Crisis, Trauma, & Violence

School counselors often are faced with children who experience crisis, trauma, and violence. Unfortunately, these events can happen on school grounds. As counselors we can be advocates for children and help create a safe environment in the school. Below you will find links to Web Resources, Journal Research Articles , and Curriculum Materials on how schools can manage crisis, trauma, and violence.

Web Resources

Coping with disaster
The Federal Emergency Management Agency’s web site offers tips for educators on how to help children who have endured trauma or a disaster.

National Center for School Crisis and Bereavement
The Center published the Guidelines for Responding to the Death of a Student or School Staff to help school staff and administrators respond to a loss associated with their school.

Child Victim Reaction Handout
National Crime Victims Research and Treatment Center, Medical University of South Carolina
This publication describes common reactions of children to traumatic events such as physical or sexual assault.

American Psychological Association
The APA provides information on trauma and violence including how to cope with trauma, how to recognize signs of violence, links to current news articles, and recommended books.

The Child Trauma Institute
promotes the healing and healthy development of children and adolescents who have experienced trauma or loss. The site has information on assessments, treatments, and research studies.

David Baldwin’s Trauma Information Pages
Dr. Baldwin is a licensed psychologist whose expertise is in the treatment of emotional trauma and post traumatic stress disorder. He has compiled a comprehensive collection of resources including information on trauma and articles.

National Association of School Psychologists
NASP provides resources for schools on school safety, violence prevention, crisis response, and trauma.

National Child Traumatic Stress Network
This web site has information on different types of trauma as well as resources for educators, a tool kit, and an informative newsletter.

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Recent Research

CSCORE does not endorse any of the following research studies.  Instead our goal is to present you with the latest research being conducted.  It is up to you to decide if the study is reliable and valid.


A Qualitative Investigation of Averted School Shooting Rampages
By: Jeffrey A. Daniels, Adam Volungis, Erin Pshenishny, Punita Gandhi, Amy Winkler, Daniel P. Cramer, and Mary C. Bradley
The Counseling Psychologist, 2010
Abstract and Journal Access:

Using Art with Vulnerable Children
By: Stevi Cumming and John Visser
Support for Learning, 2009
Abstract and Journal Access:

Study of a Violence Prevention Program in Prekindergarten Classrooms
By: Allen, Susan F.
Children and Schools, 2009
Abstract and Journal Access:

A cluster randomized controlled trial of child-focused psychiatric consultation and a school systems-focused intervention to reduce aggression
By: Peter Fonagy, Stuart W. Twemlow, Eric M. Vernberg, Jennifer Mize Nelson, Edward J. Dill, Todd D. Little, and John A. Sargent
Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 2009
Abstract and Journal Access:

Effects of Participation in a Martial Arts-Based Antibullying Program in Elementary Schools
By: Stuart W. Twemlow, Bridget K. Biggs, Timothy D. Nelson, Eric M. Vernberg, Peter Fonagy, and Stephen W. Twemlow
Psychology in the Schools, 2008
Abstract and Journal Access:

The Evaluation of School-Based Violence Prevention Programs: A Meta-Analysis*
By: Hyoun-Kyoung, Park-Higgerson, Suzanne E Perumean-Chaney, Alfred A Bartolucci, Diane M Grimley, and Karan P Singh
The Journal of School Health, 2008
Abstract and Journal Access:

School Violence: Associations with Control, Security/Enforcement, Educational/Therapeutic Approaches, and Demographic Factors
By: Amanda B Nickerson and Matthew P Martens
School Psychology Review, 2008
Abstract and Journal Access:

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Curriculum Materials

What Works Clearinghouse
The Institute of Education Sciences has found the Too Good for Violence intervention to show potentially positive effects.

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