedial techniques (e.g. dual-phase/multi-phase extraction, air sparging, pump & treat, soil vapor extraction, excavation, and three mobile technologies). This calculator differs from, and is intended to be a complement/alternative to, AFCEE’s Sustainable Remediation Tool (SRT).
CO2 emissions and energy consumption are examined at one site in Newnan, Georgia wherein CO2 emissions and energy consumption were reduced by 70% through the deployment of a mobile remediation system. The cost of this mobile system was approximately 40% less than the permanent (fixed) remediation system design originally proposed for this site.
Mark Patterson is a remedial engineer with 20 years experience in environmental consulting and services. He has 14 years hands-on experience with mobile dual-phase/multi-phase extraction (EFR®), having personally conducted over 1,500 EFR® events in 26 states and Puerto Rico. Additionally, he has 5 years experience conducting surfactant and chemical oxidation injection in conjunction with dual-phase/multi-phase extraction (SURFAC® and ISCO-EFR®) and has successfully implemented EcoVac Services’ first SOLV-IT® project (a treatment train combining plant-based cosolvent, followed by formulated surfactant injection combined with dual-phase/multi-phase extraction) at a 120 year old pine tar site in New Jersey. Mr. Patterson has a Bachelor of Industrial Engineering (Georgia Tech) and MBA (Georgia State University).
A case study of developing a 2.6 MW Solar Facility on a closed landfill in Edison Township, NJ. The Facility will provide electricity to an on-site stormwater treatment plant and to the Township's Municipal Building. Revenues from the facility will finance the restoration and maintenance of 125 acres of upland and tidal wetlands adjacent to the landfill. The Project is a partnership between a nonprofit organization and a private solar developer.
Bill Penn is the Principal of the Environmental Financial Advisor LLL, an independent consulting firm which provides financial advisory services to nonprofit organizations, businesses and governments on Brownfields finance issues. He was the financial administrator for the construction of a new $10.1 million Sewer Treatment Plant. To date he is responsible for arranging $28 million of financing including the first $14.45 million Tax-Exempt General Obligation Bonds through a Special Taxing District for a Brownfields development project. He has also structured Tax Lien Sales and issued TANs. Currently he is the financial administrator for a $1.3 million DECD Infrastructure Grant. Internationally, he has been a senior financial advisor to the Ukraine Ministry of Finance assisting them in developing a municipal capital market for the Ukraine through the establishment of the Municipal Development Fund which was to be funded by a $150 million loan from the World Bank. His other international assignments have include developing a Regional Environmental Action Plan for the Sverdlovsk Oblast, Russia funded by the World Bank and developing environmental infrastructure financing mechanisms in Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Lithuania, Poland and the Slovak Republic - all funded by USAID. Bill is also the founder and President of the Clean Land Fund (www.cleanlandfund.org), a nonprofit organization dedicated to the remediation and redevelopment of Brownfields for public benefit purposes. Bill has been an Adjunct Professor at Baruch College of the City University of New York teaching real estate finance and is a guest lecturer at Harvard University Graduate School of Design.
The Association of State and Territorial Solid Waste Management Officials (ASTSWMO) was incorporated in 1974, and has maintained a full time office in Washington, D.C. since 1980. ASTSWMO holds two general membership meetings each year, and a number of specialized roundtables, workshops or conferences for specific program areas of high interest. The Association also provides a steady flow of services and information to its members along program specific lines throughout the year. ASTSWMO works closely with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to ensure that its members are aware of the most current developments related to their programs, and to coordinate the work of its State regulators with that of their federal counterparts. The Association also represents the interests of its members in Washington, DC. While no single entity can speak for all State waste programs, the capability of consolidating similar views and ensuring that State managers have the opportunity to speak in unison on important waste management issues assists their ability to influence national decision-making. ASTSWMO's most important role is to assist States in learning from and working with other State peers. Within the Association it is an axiom that States learn best from other States in matters of program implementation, and ASTSWMO's collective efforts are all focused on making that happen.
ASTSWMO’s Greener Cleanup Task Force was established by the Association in 2007, receives funding from the Office of Resource Conservation and Recovery (ORCR) for the purpose of supporting State cleanup programs –Tanks, CERCLA, RCRA, and Federal Facilities – in their efforts to increase the environmental benefits of site remediation. Since its formation, the Greener Cleanups Task Force has identified best practices and incentives for greener cleanups, strengthened partnerships between the States and U.S. EPA to improve greener cleanup capacities, and operated as a technical resource for other Task Forces and Sub-Committees. Its work has been well received and Greener Cleanup Task Force members have been active nationally in working with U.S. EPA and industry stakeholders to standardize green remediation practices including the development of a Green Remediation Standard in conjunction with ASTM.
This presentation provides a brief overview of ASTSWMO, its Greener Cleanups Task Force, summarizes its work to date, will present and foster dialogue around some of the “Barriers, Incentives, and Myths” of Green Remediation explored by the group.
Thomas M. Potter is the Statewide Enforcement Coordinator for the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection, Bureau of Waste Site Cleanup in Boston. Mr. Potter has more than 18 years of experience in the field of waste site cleanup. Prior to his current role, Mr. Potter served on the MassDEP’s Commissioner’s Office Environmental Innovations helping to advance efficiency, technological innovation, and energy-environmental coordination across programs and regions in the agency. Mr. Potter has also served as the Statewide Audit Coordinator for MassDEP’s Bureau of Waste Site Cleanup Audit Program in Boston, as an environmental consultant in the private sector for over 5 years, and as an Adjunct Professor instructing in Massachusetts waste site cleanup regulations at the University of Massachusetts in Boston. He received a Bachelor of Science degree in Geography from Arizona State University in Tempe, Arizona.
Approaches to cleaning up contaminated property have evolved over time to incorporate new technologies and to address new environmental concerns. For example, when remedy selection criteria for many of the Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) cleanup programs were developed, there was not a focus on climate change or the limited resources of the planet. A recent action to address to this concern and improve the decision-making process for cleanup activities was the release of EPA’s Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response Principles for Greener Cleanup in September, 2009. These principles support environmental footprint assessment and taking steps to minimize that footprint for cleanup options that satisfy threshold requirements for protectiveness and meet site specific cleanup objectives. EPA encourages environmental footprint assessment that includes at a minimum an evaluation of energy use, air emissions, water impacts, materials use, and land and ecosystem protection.
Quantitative tools are now being developed to help individuals evaluate the “sustainability” of site cleanup options. These tools generally provide metrics to assess the environmental footprint of a cleanup as well as other factors such as “worker safety.” Several of these models evaluate worker safety by calculating the exposure hours and miles traveled for remedy options. Worker safety is also discussed in articles evaluating the environmental impact of cleanups. Some of these papers suggest that accidental risks to workers associated with the remediation of a site should be weighed against the risks to communities of an unremediated site.
This presentation will address the following: 1) clarify how worker safety is already factored into EPA’s remedy evaluations; 2) provide information on OSHA’s role in providing worker protection during site cleanups; 3) show that metrics used to assess risk must be comprehensive or they will be misleading; and 4) explain why it is inappropriate to compare community or ecological risks to worker risks.
Elizabeth Quinn is a Senior Toxicologist with the EPA Region 3 office. She provides expert technical support in the investigation/evaluation of human health and environmental risks posed by hazardous waste sites in the RCRA Corrective Action program. Ms. Quinn’s 17 year tenure at EPA also includes providing expert witness testimony for lead, pesticide, and UST enforcement actions, as well as contributing to the national effort to develop remedial action levels for Non Liquid PCBs. She has presented training courses on Hazardous and Solid Waste Management at several international sites including India, Qatar, Jordan, Morocco, and Poland. Ms. Quinn also held the position of Adjunct Assistant Professor at Drexel University. She is a Diplomate of the American Board of Toxicology, and received the Joseph Seifter National Honor Award for Excellence in Human Health Risk Assessment in 2009. Prior to joining EPA, Ms. Quinn was a Senior Toxicologist at Halliburton NUS Environmental Corporation. She received an M.S. in Environmental Toxicology from Drexel University and an A.B. in Biology from Immaculata University.
Deb Goldblum has worked in EPA’s Mid-Atlantic Office (Region 3) RCRA Corrective Action Program for 17 years. She is currently Region 3's RCRA Revitalization Coordinator and is a key contributor to a national effort to integrate green remediation into the cleanup programs. She has worked on several projects in collaboration with EPA Headquarters including the RCRA Groundwater Handbook and the development of measures to assess the status of land use at cleanup sites. Prior to joining EPA, Ms. Goldblum taught geology at Temple University and LaSalle University. She received her B.S. in Geology from Haverford College and an M.S. in Geology from Temple University.
Lori Ribeiro is a senior clean energy development manager at Nexamp. She is currently focused on managing a federal stimulus-funded initiative to install 4.2 MW of solar arrays at thirteen water and wastewater treatment plants statewide. Prior to joining Nexamp, Lori was a consultant who advised public and private clients in clean energy projects, programs and policy issues. Lori has over 20 years of experience with a focus on municipal clean energy program development, particularly solar projects. She has helped several municipalities to obtain clean energy grants and other project financing. Her most visible project is installation of a 468 kW solar “Brightfield” in Brockton, the largest solar power plant in New England and largest Brightfield nationwide. She recently served as Clean Energy Director at BlueWave Strategies. Ms. Ribeiro has a Bachelor of Arts from Harvard College and Master of Science from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
The Aerojet General Corp. Superfund site in Sacramento County (California) is an aerospace research, development and manufacturing facility spread over 5,500 acres. A plume of groundwater contamination combining chlorinated solvents, NDMA, and perchlorate has reached nearly 27 square miles during the past 50 years the facility has operated. Extensive CERCLA investigation and cleanup actions since the early 1990s have characterized the groundwater plume and established hydraulic control involving pumping of 20 to 30 million gallons of groundwater per day with additional energy for treatment. Source areas on the property are the subject of ongoing investigation and future remediation. A 3.5 MW grid-connected solar energy facility went on-line in November 2009, the largest single-site industrial solar facility in the country. Several advantages of siting renewable energy projects on contaminated lands expedited the project. While there are investigation and cleanup areas throughout the site, Aerojet approached EPA to identify areas that were not contaminated and could support the solar field. Spacing of the collectors was adjusted to allow future access for groundwater investigation if needed. The facility provided access to existing electrical infrastructure, favorable permitting, and excellent site control. Power generated by the solar project can be used on-site to power groundwater remediation systems, plant operations, or feed into the local electric grid. In addition, future residential and commercial development plans for portions of this site will further increase local demand. An additional green issue at the Aerojet Site is the reuse of extracted and treated groundwater. The community rejects direct municipal reuse of the, preferring discharge to the nearby American River, which is a municipal water source. EPA, the State and Aerojet are exploring potential industrial reuse such as for cooling and fire suppression, to relieve demand on local water systems and provide return on the groundwater extraction energy.
Gary Riley is an Environmental Engineer and Remedial Project Manger in U.S. EPA’s Pacific Southwest regional office in San Francisco. He manages Superfund remedial projects at sites throughout California and also serves as the Region’s Superfund Reuse Coordinator, facilitating revitalization and reuse of contaminated lands throughout the Southwestern United States and the Pacific. Previously, he provided oversight of military facility cleanups for the California Regional Water Quality Control Board. He holds a B.S. in Environmental Engineering from Northwestern University, a M.S. in Civil and Environmental Engineering from the University of Washington, and is a Registered Civil Engineer in California.
The Air Force Center for Engineering and the Environment (AFCEE) is performing Environmental Restoration Program Optimization (E-RPO) at various United States Air Force (USAF) installations to evaluate existing remediation strategies and recommend actions to advance issues impacting the remediation program. As sustainability practices (including green and sustainable remediation) increase at Air Force facilities and throughout the environmental industry, the use of alternative energy collection sources; (i.e. solar photovoltaics and wind turbines) is likely to increase dramatically. While wind and photovoltaic power exhibit low environmental impacts during the use stage, there are potential human health and environmental impacts from the manufacturing and recycling processes. The objective of this paper is to present a summary of available information regarding the environmental impacts associated with the complete life cycle of these systems, including raw material extraction, and refinement, product manufacturing, use and post-use disposal. The information presented in this paper, along with additional research that is likely ongoing, should help to better define the true environmental impacts and sustainability of these popular green energy alternatives.
Dr. Javier Santillan is a Member of the Technical Support Division at the Air Force Center for Engineering and the Environment (AFCEE). His area of expertise includes Analytical Chemistry, Geochemistry, Environmental Engineering, Process Optimization, Streamlined Site Characterization, and Performance-Based Management. Dr. Santillan joined AFCEE in 1993, served as Chemistry Group leader in 1995. He served as Performance-Based Management Group Team Leader until February 2008 when he was promoted as the USAF Restoration Subject Matter Expert. Dr. Santillan also represents the USAF at the Interstate Technology Regulatory Council Board of Advisors. Dr. Santillan holds a BS in Chemistry (University of Arizona-1968), M.S. in Agricultural Chemistry (University of Arizona-1971), and a Ph.D. in Soils Chemistry and Irrigation Engineering (Utah State University-1974).
U.S. EPA conducted a Pilot Study of clean-up remedies at several hazardous waste sites to estimate the environmental footprints of the remedies, using life-cycle assessment principles. Estimating environmental footprints of clean-ups is a powerful tool for identifying the more sustainable clean-up technologies for a particular site, and in “greening” a clean-up technology already selected. In the Pilot Study, the environmental footprints of the following technologies were estimated: in-situ bioremediation of groundwater, hydraulic control using phytoremediation, groundwater treatment using a “bioreactor” (a pit in the ground filled with mulch), and ex-situ ground water treatment (using technologies such as air strippers, granulated activated carbon filters, and UV oxidation). In estimating the environmental footprints, we analyzed on-site activities, in addition to transportation of materials and personnel to and from the site. We also analyzed the environmental footprints from the manufacture of materials used on-site and for transportation. The following aspects of the clean-up remedies were compared: resources used (including water, construction materials, diesel fuel, and electricity), air emissions (including CO2), and wastes generated. The methodology we used in the Pilot Study will be presented along with the results for each site. We will discuss issues encountered, including: the difficulty in obtaining life-cycle inventory data for manufactured materials; the importance of transportation and manufacture of materials in the overall environmental footprint; and the challenges in comparing different types of environmental effects (such as CO2 emissions versus fresh water depletion) resulting from the various clean-up technologies. EPA intends to use the outcome of the Pilot Study in developing a methodology applicable to a variety of state and federal clean-up programs. The Pilot Study was conducted by EPA’s Region 9 office in San Francisco, with assistance from EPA’s Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response in Washington DC.
Karen Scheuermann is an Environmental Engineer in the RCRA Hazardous Waste Program at the US Environmental Protection Agency. Karen has experience in hazardous waste permitting and corrective action. Most recently, she has been active in developing strategies for estimating the environmental footprints of clean-up sites, using a life cycle assessment approach.
The concepts and principles of green remediation are increasingly important within the implementation of EPA’s waste programs. This presentation will focus on EPA headquarters positions on the concepts of green remediation and the incorporation of these principles into the implementation of the program. The presentation will review the Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response (OSWER)’s Green Remediation Principles, the Superfund Green Remediation Strategy, principles, the challenges and opportunities within the different waste programs, specific initiatives with Superfund, and the growing body of resources, tools, training, etc. under development at the National level and across the Regions.
Daniel Powell is Chief of EPA’s Technology Integration and Information Branch at the Office of Superfund Remediation and Technology Innovation in Washington DC. He leads efforts to promote awareness and use of best practices and innovative technologies for site clean-up at hazardous waste sites across EPA’s waste programs. He manages education, technology support, and information programs to support site project managers within EPA, States and at the local level. Dan has been working in the green remediation arena since 2006 when he worked with the Brownfields program and the Green Buildings Council as they sought to define and understand sustainable clean-up practices. Dan came to the Agency in 1988 as a Presidential Management Intern with the Headquarters waste programs office (Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response) and has worked in the program budget and information management offices; the Office of Underground Storage Tanks; the Region 4 Superfund Program; and the Congressional Office of Rep. Michael Bilirakis (FL). Prior to coming to EPA, Dan worked on the investment portfolio of a large Regional bank, analyzing and trading, among other instruments, municipal bonds, Federal Funds, and government-backed securities. Dan received his Masters of Public Administration from the Woodrow Wilson School of Government at the University of Virginia in 1988, and he graduated summa cum laude with his Bachelor of Arts degree in both political science and urban studies from Roanoke College (Salem, VA) in 1985.
This presentation will discuss experiences at three project locations, the design of a large ~2.0 MW PV at the Dover Landfill in Dover, New Hampshire, the feasibility, design and construction of a 600 kW wind turbine at the former Forbes Lithograph site in Chelsea, MA (brownfield – MA 21e) the feasibility and design of a 1.5 MW utility-scale turbine a the MWRA De Lauri Pump Station in Charlestown, MA (brownfield – MA 21e).
Among the issues encountered at all projects include proper planning in bid documents to assure soil and groundwater management, worker health and safety and cap penetration planning and mitigation for foundations and the electrical wiring conduits.
Benefits also will be discussed such as avoided air emissions through the production of green electricity and putting dormant land into productive use.
Robert Shatten (BS - Environmental Engineering, Northwestern University; MS - Civil Engineering, Stanford University) is a co-founder of Boreal Renewable Energy Development and has worked in renewable energy, power plant development and environmental engineering for more than 20 years. He has formed three other environmental related ventures in the renewable energy and energy conservation and recycling fields. His efforts range from project management, power plant siting and regulatory approval, to Clean Air Act, Water/Wetlands, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and Superfund waste clean-up and environmental due diligence projects. He has taken project sites from concept to approval to operation around the globe. He is a patent holder for an energy conservation and recycling concept currently under commercialization.
Samina Ali combines a financial and technical background for designing sustainable energy projects. She has seen projects from start to finish: initial studies screening sites or choosing materials for the most efficient installation to green-certified building materials and long-term economic forecasts.
- BA, Oberlin College in Environmental Studies, minor in Economics
- Occupational Safety & Health Administration (OSHA) construction site safety, 2007
- Threats Analyst, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Protection and Prevention Branch/Water Security Division, Washington DC
Estimating Cross-Media Pollution to Determine the Sustainability of Groundwater Remediation
Deni Chambers, Alan Leavitt, L. Maile Smith (Presenter), and Scott McLaughlin, Northgate Environmental Management, Inc, and Christopher Dumas, University of North Carolina
Regulatory agencies routinely establish risk-based cleanup goals for remediation projects. Although risk assessments provide a means to develop health-protective cleanup goals, they rarely consider cross-media impacts resulting from the remedial activities. We developed a simulation model as part of a comprehensive evaluation of the benefits, costs, and impacts of a groundwater remediation program for a federal Superfund project in the San Francisco Bay Area. The analysis provides a means to assess the sustainability of the remedial program. Cross-media effects were partitioned into direct cross-effects and indirect cross-effects. Direct cross-effects result immediately from remediation activity itself. Indirect cross-effects arise from lifecycle economic linkages that exist between remediation activity and the rest of the economy. Remediation activity requires the purchase of materials and services whose production produces pollution. A static multiregional input-output model of the economy, calibrated to data on economic activity and pollution emissions, was used to estimate the indirect cross-effects of remediation projects in the San Francisco Bay region of California. This model is based on the IMPLAN commercial computer software model with associated Social Accounting Matrix.
Although the peak concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) have been greatly reduced at the site, our findings indicate that it is not technically feasible to achieve drinking water goals and that the benefits of groundwater remediation are reduced by other environmental impacts of the remediation program. The simulation model suggests that the direct health risks caused by remediation activity are of the same (or larger) order of magnitude as the reduction in health risk due to remediation activity. Furthermore, the model results indicate that the annual pollution reduction achieved by remediation never exceeded the annual indirect cross-media pollution generated by the production of goods and services required as inputs to remediation activities.
L. Maile Smith, P.G., is a senior geologist with Northgate Environmental Management Inc. in Oakland, California. Ms. Smith is Northgate's corporate sustainability coordinator, in which role she develops, administers, and advises on sustainability programs and applications. Her technical focus area is the characterization, remediation, optimization, and long-term management of chlorinated hydrocarbon sites. She received a BS in geology from San Jose State University and a MS in geology from the University of British Columbia.
From munitions used to protect the United States-led Allied troops against the German-led Axis……to German engineered vehicles manufactured in the United States. Ironic? Maybe. Sustainability? Absolutely!
Thanks to the efforts of dozens of stakeholders, the U.S. Army is about to realize a success story of epic proportions, infusing over $1 billion into the local economy and creating of 2,000 jobs. And all this in a property declared “excess” by the Army a little over a decade ago. The former Volunteer Army Ammunition Plant is located in Chattanooga, Tennessee on over 7,400 acres and was an important TNT manufacturing facility for the Army between the second World War through the Vietnam War. In July 2008, over 30 years after the last TNT was produced, a German auto maker announced they would build a state-of the-art manufacturing facility on 1,300 acres of the former VOAAP site.
Sustainability is defined as “meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.” Instead of letting this property lie fallow, future generations to come will find gainful employment, continuing a long tradition of manufacturing, while helping the German auto maker share its 21st century vision of “sustainable mobility.”
This story is not as much about the destination as it is about the journey. In particular, this journey involved a host of innovative site restoration tools from the Federal tool-belt, including Early Transfer, Triad, Performance Based Contracting (PBC) and Firm Fixed Price (FFP) contracting, Mobile Laboratory and Performance Based Measurement System, and a keen vision for redevelopment that is now the Enterprise South Industrial Park – a premier TVA certified mega site purchased and developed by the City and County.
In 2005, only one year before the Army’s desire to solicit a multimillion dollar PBC contract, the stakeholder group including Mobile Corps of Engineers, Army Environmental Center, U.S. Army BRAC Division, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and Tennessee Department of Conservation was collectively not confident in the extent of contamination defined at the site over the previous 10 years of study. Most critical to the pending issuance of a PBC contract was the corresponding Cost to Complete. The area in question was TNT Manufacturing Valley, consisting of 16 batch lines and other facilities totaling over 800 acres. To this point, although much data had been collected, it was not fully integrated into a comprehensive Conceptual Site Model (CSM). Further challenging the project was difficult site access due to significant over-growth resulting from decades of inactivity. Finally, and probably most challenging, was the complex geology and hydrogeology consisting of highly faulted karst bedrock and thick, tight clay residuum from 10 to over 105 feet thick. To meet the goal of meeting the established time frame for the PBC, the Army turned to two of its consultants, Tetra Tech and Shaw E&I, to tackle the data gaps and finalize the CSM.
This presentation will cover green and sustainable concepts used throughout the life-cycle of this project, starting at the investigation and continuing throughout the cleanup and construction phases of the project. Numerous tangible benchmarks will be presented.
Mikael Spangberg, PE, LEP, is a Senior Project Manager, managing the PBC shallow soil cleanup for Tetra Tech; he has 26 years of domestic and international experience, including project and program management; environmental assessment and remediation; construction management; and civil engineering. He has extensive environmental restoration experience at current and former U.S.Department of Defense facilities, with a particular focus on former U.S. Army explosives manufacturing facilities. Currently, Mr. Spangberg serves as Tetra Tech’s project manager for multiple site remediation contracts with combined values of more than $60 million, including the former Volunteer Army Ammunition Plant in Chattanooga, Tennessee and the former Sunflower Army Ammunition Plant in De Soto, Kansas.
In May 2008, Green Mountain Power Corporation (GMP) opened a new “green” service center on a former Brownfields site in Westminster, VT that included the installation of solar panels. The redevelopment of the property by GMP is the first Brownfields to Brightfields success story in Vermont. The goal of this project was to design a service center that would exemplify GMP’s environmental values and provide a functional, attractive, productive, and healthy work place for employees.
GMP transmits, distributes and sells electricity and utility construction services in Vermont to approximately 94,000 customers. The service center, which was renovated to the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) Green Building Rating System houses utility crews and equipment to help GMP crews operate more efficiently, thus minimizing their carbon footprint and keeping rates low for customers.
The property, which is a listed Vermont Hazardous site, was formerly a truck maintenance and fueling facility from the late 1980s to early 2000, and remained vacant until GMP purchased the property. Starting in 2005, GMP in cooperation with the property owner completed due diligence services consisting of Phase I and II ESAs and remediation activities conducted under the supervision of the Vermont Agency of Natural Resources (VTANR). Groundwater monitoring data suggests that remedial activities have been largely successful, and it is expected that a Site Management Activity Completed (SMAC) designation will be issued by the VTANR for the property in 2010.
GMP received a Clean Energy Development Fund grant from the State of Vermont to help pay for the installation of a 58-kilowatt photovoltaic panel system at the property. The solar array utilizes leading photovoltaic module and inverter technology, which will provide 70% of the annual electricity used in building operations.
John Tedesco is the Safety & Environmental Manager at Green Mountain Power located in Colchester, Vermont. He has an undergraduate degree in Geology from Castleton State College in Castleton, Vermont and is currently pursuing an MBA in Managing for Sustainability from the Marlboro College Graduate School in Brattleboro, Vermont.
Green remediation is the practice of considering all environmental effects of remedy implementation and incorporating options to maximize the net environmental benefit of cleanup actions. The green remediation concept, and sustainability in general, is increasingly being considered in remedy selection but implementation in practice during environmental cleanups is complex given the diverse set of parameters to consider. Specifically, the U.S. EPA introduced six core elements of green remediation for consideration including energy, air emissions, and water requirements. Not only are these elements complexly interconnected, but their respective units of measure are varied and distinct (e.g., kilowatt-hours for energy, tons for emissions, gallons for water), making development of an aggregate analysis and comparison of different remedies extremely challenging. Indeed, for more complex cleanup sites with various stakeholders involved in the decision-making process, having a structured approach and an aggregate analysis that compares the different remedies along with stakeholder goals is essential.
The use of economic and decision analysis tools can be a powerful and effective means to tackle the above issues. Several methods, including statistical methods and trade-off analyses, can be applied to effectively combine the different elements of green remediation into a single scale of analysis or a “common currency,” an essential step towards making an informed decision. The approach also provides a flexible platform because it allows diverse stakeholder preferences to be reflected in the analysis and priorities to be established amongst the evaluation criteria. For example, all else being equal, the water use element might carry more weight when selecting a cleanup remedy at a mining site where water is scarce. Furthermore, each of the core elements has inherent uncertainties which can be evaluated via probabilistic methods such as Monte Carlo analysis. The presentation will discuss these approaches along with recent applications.
Mr. Ung is a Principal Economist with ARCADIS and specializes in economic assessments of various environmental issues, application of quantitative decision analysis and probabilistic/risk analysis. He has helped numerous clients address their environmental issues through use of economic and statistical methods. Some recent projects include preparing cost-benefit assessments for different environmental regulations involving power generating stations, off-road engines, and other environmental impacts from air emissions. He is also experienced in conducting natural resource damage assessments (NRDAs) and analyzing the economic impacts of projects. Mr. Ung applies decision/probabilistic analysis techniques to identify optimal strategies (e.g., remediation, dredging, redevelopment) in light of uncertainties and for estimating potential environmental liabilities. Mr. Ung holds an M.A. in Economics from the University of Michigan and a B.A. in Economics and Mathematics from Brandeis University, summa cum laude, where he is a member of Phi Beta Kappa.
In recent years, the use of green remediation technologies has gained enormous interest of remediation stakeholders and managers. However, the concept of sustainability has not been fully incorporated into various energy-intensive remedial technologies (i.e., thermal desorption, soil vapor extraction, multi-phase extraction, groundwater pump and treat, etc.) that are frequently used at contaminated sites nationwide. Integrating sustainability concepts in the design and optimization of such remedial technologies can potentially result in substantial remedial, economic, social, and net-environmental benefits. This presentation provides a case study of a pulse operational approach that was implemented for improving remedial efficiency and sustainability of a multi-phase extraction system at a voluntary cleanup program (VCP) site in Alabama.
The operation of the multi-phase extraction system was started at the site in 1994 to treat soil and groundwater that were impacted with the chlorinated solvent 1,1,1-trichloroethane (TCA) and its abiotic degradation product 1,1-dichloroethene (1,1-DCE). In early 2007, the continuous remedial operation scheme was changed to pulse operation to remediate the site in a more efficient and sustainable manner. The pulse operational parameters (i.e., pulse periods [system on/off times], groundwater capture zone radius, etc.) were developed using a numerical groundwater fate and transport model. The system performance data confirmed that the pulse operation is more efficient than continuous operation in removing contaminant mass from the vadose zone under mass transfer limiting conditions and in providing hydraulic control of the deeper aquifer.
A detailed analysis of multiple sustainability metrics (i.e., volatile organic compounds [VOCs] direct emissions, electrical energy usage, water consumption, hazardous waste generation, etc.) was performed using a Sustainable Remediation Tool (SRT) to quantify the sustainability concepts and net-environmental benefit related to the pulse remedial operation. The pulse operational approach resulted in an overall 67 % reduction in sustainability metrics.
Mr. Uppal studied Environmental Engineering at the University of New Hampshire, obtained an M.S. in Environmental Engineering from the University of New Haven and a B.S. in Civil Engineering from Eastern Mediterranean University in Turkey. He is a Senior Environmental & Remediation Engineer III for XDD, LLC, in Stratham, New Hampshire, providing technical input, guidance, and services supporting hazardous waste, environmental, remediation, and other types of projects.
Efforts to optimize long-term groundwater monitoring (LTM) networks have been ongoing for at least ten years, representing one of the first major approaches to sustainable site operation and maintenance. Site managers who are able to reduce the frequency or absolute numbers of groundwater samples while maintaining the same level of confidence in site management decisions can make major steps toward sustainability goals at legacy waste sites. Additionally, optimized sampling can support the transition from active remedies (such as groundwater extraction and treatment) to passive remedies (Monitored Natural Attenuation) and ultimately to site closeout. The Monitoring and Remediation Optimization System (MAROS) software was an early statistical analysis and decision tool developed to optimize groundwater monitoring networks. Statistical modules within the tool have been applied at many DoD, DoE and National Priorities List (NPL, Superfund) sites over the past seven years. Summary results for several optimization analyses will be presented along with estimates of how optimization has reduced costs, materials and energy needs for sites in long-term O&M. The qualitative benefits of the LTM optimization process will also be discussed. A review of successes and deficiencies in both the computational and conceptual aspects of groundwater network optimization will be presented along with a preview of new directions in sampling optimization.
Dr. Vanderford is a Senior Associate Environmental Scientist at GSI Environmental, Inc. in Houston, TX. She has technical experience in the chemical analysis and environmental fate of munitions, chlorinated solvents and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Dr. Vanderford received a Ph.D. in Environmental Sciences and Engineering from the University of North Carolina Chapel Hill and M.S. and undergraduate degrees from Rice University. Her project experience includes optimization of long-term groundwater monitoring networks, human and ecological risk assessment, monitored natural attenuation evaluation, and the application of geographic information system (GIS) tools. She is currently managing the MAROS software for GSI and has extensive experience using decision matrices and statistical methods to analyze and optimize groundwater monitoring networks. She has developed and conducted classes in Long-Term Monitoring Optimization for the USEPA, DoD and several state environmental agencies. Her current research interests include developing statistical methods to support the transition to less energy intensive remedial strategies and applying compound-specific isotope analysis to document biodegradation of contaminants.
Compound-specific isotope analysis (CSIA) has an array of applications for chlorinated solvents investigation/remediation. The molecular isotopic signature (13C, 37Cl and 2H) of Chlorinated Solvents are used to: 1) trace their sources on a local to global scale; 2) identify, characterize and quantify biotic and abiotic transformation reactions, therefore help decrease monitoring or remediation cost, and achieve site closure. At one site in New York, carbon, chlorine and hydrogen isotope ratios of PCE, TCE and cis-DCE were measured in groundwater samples. The carbon and chlorine isotope ratios indicate that the chlorinated solvents at the site have at least three sources represented by two PCE plumes and one TCE plume. The hydrogen isotope ratios of TCE further indicate that the TCE in the above TCE plume has not migrated into adjacent wells. Whilst isotopes are used in a fairly regular and systematic manner for evaluating the origin of chlorinated solvents and the correlation of these contaminants with their suspected sources, there are other important applications in environmental litigation based on changes in isotopic compositions, such as monitoring the rate and/or extent of degradation of individual compounds at remedial sites. Our isotope study during electrical resistance heating of TCE site has demonstrated that the incorporation of isotopic constraints into remediation project can guide remediation decision and help achieve site closure. The isotopic data may be used to unambiguously determine that biodegradation of chlorinated solvents is occurring; may be able to identify the process of degradation as aerobic or anaerobic; and in some cases determine the rate and extent of degradation; and may become a powerful predictive tool for assessing the extent and duration of contaminant plumes, thus CSIA may significantly decrease monitoring and remediation costs, consistent with US EPA's initiative for Green Remediation.
Dr. Yi Wang is the Director of ZymaX Forensics Isotope Laboratory. He has a B.S. in Environmental Science, an M.S. in Environmental Chemistry, and a Ph.D. in Environmental Geochemistry. He has been working for 20 years in the environmental field on issues related to soil and water contamination. He developed compound‐specific isotope analysis technique at Brown and Princeton University and applied isotope forensics in the environmental fields. Dr. Wang is a specialist in the analysis of isotope ratios for carbon, chlorine, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur. He has published over 40 articles and books on soil and water contamination topics and has shared this information via lectures throughout the world. Dr. Wang has worked as an expert for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the State Coalition for Remediation of Drycleaners (SCRD) on cases where environmental forensics was used to allocate responsibility.
Integrating Green and Sustainable Practices into an Urban Brownfield Redevelopment Project
Maria Watt, Teresa Raine, Jessica Beattie, and Melissa Koberle (Presenter), CDM; Brad Carlson, Zebra; Michael Burlingame, NJDEP
According to EPA, sustainability means “meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.” Returning an underutilized, abandoned contaminated site back to productive use for the social and economic benefit of the surrounding community clearly meets this definition. In addition, a brownfield redevelopment project inherently encompasses the triple bottom line approach to sustainability as originally proposed by Elkington (1994), which balances the dimensions of:
• Environmental Stewardship
• Economic Growth
• Social Responsibility
In order to maximize the degree of sustainability and minimize the net environmental impact, green and sustainable remediation (GSR) practices were embedded into a brownfield redevelopment project. A case study involving a multi-million redevelopment of an urban landfill into a full-service community health and recreational facility that is an integral part of the larger downtown redevelopment strategy is presented to illustrate how to maximize the sustainable aspects of a brownfield redevelopment project.
The following GSR practices were utilized to minimize the net environmental impact, maximize net benefit and fast-track the remedial efforts that dove-tail into the redevelopment and site reuse plans:
• Utilization of Triad to both fast-track the pre-design investigations and precisely define the aerial and vertical extent of the proposed remediation, while adhering to expedited construction schedules.
• Optimization of biofuels usage to minimize greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and increase usage of renewable energy sources.
• Minimization of waste generation which would require off-site disposal.
• Integration of carbon footprint assessment into the remedy selection process.
• Maximization of sustainable management practices (virtual meetings, collaborative erooms/workspace, paperless document reviews, and electronic submissions).
By integrating the GSR approaches described above, this remediation and redevelopment project was able to reduce the overall carbon footprint as compared to a conventional remedial approach.
Ms. Koberle is an environmental scientist at CDM. She provides support as the Task Manager for USEPA Region 2 Brownfields and a field manager for several private and federal clients. She recently presented a poster presentation on CDM Implementing Renewable Energy at Region 2 EPA Sites at the 13th Annual Energy & Environment Conference. Ms. Koberle is also a co-chair on CDM’s Edison Office Sustainability Committee. She holds a B.S. in Biology and Environmental Science from Muhlenberg College and M.S. in Environmental Science from Rutgers/New Jersey Institute of Technology.
Several tools have been proposed to support sustainable and green decision making as part of the analysis of remediation alternatives at contaminated land and sediment sites. Ecological footprinting, which provides a measure of resource costs, and carbon footprinting, which provides a measure of carbon creation, and net environmental benefits analysis, which provides a balance sheet of gains and losses in ecosystem services, are three of the more common tools increasingly advocated as necessary for devising a “green” remediation strategy. An important indicator of sustainability and environmental impact, these tools have proved difficult to incorporate into environmental remediation decision-making because of the limited availability of baseline and site-specific impact data and the inability to estimate the ecological footprint of future post-remediation and site development scenarios. It is further evident that there are considerable differences among the tools and their key metrics, and more generally in the extent to which different tools are applicable or can support the selection of less invasive, protective remediation options such as phytoremediation, monitored natural recovery, in situ immobilization, and similar “green” remediation technologies. In light of these limitations, this paper reviews current practices and presents an approach for measuring the ecological footprint and using the results as part of remedy alternatives analysis.
Mr. Wenning is a leader in the Ecology & Sediment Management practice at ENVIRON in San Francisco, CA with 25 years of consulting experience in ecotoxicology, environmental forensics, human and ecological risk assessment, and investigation/assessment/remediation of contaminated sediments and waterfront restoration. He is widely regarded as an expert in several aspects of risk assessment, including source identification, chemometrics, exposure modeling, food web modeling, and probabilistic analysis of persistent, bioaccumulative organic chemicals. He has managed interdisciplinary teams of engineers and scientists on several multi-year contaminated waterway assessments in the US and other countries. He has served on regulatory science advisory and peer-review panels addressing health and ecological exposure and risk issues and sediment management. He has published extensively in the scientific literature on chemical fingerprinting, contaminated sediments, and risk assessment. He was first editor-in-chief of Environmental Forensics and currently serves as editor-in-chief of Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management and Associate Editor of Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. He is co-editor of the book Use of Sediment Quality Guidelines and Related Tools for the Assessment of Contaminated Sediments (2005; SETAC Press) and two books on Environmental Security in Harbors and Coastal Areas (2007; Springer).
Air Force Plant No. 4 Texas, Remedial Process Optimization Taking us to Green Remediation
Rick Wice, Shaw Environmental, Inc.; George Walters, Aeronautical System Center, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base
Green Remediation practices and principles are being employed to minimize the environmental foot print of remediation projects. Reducing energy, materials and other resource use at remediation sites along with increasing the benefits of the remediation are core goals for green remediation. At Air Force Plant No.4 (AFP4) in Fort Worth, Texas the Air Force has been actively remediating DNAPL and chlorinated solvent sites that are a legacy from past aircraft production activities. AFP4 is still an active plant where the F-16 and F-35 fighter aircraft are manufactured by Lockheed Martin Aeronautical Company. The use of solvents and onsite waste disposal has been eliminated.
Over the course of seventeen years or Installation Restoration Program (IRP) activities the Air Force has applied on-going Remedial Process Optimization (RPO). The goal of RPO is reduce the cost and time to site closure. RPO principles are supportive of green remediation. Reducing the cost and time of site cleanup leads to reduced energy and materials use.
In this presentation RPO activities at AFP4 including the reuse of treated groundwater for golf course irrigation and stream base flow enhancement, treatment system modifications, application of innovative technologies to replace and supplement pump and treat and soil vapor extraction systems and innovative in situ technology development will be shown as examples of green remediation. We have often been doing green remediation and did not realize it. One example is the inclusion of the AFP4-Carswell AFB phytoremediation project in the EPA Green Remediation Guidance document. At AFP4 the greening of the IRP program has been going on since the mid-1990's.
Rick Wice is a senior scientist and project manager at Shaw Environmental. He has been involved in environmental restoration projects at commercial and government facilities for 25 years. He is a senior remediation consultant and an active member of the Sustainable Remediation Forum (SURF). Mr. Wice concentrates his practice on chlorinated solvent and DNAPL site projects. He has been involved with installation restoration program at AFP4 since 1992. Mr. Wice received his BS in Geology from the University of Oregon in 1978 and an MS in Geology from Western Washington Univ. in 1982
As part of the redevelopment efforts at a Brownfield Site in Edgewater, New Jersey, GZA was asked to tailor our remedial design around sustainable development principles. A portion of the site was being developed as a municipal building for the Borough of Edgewater and was designed to meet LEED Silver requirements. National Re/Sources, LLC, the developer, asked GZA to develop a remedial plan that incorporated sustainable principles that would be cost effective and protective of human health and the environment. The property was characterized by elevated concentrations of arsenic and pitch/tar in both soil and groundwater at the Site. Initially, the NJDEP required excavation and off-site disposal pitch and arsenic impacted soils. While this remedial plan would likely be the most effective technique to protect human health and the environment, it would likely be the least effective at meeting sustainable development practices. We evaluated sustainable principles in addition to the standard feasibility study practices. The first step in evaluating the proposed remedial technologies was to establish site specific cleanup objectives with the NJDEP that were both protective of the human health and the environment as well as limiting the amount of material to be moved off-site. We were able to achieve remedial goals of addressing arsenic contamination in soils at concentrations greater than 600 ppm and addressing pitch/tar that was impacting groundwater. We selected in-situ solidification/stabilization (ISS) as the remedial technique to address both arsenic and pitch/tar impacted soils. This resulted in a decrease in energy, fuel usage, and greenhouse gas emissions versus transportation and disposal off-site. Greenhouse gas emissions for ISS were calculated at 145 CO2 Equivalent Tons vs 867 CO2 Equivalent Tons for excavation and off-site disposal. In addition, the technology did not transfer contamination from one site to another as would disposal at a landfill.
Dr. Winslow has provided clients with environmental and geological consulting services since 1991. He received his B.S. in Geology from Binghamton University; his M.S. in Geologic Sciences from Virginia Tech; and his Ph.D. in Geological Sciences from Lehigh University. He has been with GZA GeoEnvironmental Inc. since 2004 where he is currently an Associate Principal and leads the environmental group in the New York City Office. Dr. Winslow is a geologist with professional experience in bedrock, soil and groundwater investigation and remedial design/implementation. His practice areas include supporting Brownfield Redevelopment Projects, soil and groundwater remediation, soil and groundwater investigations for the Energy Industry (specializing in radionuclide investigations at nuclear power plants) and environmental due diligence for real estate transactions. Dr. Winslow has conducted, managed and implemented site investigation and remedial activities at manufactured gas plants, nuclear power plants, hazardous waste sites, retail petroleum sites, former petroleum terminals, and Brownfield redevelopment sites. Dr. Winslow is involved with the Environmental Business Council of New York and with the Urban Land Institute where he serves on the New York City Chapter Program Committee. Dr. Winslow has presented technical papers on fractured bedrock hydrology and tectonics at various scientific meetings.
GoldSET was developed as a simple qualitative method to assess the strengths and weaknesses of a project with respect to its sustainability and to allow the comparison of different options on a balanced, equitable, and comprehensive basis. Thus, it helps to identify optimal solutions for decision-making based on principles of responsible development.
GoldSET was initially developed for environmental remediation projects. For this, the tool was based on themes and indicators generally inspired by the third edition of the Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) 2006 and the International Federation of Independent Consulting Engineers (FIDIC) Guidelines, 2004. It also included customized indicators tailored to the particularities of remediation projects. Typically themes and indicators are selected covering the three dimensions of responsible development (environment, society, and economy), based upon the specific situation of a project. Themes include soil, water and air quality [environment]; impact on the local community and equity [social]; and use of local suppliers [economics]. Indicators include improvement potential, usage rates, local labour potentials, training of local workforce, capital costs, litigation potential, etc.
The chosen themes and indicators are input to a table and for each remediation option under consideration, the user attributes a score to the relevant indicator, based on experience and expertise. Weighting factors can also be used to adjust the overall influence of each indicator.
For each option under consideration, the value in respect of each dimension [environmental, social, economic] is determined and used to create a triangular representation. The shape and size of the triangle really helps to clearly visualize the remediation option’s overall bias, strengths and weaknesses with respect to the three defined dimensions.
In addition, certain indicators such as greenhouse gases, energy consumption or water usage can be quantified and evaluated in relation to each proposed alternative. In many instances, the findings become the deciding factor between options.
Karin Witton is a Senior Project Environmental Consultant with Golder Associate Inc’s Buffalo Niagara office. She has over 20 years of experience in environmental management and has worked for a wide variety of public and private organizations. From her early years trouble shooting industrial effluent treatment systems she progressed to the undertaking of over 600 due-diligence, compliance and environmental performance audits as well as numerous Phase II investigations.
She has developed formal in-house and accredited (i.e. ISO14001) management systems and strategies for the public and private sector for over 15 years, and has worked internationally for the last 10 years on sustainability issues. She has worked extensively in countries as diverse as China, Nigeria and Bosnia, for both private companies and international organizations.
Karin has worked in virtually all sectors from industrial manufacturers; to property development and management companies; waste handling and disposal organizations; mineral extraction bodies; Utility companies; transportation organizations; oil and gas exploration and production companies; and central and local governments.
She has been based in the US for the last 3 years where she is a sustainability expert, manager and lead auditor on national and international, multi-site environmental audits for improvement, compliance or
acquisitions and divestment.
Sustainability Analysis of Soil and Groundwater Remediation Alternatives for Site 45, MCRD Parris Island
Leanna Woods Poon1, Charles Cook1, Michael Singletary1, Russell Sirabian2, Mohit Bhargava3, and Mark Sladic4
1Naval Facilities Engineering Command Southeast, Jacksonville, FL; 2Battelle, New Rochelle, NY; 3Battelle, Columbus, OH; 4Tetra Tech, Pittsburgh, PA
Remediation professionals are incorporating sustainable environmental remediation (SER) principles into the remedy selection process. Their efforts have been encouraged by a number of guidance and policy initiatives. The Sustainable Remediation Forum (SURF) published a White Paper in Remediation Journal, promoting the balance of economic viability, conservation, and quality of life with remedial action objectives. In an effort to implement Executive Orders 13423 and 13514, the Department of Defense (DoD) has expanded its environmental practices to include Green and Sustainable Remediation. Furthermore, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has released a primer, encouraging the use of sustainable practices by private and federal owners of hazardous waste.
SER analysis was conducted in support of a Feasibility Study (FS) for a former dry cleaning facility at Marine Corps Recruit Depot, Parris Island, South Carolina. Remedial alternatives identified in the FS were assessed for their probable environmental footprint, providing decision makers additional information to be considered when evaluating the alternatives. Using a tool developed by Battelle, called SiteWiseTM, the environmental footprint of each remedial alternative was quantified. Sustainability metrics included: 1) GHG Emissions; 2) Energy Usage; 3) Air Emissions; 4) Worker Safety; 5) Water Usage; and 6) Resource Consumption. Impacts to subsurface geochemistry and the surrounding community were evaluated semi-quantitatively and included in the final SER analysis. The following technologies were assessed: enhanced bioremediation, in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO), in situ chemical reduction (ISCR), electrical resistance heating (ERH), and excavation. Among the remedial alternatives considered in the FS, enhanced bioremediation had the lowest calculated environmental footprint, indicating that this approach is the most sustainable. The results of this analysis provide information that can be used during remedy evaluation, design, and implementation to focus impact mitigation techniques on those components of the remedy that have the greatest environmental impact.
Leanna Woods Poon is an Environmental Engineer with the Naval Facilities Engineering Command Southeast, located at the Naval Air Station in Jacksonville, Florida. She attained her B.S. in Soil and Water Science at the University of Florida and her M.S. in Environmental Science and Engineering at the Colorado School of Mines. Afterwards, she worked as a research associate at CSM, studying remediation induced changes to organic carbon character and contaminant partitioning behavior.