Model Aquifer Protection Bylaw
Cape Cod Commission Model Bylaws and Regulations
This model water resource protection bylaw is intended to assist Cape Cod towns protect their drinking water supplies from contamination due to the inappropriate use of land. This bylaw is designed to protect groundwater resources by identifying sensitive aquifer (or wellhead protection) areas and by establishing appropriate regulations within those areas. The bylaw incorporates both nitrogen management and stormwater control, two elements that are essential to groundwater protection.
01.0 Purpose and Intent:
01.1 It is the purpose of this bylaw to protect water resources in order to:
(a) protect the public health, safety, and welfare of the residents of [name of local government] through the preservation of the [town]'s groundwater resources;
(b) identify uses that are prohibited or allowed only by special permit within designated aquifer protection overlay districts;
(c) protect groundwater and surface water resources from nitrogen contamination and pollution from stormwater runoff;
(d) complement the Commonwealth's Department of Environmental Protection regulations governing groundwater protection; and
(e) protect other sensitive water resource areas, including those land areas that contribute recharge to private drinking water supply wells.
02.0 Definitions: As used in this bylaw, the following words and terms shall have the meanings specified herein:
02.1 "Aquifer Protection Overlay District" (APOD) means those land area(s) designated on a map adopted pursuant to this bylaw that provide recharge to an existing or planned public drinking water supply well. An APOD shall be delineated by a consistent method and include all the area(s) referred to as a Zone II and as approved by the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection (DEP).
02.2 "Best management practices" mean any structural or non structural mechanism designed to minimize the impact of nonpoint source pollution on receiving waters or resources, including, but not limited to: detention ponds, construction or installation of vegetative swales and buffers, street cleaning, reduced road salting, and public education programs.
02.3 "Development" means the construction, reconstruction, conversion, structural alteration, relocation, or enlargement of any structure; any mine, excavation, landfill, or land disturbance; and/or any change in use, or alteration or extension of the use, of land.
02.4 "Hazardous Material" means any: chemical; combustible liquid; compressed gas; explosive; flammable aerosol, gas, liquid or solid; hazardous chemical; health hazard; mixture; organic peroxide, oxidizer; physical hazard; pyrophoric; unstable (reactive) or water reactive, as defined under Title 29 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Section 1910.1200(c) and any other chemical, material or substance identified by the Town of ____ as hazardous based on available scientific evidence. This includes, but is not limited to, petroleum products, solvents, oil-based paint and pesticides. Hazardous materials do not include: Hazardous Wastes, tobacco products, wood products, foods, drugs, alcoholic beverages, cosmetics and any hazardous material used by employees in the workplace in household quantities as defined below.
02.5 "Hazardous Waste" means any waste material as defined in the Massachusetts Hazardous Waste Regulations, 310 CMR Section 30.010. This includes, but is not limited to, waste oil, waste solvents, waste oil-based paint and waste pesticides.
02.6 "Hazardous Material or Waste, Household Quantity of" means any or all of the following:
a) 275 gallons or less of oil on site at any time to be used for heating of a structure or to supply an emergency generator, and
b) 25 gallons (or the dry weight equivalent) or less of other hazardous materials on site at any time, including oil not used for heating or to supply an emergency generator, and
c) a quantity of hazardous waste at the Very Small Quantity Generator level as defined in the Massachusetts Hazardous Waste Regulations, 310 CMR Section 30.353.
02.7 " Lot" means either: (a) the basic development unit for determination of lot area, depth, and other dimensional variations; or (b) a parcel of land whose boundaries have been established by some legal instrument, such as a recorded deed or recorded plan, and is recognized as a separate legal entity for purposes of transfer of title.
02.8 "Nitrogen management" means the process of ensuring that nitrogen generated by land uses does not exceed established capacities of the resources receiving nitrogen inputs.
Commentary: If not regulated, certain types and densities of development can generate nitrogen levels that may exceed state and federal guidelines governing drinking water supplies as well as estuarine resources.
02.9 "Overlay district" means a district that is superimposed over one or more zoning districts or parts of districts and that imposes specified requirements that are in addition to those otherwise applicable for the underlying zone.
Commentary: An overlay district is a type of district that lies on top of another, like a bedspread over a blanket. The blanket is the underlying zoning district, such as a single-family detached zone with 10,000-square-foot lots. With the APOD, that underlying zone does not change. Instead, like the bedspread over the blanket, the APOD requirement is placed over portions of the underlying zone or zones. The boundaries of the overlay also do not have to correspond perfectly with the underlying zone. The overlay district may cover only part of a regular zone or may cover part of several underlying zones. All of the provisions of the underlying zones remain the same, including use, density, and setbacks. What changes is that there is now a new and additional requirement established by the APOD to meet certain groundwater protection objectives.
02.10 "Stormwater management" means the process of ensuring that the magnitude and frequency of stormwater runoff does not increase the hazards associated with flooding and that water quality is not compromised by untreated stormwater flow.
Commentary: If not properly managed, stormwater runoff can increase flood flows and can carry contaminants into groundwater and surface water systems, threatening receiving water quality.
02.11 "Subdivision" means the division or re-division of a lot, tract, or parcel of land into two or more lots, tracts, or parcels in accordance with G.L. c.41 §81-L.
03.1 All developments located within a designated aquifer protection overlay district (APOD) designated pursuant to Section 04.0 below shall meet the requirements of this bylaw.
03.2 Where this bylaw is less strict or where this bylaw is silent as to a particular issue, then all developments shall instead conform to the requirements of the underlying zoning district(s) in which the developments are located.
04.0 Designation of APOD; Establishment of Map; Appeal of APOD Designation:
04.1 An APOD, as designated herein, includes those areas that require water resource protection, such as wellhead protection areas, and aquifer recharge areas.
04.2 The boundaries of an APOD shall be based upon a delineation of aquifer materials and/or wellhead protection areas for public supply wells, as well as other hydrologic and/or hydrogeologic data and analysis completed by a groundwater hydrologist or other person who by education, training, and experience, is qualified in such regard.
04.3 The APOD boundaries shall be depicted on a reproducible map entitled "Aquifer Protection Overlay District, [Town of ____]" that shall be incorporated herein by reference and shall be drawn to an appropriate scale.
Commentary: The boundaries of the APOD must be determined prior to adopting this bylaw. It is recommended that the APOD include, at a minimum, all approved and potential Zone II areas.
04.4 The APOD boundaries shall be considered to be superimposed over any other zoning district established by the zoning bylaw and shall be indicated as such on the zoning map.
04.5 Where the boundary line of the APOD divides a lot, the requirements established by this bylaw shall apply only to the portion of the lot that is located within the APOD.
05.0 Uses Prohibited Within APODs:
05.1 The following uses and activities shall be prohibited within any APOD:
(a) landfills, public or private and landfilling of sludge or septage as defined in 310 CMR 32.05;
(b) manufacturing and production of paving, roofing, and other construction materials using petroleum-based coating and preserving materials;
(c) sewage treatment facilities, public or private, with on-site disposal of effluent, unless tertiary treated and needed to remediate existing on-site contamination;
(d) airports, boat, truck, and bus terminals or stations;
(e) gasoline stations, automotive service stations and car washes;
(f) floor drains which discharge to the ground, more specifically referenced in 310 CMR 22.21(2);
(g) dry cleaning establishments;
(h) road salt stockpiles;
(i) dumping of snow from outside the APOD;
(j) any use which involves the use, treatment, generation, storage or disposal of hazardous wastes or hazardous materials in greater than household quantities;
(k) underground storage tanks not exempted by Section 107 (i);
(l) removal of soil or ground cover within four (4) feet of maximum high groundwater;
(m) areas for disposal of automobiles, "junkyards," salvage yards or the like;
(n) list other uses or activities that withdraw large volumes of groundwater for manufacturing or consumption, and uses that generate large volumes of sewage (i.e. greater than 2,000 gpd).
Commentary: This Section allows Cape towns to develop a list of prohibited uses and activities from within the APOD. Many communities in Massachusetts and on the Cape already have a comprehensive list of prohibited uses and activities within groundwater protection districts found in their zoning bylaws. These communities may wish to transfer that list into this bylaw and, once adopted, remove preexisting groundwater protection bylaws from the town code.
06.0 Uses Allowed Within APODs, Subject to Special Permit:
06.1 The following uses and activities located within an APOD shall require a special permit from the planning board, in accordance with G.L. c. 40A §9:
(a) any subdivision of land into 10 or more lots;
(b) the construction of 10 or more dwelling units, whether on one or more contiguous lots, tracts, or parcels, or whether contained within one or more structures;
(c) any nonresidential use of 40,000 square feet or greater in either lot size or gross floor area;
(d) any construction that renders an area 10,000 square feet or greater of impervious surface;
(e) any use which disposes of greater than 2,000 gallons per day of wastewater, unless connected to a public wastewater treatment facility;
Commentary: Section 06.0 establishes those uses and activities that will require a special permit in order to be located within an APOD. The special permit approval procedure gives the town the opportunity to carefully review the proposed use or activity to ensure its appropriateness within the APOD and to attach conditions, if necessary, to its approval. This list is provided for illustrative purposes only and should be altered to reflect local conditions and needs.
07.0 General Exemptions:
07.1 The following uses and activities shall be exempted from the requirements of Section 06.0 above and may be located within an APOD without a special permit:
(a) Continuous Transit. The transportation of hazardous wastes or materials, provided that the transporting motor vehicle is in continuous transit;
(b) Vehicular and Lawn Maintenance Fuel and Lubricant Use. The use in a vehicle or lawn maintenance equipment of any hazardous material solely as fuel or lubricant in that vehicle or equipment fuel tank;
(c) Retail/Wholesale Sales/Office/Commercial Uses that store or handle hazardous materials or wastes in amounts that do not exceed household quantities.
(d) Construction Activities. The activities of constructing, repairing, or maintaining any building or structure on lands located within an APOD, provided that all contractors, subcontractors, laborers, material men, and their employees use those applicable Best Management Practices, as set forth in Exhibit B attached hereto and incorporated herein, when using, handling, storing, or producing any hazardous materials or wastes.
(e) Household Use. The household use of hazardous materials or wastes in amounts that do not exceed household quantities.
(f) Municipal Use. The municipal use of hazardous materials and any materials stored and used for the sole purpose of water supply treatment; and
(g) Storage of Oil(s). The storage of oil(s) used for heating fuel, provided that the container used for such storage shall be located within an enclosed structure that is sufficient to preclude leakage of oil to the external environment and to afford routine access for visual inspection and shall be sheltered to prevent the intrusion of precipitation.
Commentary: These exemptions from a special permit are also only a recommended listing. Towns should tailor their own bylaw as appropriate.
08.0 Criteria for Special Permit Approval; Design and Operating Guidelines:
(1) No special permit shall be granted for a development identified in Section 0.60 above that does not or, after conditions are imposed, will not comply with the requirements of this bylaw. Therefore, as a condition of granting a special permit for uses and activities identified in Section 0.60 above, the permit granting authority may require adherence to any or all of the following design and operation guidelines, where, in its opinion, such adherence would further the purposes of this bylaw.
Commentary: Towns are encouraged to expand this Section to coincide with current "criteria for approval" sections within their zoning bylaws. For example, existing land-use regulations may already contain specific prerequisites for approval and findings of fact that must be made prior to the issuance of a special permit.
(a) Containment of Regulated Substances. Leak-proof trays under containers, floor curbing, or other contaminant systems to provide secondary liquid containment shall be installed. The containment shall be of adequate size to handle all spills, leaks, overflows, and precipitation until appropriate action can be taken. The specific design and selection of materials shall be sufficient to preclude any loss to the external environment. Containment systems shall be sheltered so that the intrusion of precipitation is effectively prevented. The owner/operator may choose to provide adequate and appropriate liquid collection methods rather than sheltering only after approval of the design by the permit-granting authority. These requirements shall apply to all areas of use, production, and handling, to all storage areas, to loading and off-loading areas, and to both above-ground and underground storage areas.
(b) Emergency Plan. An emergency plan shall be prepared and filed along with the special permit application that indicates the procedures that will be followed in the event of the spillage of any hazardous material or waste so as to control and collect all such spilled material in such a manner and prevent it from reaching any storm or sanitary drains or the groundwater.
(c) Inspection. Each day of operation, a responsible person designated by the permittee who stores, handles, uses, or produces any hazardous materials or waste shall check for breakage or leakage of any container holding such materials or waste. Electronic sensing devices may be employed as part of the inspection process, if approved by the permit-granting authority and provided that the sensing system is also checked daily for malfunctions. The manner of daily inspection shall not necessarily require the actual physical inspection of each container, provided that the location of the containers can be inspected to a degree which reasonably assures the permit-granting authority that breakage or leakage can be detected by the inspection. Monitoring records shall be kept daily and made available to the permit granting authority on a quarterly basis.
(d) Reporting of Spills. Any spill shall be reported by telephone to the Fire Department and [insert additional agency, as necessary] within one hour of discovery of the spill. Clean-up shall commence immediately upon discovery of the spill. A full written report that includes a description of the steps taken to contain and clean up the spill shall be submitted to the Fire Department and [insert additional agency, as necessary] within  days of discovery of the spill.
(e) Monitoring of Regulated Substances in Groundwater Monitoring Wells. If required by the permit-granting authority, groundwater monitoring well(s) shall be provided at the expense of the permittee in a manner, number, and location approved by the permit- granting authority. Except for existing wells found by the permit-granting authority to be adequate for this provision, the required well(s) shall be installed by a water well contractor. Samples shall be analyzed and analytical reports that describe the quantity of any hazardous material or waste present in each monitoring well shall be prepared by a Massachusetts certified laboratory.
Commentary: Towns may wish to require that well monitoring data be submitted to the Board of Health. The Board of Health is generally more familiar with reviewing this type of information that Planning and Appeals Boards.
(f) Expansions, Alterations and Modifications. The special permit-granting authority shall be notified in writing prior to the expansion, alteration, or modification of a use or activity holding a special permit under this bylaw. Such expansion, alteration, or modification may result from increased square footage of production or storage capacity, or increased quantities of hazardous materials or wastes, or changes in types of materials or wastes beyond those square footages, quantities, and types upon which the permit was issued. The introduction of any new hazardous waste or material shall not prevent the revocation or revision of any existing special permit if, in the opinion of the permit-granting authority, such introduction substantially or materially modifies, alters, or affects the conditions upon which the existing special permit was granted or the ability to remain qualified as a General Exemption under Section 07.0 above, if applicable, or to continue to satisfy any conditions that have been imposed as part of a special permit, if applicable.
Commentary: This Section provides a list of important guidelines for both the special permit-granting authority and the applicant to consider for developments located within an APOD. While these guidelines are directed at developments that will use hazardous materials or generate hazardous wastes, many are applicable to other types of developments that also require a special permit under this bylaw. For example, the special permit-granting authority may wish to require the installation of monitoring wells and may establish a monitoring schedule for certain large-scale developments within an APOD, even those that may not use hazardous materials.
09.0 Performance Standards: Nitrogen Management:
09.1 Land uses and developments within APODs shall conform to the following performance standards for nitrogen management. These performance standards shall be considered as criteria for the grant of a special permit.
Commentary: Nitrogen has been selected as an index for the protection of drinking water supplies in Massachusetts cities and towns for several reasons, each of which is directly linked to public health. Nitrate-nitrogen is a public drinking water contaminant that poses a health hazard. Studies by the U.S. EPA's Office of Groundwater and Drinking Water have concluded that nitrate, when ingested, can cause the potentially fatal condition of methemoglobinemia (blue baby syndrome) in very young infants. Excessive consumption of products containing high levels of nitrate has also been linked to cancer in adults. Finally, the presence of nitrogen in groundwater often serves as an indicator of the presence of wastewater with other more dangerous compounds, such as viruses and halogenated hydrocarbons, that are known to cause illnesses in humans.
(a) No land use or development regulated by this bylaw shall exceed a 5ppm nitrogen loading standard based on the methodology contained in the Cape Cod Commission's Nitrogen Loading Technical Bulletin 91-001. (See a recommended worksheet for compliance with the methodology, contained as Exhibit C herein.)
Commentary: It is important to note that the federal maximum contaminant level for nitrogen in drinking water is 10 mg/l. However, adoption of a more conservative value of 5 milligrams per liter is recommended for several reasons. First, nitrogen is a conservative compound in groundwater and, in most cases, does not react with anything after it enters the aquifer system. It does not decay, enter into processes which cause it to be precipitated or volatilized, enter into ion exchange, or become absorbed into aquifer materials. In addition, nitrogen is highly mobile, traveling along with, and at the same speed as, flowing groundwater. Therefore, sampling of nitrogen levels at public drinking water supply wells can be misleading. A sampling result of 8 mg/l in January, for instance, may provide no indication that a subsequent test in July will result in a concentration over 10 mg/l. Finally, the Cape Cod Regional Policy Plan has established a planning and regulatory standard of 5 mg/l across Cape Cod, not as a lower drinking water standard, but rather as a planning guideline to ensure that future nitrogen concentrations in drinking water wells will not exceed the 10 mg/l standard. By choosing a more conservative planning standard, the Town will have more time to react to elevated (or elevating) nitrogen levels and will be in concert with regional regulations and policies.
(b) Any permissible land use or development within an APOD, not precluded by paragraph (1), above, shall not exceed a 5 mg/l nitrogen loading standard for impact on groundwater. For the purposes of calculating nitrogen generation, the following standards shall be used:
1. nitrogen from dwelling units that use septic systems (assuming three persons per dwelling): 35 mg/l
Commentary: The mass of nitrogen entering groundwater after being discharged from a septic system is estimated at 5.85 pounds of nitrogen per person, per year. This contribution, when combined with an estimated water use of 55 gallons per day per person, multiplied by an average of three persons per dwelling, yields an average concentration from a dwelling at 35 mg/l nitrogen per year. Although Title 5 wastewater flows should be used in the calculation of nitrogen loading, commercial and industrial development and community facilities may use measured water use flows to calculate nitrogen loads from wastewater. In order to use measured water use flows, an applicant must present annual water bills or equivalent information to support the use of these flows. It is recommended that measured water use information from at least three comparable developments or three years worth of water records be provided.
2. nitrogen from lawn fertilizers: three pounds per 1,000 square feet (25 % leached)
Commentary: The mass of nitrogen entering groundwater from lawn and shrub fertilization is estimated at three pounds of nitrogen per 1,000 square feet of lawn area, with an average lawn size of 5,000 square feet. Twenty-five percent of the applied nitrogen is estimated to reach the water table (i.e., leach). Each lot in residential subdivisions shall be assumed to have 5,000 square feet of lawn unless the applicant can demonstrate that alternative values should be used.
3. nitrogen in background precipitation: 0.05 mg/l
Commentary: Recharge from natural (undeveloped) land is assumed to be 18 inches per year (generalized throughout Cape Cod) and the recharge is assumed to have a concentration of 0.05 mg/l of nitrogen.
4. runoff from roads and ways: 1.50 mg/l
5. runoff from roofs: 0.75 mg/l
Commentary: Runoff from paved roads and ways, as well as from roofs should be included in the overall nitrogen loading analysis. Each lot in residential subdivisions shall be assumed to have 2,000 square feet of roof and 500 square feet of paved area, unless the applicant can demonstrate that alternative values should be used.
6. other land uses as allowed by zoning: [insert literature values]
Commentary: It is likely that some land uses and development proposals that contribute nitrogen to groundwater, not included in the listing above, may be proposed within an APOD (e.g., a golf course). Evaluation of nitrogen inputs from these uses should be evaluated based on existing literature, including work on file with the Cape Cod Commission, the Department of Environmental Protection, and the U.S. EPA.
10.0 Performance Standards: Stormwater Management:
10.1 Land uses and developments within APODs that require a special permit pursuant to Section 06.0 above, shall conform to the following performance standards for stormwater management. These performance standards shall be considered as the criteria for the grant of a special permit.
Commentary: Stormwater is a leading cause of pollution to Massachusetts's groundwater and surface waters. The majority of shellfish area closures in the northeastern states, including Massachusetts, are linked to chronic and untreated stormwater discharges. Drinking water supplies are threatened by a wide variety of contaminants present in stormwater.
Stormwater is generated as rainfall washes off the land surface and transports a variety of pollutants into receiving waters, including groundwater. Many pollutants are generated by sources beyond a local government's control, such as atmospheric deposition and emissions from automobiles. Other sources, however, including septic systems, domestic animals, unmanaged parking areas, and litter accumulating along pavement surfaces, are contaminant inputs within the powers of local government control.
While at first glance stormwater management appears a complicated and overly technical task, the U.S. EPA and the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection have prepared numerous guidance documents on stormwater management, and many cities and towns in the state have ongoing stormwater management programs. In addition, professional engineers and site planners throughout the state are generally familiar with the principles of stormwater management, particularly with the requirements proposed in this bylaw.
(a) No development shall result in a direct discharge of untreated stormwater, either on or offsite.
Commentary: Untreated stormwater is linked to the degradation of water quality. This bylaw requires that no regulated development or land-use discharge of stormwater occur without adequate treatment. Adequate treatment can be accomplished by any one or a combination of well-published "best management practices." These practices include, but are not limited to, the use of detention ponds, infiltration basins, infiltration trenches, vegetated buffers, erosion control, and sedimentation reduction.
(b) Post development discharge rates shall not be greater than predevelopment discharge rates.
Commentary: It is accepted practice to ensure that post development peak discharge rates from a developed site match or fall below predevelopment runoff conditions. This requirement can be met by ensuring that stormwater velocity and volume from post-development conditions do not exceed velocity and volume from predevelopment conditions.
(c) New development shall maximize recharge to groundwater.
Commentary: This performance standard is designed to maintain recharge rates to groundwater through the use of best management practices. This requirement is particularly important where developments result in large areas of impervious surfaces (e.g., large parking areas). Towns are encouraged to supplement this performance standard with zoning regulations that restrict the percent of a lot that can be rendered impervious by structures and paving materials.
(d) New development shall be required to remove, onsite, no less than 80% of the annual total suspended solids generated from development runoff.
Commentary: Total suspended solids are considered a key ingredient in stormwater runoff, and, if removed, most often result in successful stormwater management. Total suspended solids can readily be removed through employment of best management practices, such as the use of sand and/or organic filters, wet ponds, constructed wetlands, and dry wells.
(e) Best management practices shall be maintained for appropriate periods of time.
Commentary: The success of stormwater management programs proffered by an applicant within an APOD, or required as a condition of special permit approval, must be maintained for continued stormwater treatment. This performance standard is designed to ensure that proper covenants, deed restrictions, bonds, or other guarantees are in place coincident with the grant of a permit for development.
11.0 Pre application Conference Requirement:
11.1 Timing. Prior to the submission of an application for a special permit under this bylaw, the applicant is strongly encouraged to meet with the special permit-granting authority at a public meeting to discuss the proposed development in general terms and establish the plan filing requirements. The permit-granting authority shall meet with an applicant within 21 days following a written request submitted to the permit-granting authority and the Town Clerk. If the special permit-granting authority fails to meet with an applicant who has requested such a meeting within 21 days of said request and said meeting has not been postponed due to mutual agreement, the applicant may proceed with a special permit application without need for a pre-application conference.
11.2 Filing Requirements. The purpose of the pre-application conference shall be to inform the special permit granting authority as to the preliminary nature of the proposed project, and, as such, no formal filings are required for the conference. However, the applicant is encouraged to prepare sufficient preliminary site design or engineering drawings to inform the permit-granting authority of the scale and overall design of the proposed project.
Commentary: The purpose of a pre-application conference is to give the special permit-granting authority advance notice of an application for development within the APOD and remove some of the "pressure" that a Board may experience once a formal special permit has been applied for. The conference is further designed to educate both the special permit-granting authority and the applicant as to the project and the likely concerns it will raise. Since there are no formal filing requirements proposed in this model bylaw, towns may articulate their own specific filing requirements, although it is recommended that these requirements be kept to a minimum for this pre-filing phase. Those towns with site plan review or other local land-use regulations that require pre application meetings or conferences may wish to substitute the process described in this Section with their existing pre-application review regulations and are encouraged to combine the pre-application conference required by this bylaw with one that may also be required under another local regulation.
12.0 Special Permit Filing Requirements:
12.1 Plan Filing Requirements. Unless determined by the special permit-granting authority at the pre-application conference that some of the following requirements are not necessary to reach a decision on the merits of the special permit application, the following plans/items shall be submitted for development within an APOD.
(a) Nitrogen Management. The applicant shall provide an analysis of the impact of the proposed development demonstrating compliance with the requirements of Section 09.0 (1)(b).
(b) Stormwater Management. The applicant shall provide a narrative and, if relevant, a quantitative analysis of how the proposed project complies with the performance standards for stormwater management set forth in Section 11.0. The analysis shall be prepared by a professional engineer registered in the Commonwealth. The analysis shall set forth in detail best management practices designed to mitigate the impacts of stormwater runoff.
Commentary: The plan filing requirements are intended to place an applicant for a special permit within an APOD on notice as to what materials will be expected as part of the application. The requirements specified focus only on the two areas highlighted by this bylaw: stormwater and nitrogen management. Local governments should consider expanding this Section to encompass regulation of other areas of concern (e.g., see the Cape Cod Commission's hazardous materials/waste model regulation).
0.13.1 If any provision of this bylaw is held invalid by a court of competent jurisdiction, the remainder of the bylaw shall not be affected thereby. The invalidity of any section or sections or parts of any section or sections of this bylaw shall not affect the validity of the remainder of the [town]'s zoning bylaw.
Commentary: This Section is a generic severability clause. Severability clauses are intended to allow a court to strike or delete portions of a regulation that it determines to violate state or federal law. In addition, the severability clause provides limited insurance that a court will not strike down the entire bylaw should it find one or two offending sections.
EXHIBIT SAMPLE HAZARDOUS MATERIALS LIST
Acid and basic cleaning solutions
Antifreeze and coolants
Arsenic and arsenic compounds
Brake and transmission fluids
Casting and foundry chemicals
Caulking agents and sealants
Corrosion and rust prevention solutions
Fire extinguishing chemicals
Food processing wastes
Fuels and additives
Glues, adhesives, and resins
Industrial and commercial janitorial supplies
Industrial sludges and stillbottoms
Inks, printing and photocopying chemicals
Liquid storage batteries
Medical, pharmaceutical, dental, veterinary, and hospital solutions
Mercury and mercury compounds
Metals finishing solutions
Paints, primers, thinners, dyes, stains, wood preservatives, varnishing, and cleaning compounds
Pesticides and herbicides
Plastic resins, plasticizers and catalysts
Photo development chemicals
Pool chemicals in concentrated form
Processed dust and particulates
Reagents and standards
Roofing chemicals and sealers
Sanitizers, disinfectants, bactericides, and algaecides
Soaps, detergents, and surfactants
Solders and fluxes
Tanning industry chemicals
Transformer and capacitor oils/fluids
Water and wastewater treatment chemicals
"BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICES"
FOR THE CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY
(A) The general contractor or, if none, the property owner, shall be responsible for ensuring that each contractor or subcontractor evaluates each site before construction is initiated to determine if any site conditions may pose particular problems for the handling of any hazardous material or waste. For instance, handling a hazardous material or waste in the proximity of water bodies or wetlands may be improper.
(B) If any hazardous material or waste are stored on the construction site during the construction process, they shall be stored in a location and manner that will minimize any possible risk of release to the environment. Any storage container of greater than 25 gallons, or 440 pounds, or more, containing hazardous material or wastes shall have constructed below it an impervious containment system constructed of materials of sufficient thickness, density, and composition that will prevent the discharge to the land, groundwaters, or surface waters, of any pollutant that may emanate from said storage container or containers. Each containment system shall be able to contain 150% of the contents of all storage containers above the containment system.
(C) Each contractor shall familiarize him/herself with the manufacturer's safety data sheet supplied with each material containing a hazardous material or waste and shall be familiar with procedures required to contain and clean up any releases of the hazardous material or waste. Any tools or equipment necessary to accomplish same shall be available in case of a release.
(D) Upon completion of construction, all unused hazardous material or waste and containment systems shall be removed from the construction site by the responsible contractor and shall be disposed of in a proper manner as prescribed by law.