REFERENCES



Addicott, J. F., J. M. Aho, M. F. Antolin, D. L. Padilla, J. S. Richardson, and D. A. Soluk. 1987. Ecological neighborhoods: scaling environmental patterns. Oikos 49:340-346.


Ahern, J. 1991. Planning for an extensive open space system: linking landscape structure and function. Landscape and Urban Planning 21:131-145.


Allen, T. F. H., and T. B. Starr. 1982. Hierarchy: Perspectives for Ecological Complexity. University of Chicago Press, Chicago. 310 pp.


Allen, C.D., M. Savage, D.A. Falk, K.F. Suckling, T.W. Swetnam, T. Schulke, P.B. Stacey, P. Morgan, M. Hoffman, and J. Klingel. 2002. Ecological restoration of southwestern ponderosa pine ecosystems: A broad perspective. Ecol. Appl. 12(5):1418-1433.


Allen, T. F. H., R. V. O'Neill, and T. W. Hoekstra. 1987. Interlevel relations in ecological research and management: some working principles from hierarchy theory. J. of Applied Systems Analysis 14:63-79.


Allen, T. F. H., and T. B. Starr. 1982. Hierarchy: Perspectives for Ecological Complexity. University of Chicago Press, Chicago. 310 pp.


Altman, B. 1997. Olive-Sided flycatcher in western North America. Status Review. USFWS. Portland, Oregon, USA.


Ambuel, B. and S.A. Temple. 1983. Area-dependent changes in the bird communities and vegetation of southern Wisconsin forests. Ecology 64:1057-1068.


Anderson, S.H., K. Mann, and H.H. Shugart, Jr. 1977. The effect of transmission-line corridors on bird populations. Amer. Midl. Nat. 97:216-221.


Andren, H., and P. Angelstam. 1988. Elevated predation rates as an edge effect in habitat islands: experimental evidence. Ecology 69:544-547.


Andren, H. 1992. Corvid density and nest predation in relation to forest fragmentation - a landscape perspective. Ecology 73:794-804.


Andren, H. 1992. Corvid density and nest predation in relation to forest fragmentation - a landscape perspective. Ecology 73:794-804.


Andren, H. 1994. Can one use nested subset pattern to reject the random sample hypothesis: examples from boreal forest bird communities. Oikos 70:489-491.


Andren, H. 1995. Effects of habitat fragmentation on birds and mammals in landscapes with different proportions of suitable habitat: a review. Oikos 71:375-380.


Andren, H. P. Angelstam, and E. Lindstrom. 1985. Differences in predation pressure in relation to habitat fragmentation: an experiment. Oikos 45:273-277.


Archibald, W.R., R. Ellis, and A.N. Hamilton. 1987. Responses of grizzly bears to logging truck traffic in the Kimsquit River Valley, British Columbia. Int. Conf. Fear Res. And Manage. 7:251-257.


Baker, W. L. 1993. Spatially Heterogeneous multi-scale response of Landscapes to fire suppression. Oikos 66:66-71.


Baker, W. L., and Y. Cai. 1992. The r.le programs for multiscale analysis of landscape structure using the GRASS geographical information system. Landscape Ecology 7: 291-302.


Baker, W.L., S. L. Egbert, and G. F. Frazier. 1991. A spatial model for studying the effects of climate change on the structure of landscapes subject to large disturbances. Ecological Modeling 56:109-125.


Baker, W.L., and D. Ehle. 2001. Uncertainty in surface-fire history: the case of ponderosa pine forests in the western United States. Can. J. Forest Res. 31: 1205-1226.


Baker, W. L. 2000. Measuring and analyzing forest fragmentation in the Rocky Mountains and western United States. Chapter 4 in: Knight, R. L., F. W. Smith, S. W. Buskirk, W. H. Romme, and W. L. Baker (editors), Forest fragmentation in the southern Rocky Mountains, University Press of Colorado.


Baker, W. L. 1995. Long-term response of disturbance landscapes to human intervention and global change. Landscape Ecology 10:143-159.


Baker, W. L. 1992b. The landscape ecology of large disturbances in the design and management of nature reserves. Landscape Ecology 7:181-194.


Baker, W. L. 1992a. Effects of settlement and fire suppression on landscape structure. Ecology 73:1879-1887.


Bascompte, J. and R.V. Sole. 1996. Habitat fragmentation and extinction thresholds in spatially explicit models. J. Anim. Ecol. 65:465-473.


Baskent, E. Z., and G. A. Jordan. 1995. Characterizing spatial structure of forest landscapes. Can. J. For. Res. 25:1830-49.


Bayne, E.M. and K.A. Hobson. 1997. Comparing the effects of landscape fragmentation by forestry and agriculture on predation of artificial nests. Conserv. Biol. 11:1418-1429.


Bear, G.D. 1989. Seasonal distribution and population characteristics of elk in Estes Valley, Colorado. Colorado Division of Wildlife. Special Report # 65.


Bendell, P.R. and J.E. Gates. 1987. Home range and microhabitat partitioning of the southern flying squirrel (Glaucomys volans). J. Mammal. 68:243-255.


Bender, D. J., T. A. Contreras, and L. Fahrig. 1998. Habitat loss and population decline: A meta-analysis of the patch size effect. Ecology 79: 517-533.


Bennett, A. 1990. Habitat corridors and the conservation of small mammals in a fragmented forest environment. Landscape Ecology 4:109-122.


Bent, A.C. 1942. Life histories of North American flycatchers, larks, swallows and their allies. U.S. National Museum, Washington, D.C., USA. 555pp.


Bessie, W.C. and E.A. Johnson. 1995. The relative importance of fuels and weather on fire behavior in sub-alpine forests. Ecology 76:747-762.


Bider, J.R. 1968. Animal activity in uncontrolled terrestrial communities as determined by sand transect techniques. Ecol. Monogr. 38:269-308.


Blair, R. 1996. The western San Juan Mountains: their geology, ecology, and human history. University Press of Colorado, Niwot, Colorado. 406 pp.


Bock, C.E. and J.F. Lynch. 1970. Breeding bird populations of burned and unburned conifer forest in the Sierra Nevada. Condor 72:182-189.


Bock, C.E. and J.H. Bock. 1974. On the geographical ecology and evolution of the three-toed woodpeckers, Picoides Tridactylus and Picoides Articus. American Midland Naturalist 92(2):397-405.


Bormann, F.H., and G.E. Likens. 1979. Pattern and process in a forested ecosystem. Springer-Verlag, New York.


Bormann, F.H., G.E. Likens, T.C. Siccama, R.S. Pierce, and J.S. Eaton. 1974. The export of nutrients and recovery of stable conditions following deforestation at Hubbard Brook. Ecological Monographs 44:255-277.


Boyce, M. S., and A. Haney. 1997. Ecosystem Management: Applications for Sustainable Forest and Wildlife Resources. Yale University Press, New Haven & London. 361 pp.


Boyce, M.S. and L.D. Hayden-Wing, editors. 1980. North American Elk: Ecology, Behavior and Management. The University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY, USA.


Bradshaw, G. A. 1991. Characterizing canopy gap structure in forests using wavelet analysis. J. Ecol. 80:205-215.


Brazda, A.R. 1953. Elk migration patterns, and some of the factors affecting movements in the Gallatin River drainage, Montana. Journal of Wildlife Management 17(1):9-23.


Brew, D. C. 1996. Paleotectonic history. Pages 18-37 in Blair (1996).


Brittingham, M. C., and S. A. Temple. 1983. Have cowbirds caused forest songbirds to decline? BioScience 33:31-35.


Brody, A.J. and M.R. Pelton. 1989. Effects of roads on black bear movements in western North Carolina. Wildlife Soc. B. 17:5-10.


Brown, P. M., M. R. Kaufmann, and W. D. Shepperd. 1999. Long-term, landscape patterns of past fire events in a montane ponderosa pine forest of central Colorado. Landscape Ecology 14:513-532.


Bunnell, F. L., S. F. MacLean, and J. Brown. 1975. Barrow, Alaska, USA. Pp. 73-124 In: T. Rosswall, and O. W. Heal, eds. Structure and function of tundra ecosystems. Ecological Bull. 20. Swedish Natural Science Research Council. Stockholm, Sweden.


Bunnell, F.L. 1995. Forest dwelling vertebrate faunas and natural fire regimes in British Columbia: patterns and implications for conservation. Conservation Biology 9:636-644.


Bunnell, F.L., L.L. Kremsater, and R.W. Wells. 1997. Likely Consequences of Forest Management on Terrestrial, Forest-dwelling Vertebrates in Oregon. Oregon Forest Resources Institute, Portland, OR.


Bunnell, F. L., S. F. MacLean, and J. Brown. 1975. Barrow, Alaska, USA. Pp. 73-124 In: T. Rosswall, and O. W. Heal, eds. Structure and function of tundra ecosystems. Ecological Bull. 20. Swedish Natural Science Research Council. Stockholm, Sweden.


Bunnell, F.L. 1995. Forest dwelling vertebrate faunas and natural fire regimes in British Columbia: patterns and implications for conservation. Conservation Biology 9:636-644.


Burke, I. C. 1989. Control of nitrogen mineralization in a sagebrush steppe landscape. Ecology 70:1115-1126.


Burke, I . C., T. B. F. Kittel, W. K. Lauenroth, P. Snook, C. M. Yonker, and W. J. Parton. 1991. Regional analysis of the central great plains. Bioscience 41:685-692.


Burke, I . C., D. S. Schimel, C. M. Yonker, W. J. Parton, L. A. Joyce, and W. K. Lauenroth. 1990. Regional modeling of grassland biogeochemistry using GIS. Landscape Ecology 4:45-54.


Burrough, P. A. 1986. Principles of Geographical Information Systems for Land Resources Assessment. Monographs on Soil and Resources Survey No. 12. Clarendon Press, Oxford.


Buse, L. J., and A. H. Perera (compilers). 2002. Emulating natural forest landscape disturbances: concepts and applications. Popular Summaries. Ontario Forest Research Institute, Forest Research Information Paper Number 149. 100 pp.


Buskirk, S.W., S.C. Forrest, M.G. Raphael, and H.J. Harlow. 1989. Winter resting site ecology of martens in central Rocky Mountains. Journal of Wildlife Management 53:191-196.


Buskirk, S.W. and R.A. Powell. 1994. Habitat ecology of fishers and American martens. Pages 283-296 in Buskirk, S.W., A.S. Harestad, and M.G. Raphael, editors. Martens, Sables, and Fishers: Biology and Conservation. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, NY, USA. 431 pp.


Buskirk, S.W., S.C. Forrest, M.G. Raphael, and H.J. Harlow. 1989. Winter resting site ecology of martens in central Rocky Mountains. Journal of Wildlife Management 53:191-196.


Cade, B.S. and B.R. Noon. 2003. A gentle introduction to quantile regression for ecologists. Front. Ecol. Environ. 1(8): 412-420.


Campbell, J. A. and D. C. Brew. 1996. Mesozoic and early cenozoic history. Pages 54-67 in Blair (1996).


Carey, A.B., M.M. Hardt, S.P. Horton, and B.L. Biswell. 1991. Spring bird communities in the Oregon Coast Range. Pages 123-144 in L.F. Ruggiero, K.B. Aubry, A.B. Carey, and M.H. Huff, tech. coords. Wildlife and Vegetation of Unmanaged Douglas-fir Forests. USDA Forest Service General Technician Report. PNW-GTR-285.


Caruso, J.R. 1973. Regeneration within a middle-elevation Douglas-fir clearcut. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Washington.


Caswell, H. 1978. Predator-mediated coexisitence: a nonquilibrium model. Am. Nat. 112:127-154.


Caton, E.L. 1996. Effects of fire and salvage logging on the cavity-nesting bird community in northwestern Montana. Ph.D. Dissertation. University of Montana, Missoula, USA. 115pp.


Catt, D. 1991. Bird communities and forest succession in the subalpine zone of Kootenay National Park, British Columbia. M.Sc. thesis, Simon Fraser University, B.C.


Celada, C., G. Bogliani, and A. Gariboldi. 1994. Occupancy of isolated woodlots by the red squirrel (Sciurus vulgaris) in a landscape with fragmented habitat. Landscape Ecology 9:227-235.


Chapin, T.G. 1995. Influence of landscape pattern on habitat use by American marten in an industrial forest. M.S. Thesis. University of Maine, Orono, USA. 100pp.


Chapin, T.G., D.J. Harrison, and D.D. Katnik. 1998. Influence of landscape pattern on habitat use by American marten in an industrial forest. Conservation Biology 12:1327-1338.


Chasko, G.G., and J.E. Gates. 1982. Avian habitat suitability along a transmission line corridor in an oak-hickory forest region. Wildlife Monographs 82:1-41.Chen, J., and J. F. Franklin. 1990. Microclimatic configuration and basic biological responses at the clearcut edges of old-growth Douglas-fir stands. Northwest Environmental Journal 6:424-425.


Chasko, G.G., and J.E. Gates. 1982. Avian habitat suitability along a transmission line corridor in an oak-hickory forest region. Wildlife Monographs 82:1-41.


Chen, J., and J. F. Franklin. 1990. Microclimatic configuration and basic biological responses at the clearcut edges of old-growth Douglas-fir stands. Northwest Environmental Journal 6:424-425.


Chen, J., J. F. Franklin, and T. A. Spies. 1992. Vegetation response to edge environments in old-growth Douglas-fir forests. Ecological Applications 2:387-396.


Chen, J., J. F. Franklin, and T. A. Spies. 1993. Contrasting microclimates among clearcut, edge, and interior of old-growth Douglas-fir forest. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 63:219-237.


Cheskey, T. 1987. Olive-sided flycatcher. Pages 250-251 in D.M. Finch and P.W. Stangel, eds. Status and Management of Neotropical Migratory Birds. USDA Forest Service General Technician Report, RM-GTR-229.


Chesson, P. L., and T. J. Case. 1986. Overview: nonequilibrium community theories: chance, variability, history, and coexistence. Pages 3-22 in J. Diamond and T. J. Case, editors. Community Ecology. Harper and Row, Publishers, New York.


Christianson, A.G., J.L. Lyon, and J.W. Unsworth. 1993. Elk management in the northern region: considerations in forest plan updates or revisions. USDA Forest Service General Technician Report, INT-GTR-303.


Cissel, J.H., F.J. Swanson, and P.J. Weisburg. 1994. Landscape management using historical fire regimes: Blue River, Oregon. Ecological Applications 9(4):1217-1231.


Clark, T.W. 1984. Analysis of pine marten population organization and regulatory mechanisms in Jackson Hole, Wyoming. National Geographic Report 1975:131-143.


Clark, J. S. 1988. Effect of climate change on fire frequency in northwestern Minnesota. Nature 334:233-235.


Clark, P. J., and F. C. Evans. 1954. Distance to nearest neighbor as a measure of spatial relationships in populations. Ecology 35:445-453.


Clark, J. S. 1990. Fire and climate change during the last 750 years in northwestern Minnesota. Ecol. Monogr. 60:135-159.


Concannon, J.A. 1995. Characterizing structure, microclimate and decomposition of peatland, beachfront, and newly-logged forest edges in southeastern Alaska. Ph.D. dissertation. University of Washington, Seattle. WA.


Cooker, D.R. and D.E. Capen. 1995. Landscape-level habitat use by brown-headed cowbirds in Vermont. J. Wild. Manage. 59:631-637.


Corn, J.G. and M.G. Raphael. 1992. Habitat characteristics at marten subnivean access sites. Journal of Wildlife Management 56:442-448.


Craighead, J.J., F.C. Craighead, Jr., R.L. Ruff, and B.W. O'Gara. 1973. Home ranges and activity patterns of nonmigratory elk of the Madison Drainage herd as determined by biotelemetry. Wildlife Monographs No. 33, 50pp.


Crampton, L.H. and R.M.R. Barclay. 1996. Habitat selection by bats in fragmented and unfragmented aspen mixedwood stands of different ages. Pgs. 238-259 in R.M.R. Barclay and R.M. Brigham eds. Bats and Forests Symposium. Working Paper 23/1996, Research Branch. B.C. Ministry of Forests, Victoria, B.C.


Csuti, B., S. Polasky, P.H. Williams, R.L. Pressey, J.D. Camm, M. kershaw, A.R. Keister, B. Downs, R. Hamilton, M. Huso, and K. Sahr. 1997. A comparison of reserve selection algorithms using data on terrestrial vertebrates in Oregon. Biol. Conserv. 80:83-97.


Dale, M. R. T. 2000. Lacunarity analysis of spatial pattern: a comparison. Landscape Ecol. 15:467-468.


Dale, V.H., R.V. O’Neill, F. Southworth, and M. Pedlowski. 1994. Modeling effects of land management in the Brazilian Amazonia settlement of Rondonia. Conservation Biology 8:196-206.


Dale, M. R. T. 1999. Spatial pattern analysis in plant ecology. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.


Dale, V.H., R.V. O'Neill, F. Southworth, and M. Pedlowski. 1994. Modeling effects of land management in the Brazilian Amazonia settlement of Rondonia. Conservation Biology 8:196-206.


Danielson, B.J. 1992. Communities in a landscape: the influence of habitat heterogeneity on the interactions between species. Am. Nat. 138:1105-1120.


Danielson. B.J. 1992. Habitat selection, interspecific interactions and landscape composition. Evol. Ecol. 6:399-411.


DeCasenave, J.L., J.P. Pelotto, and J. Protomastro. 1995. Edge-interior differences in vegetation structure and composition in a chaco semiarid forest, Argentina. Forest Ecol Manag 72:61-69.


deMaynadier, P.G., and M.L. Hunter, Jr. 1995. The relationship between forest management and amphibian ecology: a review of North American literature. Environmental Review 3:320-261.


Diaz, N. M., and S. Bell. 1997. Landscape analysis and design. Pages 255-270 In K. A. Kohm and J. F. Franklin, eds. Creating a forest for the 21st century: the science of ecosystem management. Island Press, Washington, D. D.


Dodd, C.K. 1990. Effects of habitat fragmentation on a stream-dwelling species, the flathead musk turtle (Sternotherus depressus). Biol. Conserv. 54:33-45.


Doncaster, C.P., T. Micol, and S.P. Jensen. 1996. Determining minimum habitat requirements in theory and practice. Oikos 75 335-339.


Drew, G.S. 1996. Winter habitat selection by American marten (Martes americana) in Newfoundland: why old growth? Ph.D. Dissertation. Utah State University, Logan, USA. 72pp.


Dunning, J. B., B. J. Danielson, and H. R. Pulliam. 1992. Ecological processes that affect populations in complex landscapes. Oikos 65:169-175.


Edgerton, P.J. and B.R. McConnell. 1976. Diurnal temperature regimes of logged and unlogged mixed conifer stands on elk summer range. USDA Forest Service Research Note, PNW-277.


Edwards, B.F. 1973. Report on the avifauna of the Vermilion Pass burn area. Unpublished report., Parks Canada, Calgary, Alberta. 27pp.


Edwards, B.F. 1973. Report on the avifauna of the Vermilion Pass burn area. Unpublished report., Parks Canada, Calgary, Alberta. 27pp.


Ehle, D. S., and W. L. Baker. 2003. Disturbance and stand dynamics in ponderosa pine forests in Rocky Mountain National Park, USA. Ecological Monographs 73:543-566.


Eisenhart, K. 2004.


Ellingson, J. A. 1996a. Precambrian rocks. Pages 38-43 in Blair (1996).


Ellingson, J. A. 1996b. Volcanic rocks. Pages 68-69 in Blair (1996).


ESRI, Inc. 1995. Understanding GIS: The ARC/INFO method. Environmental Systems Research Institute, Inc., Redlands, California.


Fahrig, L., and G. Merriam. 1985. Habitat patch connectivity and population survival. Ecology 66:1762-1768.


Fahrig, L. 1997. Relative effects of habitat loss and fragmentation on population extinction. J. Wildl. Manage. 61:603-610.


Fahrig, L. 1992. Relative importance of spatial and temporal scales in a patchy environment. Theoretical Population Biology 41:300-314.


Fahrig, L., and G. Merriam. 1994. Conservation of fragmented populations. Conserv. Biol. 8:50-59.


Fahrig, L., and J. Paloheimo.1988b. Determinants of local population size in patchy habitats. Theoretical Population Biology 34:194-213.


Fahrig, L., and J. Paloheimo. 1988a. Effect of spatial arrangement of habitat patches on local population size. Ecology 69:468-475.


Fahrig, L., and J. Paloheimo.1988b. Determinants of local population size in patchy habitats. Theoretical Population Biology 34:194-213.


Falk, D.A., and T.W. Swetnam. 2003. Scaling rules and probability models for surface fire regimes in ponderosa pine forest. USDA Forest Service Proceedings RMRS-P-29.


Finch, D.M. and R.T. Reynolds. 1988. Bird response to understory variation and conifer succession in aspen forests. Pages 87-96 in Issues and Technology in the Management of Impacted Western Wildlife, Symp. Proc. Thorne Ecological Institute, Boulder, CO, USA.


Flannigan, M. D. and C. E. Van Wagner. 1991. Climate change and wildfire in Canada. Can. J. For. Res. 21:66-72.


Floyd, M. L., D. D. Hanna, and W. H. Romme. 2004. Historical and recent fire regimes in pinyon-juniper woodlands on Mesa Verde, Colorado, USA. Forest Ecology and Management 198:269-289.


Floyd, M. L., W. H. Romme, and D. D. Hanna. 2000. Fire history and vegetation pattern in Mesa Verde National Park, Colorado, USA. Ecological Applications 10(6):1666-1680.


Floyd-Hanna, L., A. W. Spencer, and W. H. Romme. 1996. Biotic communities of the semi-arid foothills and valleys. Pages 143-158 in R. Blair, ed. The western San Juan Mountains: their geology, ecology, and human history. University Press of Colorado, Niwot, Colorado.


Ford, E. D., and E. Renshaw. 1984. The interpretation of process from pattern using two-dimensional spectral analysis: modeling single species patterns in vegetation. Vegetatio 56:113-123.


Forman, R. T. T., and M. Godron. 1986. Landscape Ecology. Wiley, New York.


Forman, R.T.T., and M. Godron. 1981. Patches and structural components for a landscape ecology. BioScience 31:733-740.


Forman, R.T.T. 1995. Land Mosaics: the Ecology of Landscapes and Regions. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, England.


Forman, R.T.T., and M. Godron. 1981. Patches and structural components for a landscape ecology. BioScience 31:733-740.


Forsman, E. D., E. C. Meslow, and H. M. Wight. 1984. Distribution and biology of the spotted owl in Oregon. Wildl. Monogr. 87. 64 pp.


Fortin, M.-J., and P. Drapeau. 1995. Delineation of ecological boundaries: comparison of approaches and significance test. Oikos 72:323-332.


Fortin, M.-J. 1994. Edge detection algorithms for two-dimensional ecological data. Ecology 75:956-965.


Fortin, M.-J., R. J. Olson, S. Ferson, L. Iverson, C. Hunsaker, G. Edwards, D. Levine, K. Butera, and V. Klemas. 2000. Issues related to the detection of boundaries. Landscape Ecol. 15:453-466.


Foster, D. R., G. Motzkin, and B. Slater. 1998. Land-use history as long-term broad-scale disturbance: Regional forest dynamics in central New England. Ecosystems 1:96-119.


Franklin, J.F., K. Cromack, Jr., W. Dension, A. McKee, C. Maser, J. Sedell, F. Swanson, and G. Juday. 1981. Ecological characteristics of old-growth Douglas-fir forests. USDA Forest Service GTR PNW-118.


Franklin, J. F., and R. T. T. Forman. 1987. Creating landscape patterns by forest cutting: ecological consequences and principles. Landscape Ecol. 1:5-18.


Franklin, J. F. 1997. Ecosystem Management: An Overview. Pages 21-53 in M. S. Boyce and A. Haney, eds. Ecosystem Management: Applications for Sustainable Forest and Wildlife Resources. Yale University Press, New Haven & London.


Fraver, S. 1994. Vegetation responses along edge-to-interior gradients in the mixed hardwood forests of the Roanoke River basin, North Carolina. Conserv Biol 8:822-832.


Fraver, S. 1994. Vegetation responses along edge-to-interior gradients in the mixed hardwood forests of the Roanoke River basin, North Carolina. Conserv Biol 8:822-832.


Fuller, R.J. 1988. A comparison of breeding bird assemblages in two Buckinghamshire clay vale woods with different histories of management. Pgs. 53-65 in K.J. Kirby, and F.J Wright eds. Woodland Management and Research in the Clay Vale of Oxfordshire and Buckinghamshire. Nature Conservancy Council, Peterborough, UK.


Fuller, R.J. and P.A. Whittington. 1987. Breeding bird distribution within Lincolnshire ash-lime woodlands: the influence of rides and the woodland edge. Acta. Oecol-Oec. Gen. 8:259-268.


Fuller, R.J. and M.S. Warren. 1991. Conservation management in ancient and modern woodlands: responses of fauna to edges and rotations. Pgs. 445-471 in I.F. Spellerberg, F.B. Goldsmith, and M.G. Morris eds. The Scientific Management of Temperate Communities for Conservation. Blackwell Scientific Pubs., Oxford, UK.


Gardner, R. H., B. T. Milne, M. G. Turner, and R. V. O'Neill. 1987. Neutral models for the analysis of broad-scale landscape pattern. Landscape Ecol. 1:19-28.


Gardner, R. H., and R. V. O’Neill. 1991. Pattern, process and predictability: the use of neutral models for landscape analysis. Pages 289-308 In M. G. Turner and R. H. Gardner, eds. Quantitative methods in landscape ecology. Springer-Verlag, New York.


Gardner, R. H., Romme, W. H., and M. G. Turner. 1999. Predicting forest fire effects at landscape scales. In Advances in spatial modeling of forest landscape change: approaches and applications, ed. D. J. Mladenoff and W. L. Baker, pp. 163-85. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.


Gardner, R. H. 1998. Pattern, process and the analysis of spatial scales. Pages 17-34 In D. L. Petersen and V. T. Parker, eds. Ecological Scale: Theory and Applications. Columbia University Press, New York.


Gardner, R. H., R. V. O’Neill, and M. G. Turner. 1993. Ecological implications of landscape fragmentation. Pages 208-226 in S. T. A. Pickett and M. G. McDonnell, editors. Humans as components of ecosystems: subtle human effects and ecology of population areas. Springer-Verlag, New York.


Gardner, R.H., R.V. O'Neill, M.G. Turner, and V.H. Dale. 1989. Quantifiying scale-dependent effects of animal movement with simple percolation models. Landscape Ecology 3:217-227.


Gardner, R. H., W. W. Hargrove, M. G. Turner, and W. H. Romme. 1997. Climate change, disturbances and landscape dynamics. Pages 149-172 in B.H. Walker and W.L. Steffen, editors. International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme, Book Series Number 2. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.


Garner, N.P. and M.R. Vaughn. 1987. Breeding bird distribution within Lincolnshire ash-line woodlands: the influence of rides and woodland edge. Axta Oecologia 8:259-268.


Gates, J.E., and L.W. Gysel. 1978. Avian nest dispersion and fledging success in field-forest ecotones. Ecology 59:871-883.


Gates, J.E. and J.A. Mosher. 1981. A functional approach to estimating habitat edge width for birds. Am. Midl. Nat. 105:189-192.


Geiger, R. 1965. The Climate Near the Ground. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA.


Gibson, D.D. and S.O. McDonald. 1975. Bird species and habitat inventory, Alexander Archipelago, Alaska, Summer 1975. University of Alaska Museum report to USDA Forest Service.


Gilpin, M.E. and I. Hanski, editors. 1991. Metapopulation Dynamics: Empirical and Theoretical Investigations. Academic Press, San Diego, California, USA.


Godfrey, W.E. 1986. Birds of Canada. National Museum of Natural Sciences, National Museums of Canada. 595pp.


Godfryd, A. and R.I.C. Hansell. 1986. Prediction of bird-community metrics in urban woodlots. Pgs. 321-326 in J. Verner, M.L. Morrison, and C.J. Ralph eds. Wildlife 2000: Modeling Habitat Relationships of Terrestrial Vertebrates. University of Wisconsin Press, Madison, WI.


Goggans, R., R.D. Dixon, and L.C. Seminara. 1989. Habitat use by three-toed and black-backed woodpeckers: Deschutes National Forest, Oregon. Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife Nongame Wildlife Program. USDA Deschutes National Forest Technical Report #87-3-02.


Granholm, S.L. 1982. Effects of surface fires on birds and their habitat associations in coniferous forests of the Sierra Nevada, California. Ph.D. Dissertation. University of California, Davis, USA. 130pp.


Greig-Smith, P. 1983. Quantitative plant ecology. University of California Press, Berkeley.


Grissino-Mayer, H. D., W. H. Romme, M. L. Floyd, and D. D. Hanna. 2004. Climatic and human influences on fire regimes of the southern San Juan Mountains, Colorado, USA. Ecology 85:1708-1724.


Gustafson, E. J. 1998. Quantifying landscape spatial pattern: What is the state of the art? Ecosystems 1:143-156.


Gustafson, E. J., and G. R. Parker. 1992. Relationships between landcover proportion and indices of landscape spatial pattern. Landscape Ecology 7:101-110.


Haila, Y. O. Jarvinen, and R.A. Vaisanen. 1980. Effects of changing forest structure on long-term trends in bird populations in southwest Finland. Ornis Scand. 11:12-22.


Haila, Y. 1986. North European land birds in forest fragments: evidence for area effects? Pgs. 315-319 in J. Verner, M.L. Morrison, and C.J. Ralph eds. Wildlife 2000: Modeling Habitat Relationships of Terrestrial Vertebrates. University of Wisconsin Press, Madison, WI.


Haire, S.L., C.E. Bock, B.S. Cade, and B.C. Bennett. 2000. The role of landscape and habitat characteristics in limiting abundance of grassland nesting songbirds in an urban open space Landscape and Urban Planning 48(1-2): 65-82.


Hall, F. G. 1991. Large-scale patterns of forest succession as determined by remote sensing. Ecology 72:628-640.


Hansen, A.J. and D.L. Urban. 1992. Avian Response to Landscape Pattern: the role of species life histories. Landscape Ecology 7:163-180.


Hansen, A. J., S. L. Garman, B. Marks, and D. L. Urban. 1993. An approach for managing vertebrate diversity across multiple-use landscapes. Ecological Applications 3:481-496.


Hanski, I. 1983. Coexistence of competitors in a patchy environment. Ecology 64:493-500.


Hanski, I. and M. Gilpin. 1991. Metapopulation dynamics: brief history and conceptual domain. Biol. J. Linnean Soc. 42:3-16.


Hanski, I. 1983. Coexistence of competitors in a patchy environment. Ecology 64:493-500.


Hansson, L. 1983. Bird numbers across edges between mature conifer forests and clearcuts in central Sweden. Ornis Scand. 14:92-103.


Hansson, L. 1993. Vertebrate distributions relative to clear-cut edges in a boreal forest landscape. Landscape Ecology 9:105-115.


Hargis, C. D., J. A. Bissonette, and J. L. David. 1998. The behavior of landscape metrics commonly used in the study of habitat fragmentation. Landscape Ecol. 13:167-186.


Hargis, C.D., Bisonette, J.A., and D.L. Turner. 1999. The influence of forest fragmentation and landscape pattern on American martens. Journal of Applied Ecology 36:157-172.


Hargis, C. D., J. A. Bissonette, and J. L. David. 1997. Understanding measures of landscape pattern. Pages 231-264 in J. Bissonette, ed. Wildlife and Landscape Ecology. Springer-Verlag, New York.


Hargis, C.D. and D.R. McCullough. 1984. Winter diet and habitat selection of marten in Yosemite National Park. Journal of Wildlife Management 48:140-146.


Harper, J.A. 1969. Relations of elk to reforestation in the Pacific Northwest. Pgs. 67-71 in H.C. Black ed. Proc. symp. wildlife and reforestation in the Pacific Northwest. School of Forestry, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR.


Harper, J.A. and D.O. Swanson. 1970. The use of logged timberland by Roosevelt elk in southwestern Oregon. Pages 318-341 in Proc., 50th Ann. West. Assoc. Game and Fish Comm. Meeting, Boise, ID, USA.


Harris, M.A. 1982. Habitat use among woodpeckers in forest burns. M.S. Thesis, University of Montana, Missoula, USA. 62pp.


Harrison, S. 1994. Metapopulations and conservation. Pages 111-128 in Edwards, P.J., R.M. May, and N.R. Webb, editors. Large-Scale Ecology and Conservation Biology, Blackwell, Oxford, England.


Harrison, S. 1991. Local extinction in a metapopulation context: an empirical evaluation. Biol. J. Linnean Soc. 42:73-88.


Harrison, S. 1994. Metapopulations and conservation. Pages 111-128 in Edwards, P.J., R.M. May, and N.R. Webb, editors. Large-Scale Ecology and Conservation Biology, Blackwell, Oxford, England.


Hassell, M.P. and R.M. May. 1973. Stability in insect host-parasite models. Journal of Animal Ecology 42:693-726.


Haydon, D. T., J. K. Friar, and E. R. Pianka. 2000. Fire-driven dynamic mosaics in the Great Victoria Desert, Australia. Landscape Ecol. 15:407-423.


He, H.S., and D.J. Mladenoff. 1999. Spatially explicit and stochastic simulation of forest-landscape fire disturbance and succession. Ecology 80:81-99.


Heinselman, M. L. 1973. Fire in the virgin forests of the Boundary Waters Canoe Area. Minnesota. Quarternary Research 3:329-382.


Hejl, S. J. 1992. The importance of landscape patterns to bird diversity: a perspective from the northern Rocky Mountains. Northwest Environmental Journal 8: 119-137.


Helle, P. 1983. Bird communities in open ground climax forest edges in northeastern Finland. Oulanka Reports 3:47-49.


Helle, P. 1986. Bird community dynamics in a boreal forest reserve: the importance of large-scale regional trends. Ann. Zool. Fenn. 23:157-166.


Hernandez, F., D. Rollins, and R. Cantu. 1997. Evaluating evidence to identify ground-nest predators in west Texas. Wildl. Soc. Bull. 25:826-831.


Hershey, T.J. and T.A. Leege. 1982. Elk movements and habitat use on a managed forest in north-central Idaho. Idaho Dept. Fish and Game. Wildlife Bulletin No. 10. 24pp.


Hessburg, P.F., B.G. Smith, and R.B. Salter. 1999. Detecting change in forest spatial patterns from reference conditions. Ecological Applications 9:1232-1252.


Hillis, J. M., M.J. Thompson, J.E. Canfield, L.J. Lyon, C.L. Marcum, P.M. Dolan, and D.W. McCleerey. 1991. Definining elk security: the Hillis paradigm. Pages 38-54 in A.G. Christensen, L.J. Lyon, T.N. Looner, comps. Proceedings of Elk Vulnerability Symposium, 1991, April 10-12. Montana State University, Bozeman, USA.


Hinsley, S.A., R. Pakeman, P.E. Bellamy and I Newton. 1996. Influences of habitat fragmentation on bird species distributions and regional population sizes. P. Roy. Soc. Lond. B. Bio. 263:307-313.


Hitchcox, S.M. 1988. Abundance and nesting success of cavity-nesting birds in unlogged and salvage-logged burned fores in Northwestern Montana. M.S. Thesis. University of Montana, Missoula, USA. 89pp.


Hoffman, N.J. 1997. Distribution of Picoides woodpeckers in relation to habitat disturbance within the Yellowstone Area. M.S. Thesis. Montana State University, Bozeman, USA. 74pp.


Hogstad, O. 1970. On the ecology of the three-toed woodpecker, Picoides Tridactylus, outside the breeding season. Norwegian Journal of Zoology. 18:221-227.


Holt, R.D. 1987. Prey communities in patchy environments. Oikos 50:276-290.


Holyoak, C.D. and S.P. Lawler. The role of dispersal in predator-prey metapopulation dynamics. J. Anim. Ecol. 108:54-63.


Hooge, P.N., W. Eichenlaub, and E. Solomon. 1999. The animal movement program. USGS, Alaska Biological Science Center.


Hoover, J.P., M.C. Brittingham, and L.J. Goodrich. 1995. Auk 112:146-155.


Huges, L., M. Dunlop, K. French, M.R. Leishman, B. Rice, L. Rodgerson, and M. Westoby. 1994. Predicting dispersal spectra: a minimal set of hypotheses based on plant attributes. J. Ecol. 82:933-950.


Huggard, D.J. 1993. Effect of snow depth on predation and scavenging by grey wolves. J. Wildlife Manage. 57:382-388.


Hutto, R.L. 1995. Composition of bird communities following stand replacement fires in northern Rocky Mountain (USA) conifer forests. Conservation Biology 9(5):1041-1058.


Irwin, L.L. and J.M. Peek. 1983. Elk habitat use relative to forest succession in Idaho. Journal of Wildlife Management 47:664-672.


Ives, A. R. 1995. Measuring competition in a spatially heterogeneous environment. American Naturalist 146:911-936.


Jaeger, J. A. G. 2000. Landscape division, splitting index, and effective mesh size: new measures of landscape fragmentation. Landscape Ecol. 15:115-130.


Jamieson, D. W., W. H. Romme, and L. P. Somers. 1996. Biotic communities of the cool mountains. Pages 159-174 in R. Blair, ed. The western San Juan Mountains: their geology, ecology, and human history. University Press of Colorado, Niwot, Colorado.


Janzen, D.H. 1986. Can national parks survive? BioScience 36:512-512.


Johnson, E. A., and C. P. S. Larsen. 1991. Climatically induced change in fire frequency in the southern Canadian Rockies. Ecology 72:194-201.


Johnson, R.G. and S.A. Temple 1986. Assessing habitat quality for birds nesting in fragmented tallgrass prairies. Pgs. 245-249 in J. Verner, M. Morrison, and C. Ralph, eds. Wildlife 2000: Modelling Habitat Relationships of Terrestrial Vertebrates. University of Wisconsin Press, Madison, WI.


Johnson, M.P. 2000. Temporally explicit habitat ecology and the coexistence of species. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B, Biological Sciences 267:1967-1972.


Johnson, A. R., B. T. Milne, J. A. Wiens, and T. O. Crist. 1992. Animal movements and population dynamics in heterogeneous landscapes. Landscape Ecol. 7:63-75.


Johnson, R.G. and S.A. Temple 1986. Assessing habitat quality for birds nesting in fragmented tallgrass prairies. Pgs. 245-249 in J. Verner, M. Morrison, and C. Ralph, eds. Wildlife 2000: Modelling Habitat Relationships of Terrestrial Vertebrates. University of Wisconsin Press, Madison, WI.


Johnson, E. A. 1992. Fire and vegetation dynamics in the North American boreal forest. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, England.


Julander, O. and D.E. Jeffery. 1964. Deer, elk, and cattle range relations on summer range in Utah. Trans. North Amer. Wild. Nat. Res. Conf. 29:404-414.


Kapos, V. 1989. Effects of isolation on the water status of forest patches in the Brazilian amazon. J. Trop. Ecol. 5:173-185.


Kapos, V. 1989. Effects of isolation on the water status of forest patches in the Brazilian amazon. J. Trop. Ecol. 5:173-185.


Kareiva, P. 1990. Population dynamics in spatially complex environments: theory and data. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society 330:175-190.


Kareiva, P. and U. Wennergren. 1995. Connecting landscape patterns to ecosystem and population processes. Nature 373:299-302.


Kareiva. P. 1987. Habitat fragmentation and the stability of predator-prey interactions. Nature 326:388-390.


Kazworm, W.F. and T.L. Manley. 1990. Road and trail influences on grizzly bears and black bears in northwest Montana. Int. Conf. Bear Res. and Manage. 8:79-84. L. Darling and R. Archibald eds. Hemlock Printers, Victoria B.C.


Keen, R. A. 1996. Weather and Climate. Pages 113-126 in Blair (1996).


Keitt, T.H., D.L. Urban, and B.T. Milne. 1997. Detecting critical scales in fragmented landscapes. Conservation Ecol. 1(1):4. (online)


Keller, M. E., and S. H. Anderson. 1992. Avian use of habitat configurations created by forest cutting in southeastern Wyoming. The Condor 94:55-65.


Kessel, B.K. and D.D. Gibson. 1978. Status and distribution of Alaska birds. Studies in Avian Biology, No. 1, Cooper Ornithological Society, Allen Press, Lawrence, Kansas, USA. 100pp.


Keymer, J.E., P.A. Marquet, J.X. Velasco-Hernandez, and S.A. Levin. 2000. Extinction thresholds and metapopulation persistence in dynamic landscapes. The American Naturalist 156(5):478-494.


King, D.I., C.R. Griffin, and R.M. Degraaf. 1996. Effects of clearcutting on habitat use and reproductive status of the ovenbird in forested landscapes. Cons. Biol. 10:1380-1386.


King, A. W. 1997. Hierarchy theory: a guide to system structure for wildlife biologists. Pages 185-212 in J. A. Bissonette, ed. Wildlife and Landscape Ecology. Springer-Verlag, New York.


Klenner, W. and D. Huggard. 1997. Three-toed woodpecker nesting and foraging at Sicamous Creek. Pgs. 224-233 in C. Hollstedt and A. Vyse eds, Sicamous Creek silvicultural systems project: workshop proceedings. April 24-25, 1996, Kamloops, B.C. Working Paper 24/1997, Research Branch, B.C. Ministry of Forests, Victoria, B.C.


Knight, R. L., F. W. Smith, S. W. Buskirk, W. H. Romme, and W. L. Baker (editors). 2000. Forest fragmentation in the southern Rocky Mountains. University Press of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado.


Knight, D. H., and W. A. Reiners. 1999. Natural patterns in Southern Rocky Mountain landscapes and their relevance to forest management. Chapter 2 in R. L. Knight et al. (1999)


Koehler, G.M., J.A. Blakesly, and T.W. Koehler. 1990. Preserving the pine marten: management guidelines for western forests. Western Wildlands 2:31-36.


Koehler, G.M. and M.G. Hornocker. 1977. Fire effects on marten habitat in the Selway-Bitteroot Wilderness. Journal of Wildlife Management 41:500-505.


Kohm, K. A., and J. F. Franklin. 1997. Creating a Forestry for the 21st Century: The Science of Ecosystem Management. Island Press, Washington, D.C. 475 pp.


Kolasa, J., and C. D. Rollo. 1991. Introduction: The heterogeneity of heterogeneity: a glossary. Pages 1-23 In J. Kolasa and S. T. A. Pickett, eds. Ecological Heterogeneity. Springer-Verlag, New York.


Koopowitz, H. A.D. Thornhill, and M. Andersen. 1994. A general stochastic model for the prediction of biodiversity losses based on habitat conservation. Conserv. Biol. 8:425-438.


Koplin, J.R. 1969. The numerical response of woodpeckers to insect prey in a subalpine forest in Colorado. Condor 71:436-438.


Kotler, B.P. and R.D. Holt. 1989. Predation and competition: the interaction of two types of species interaction. Oikos 54:256-260.


Kotliar, N.B. and C. Melcher. 1997. Habitat selection and nesting success of olive-sided flycatchers under natural and managed disturbance regimes. U.S. Geological Survey. Biological Resources Division. Status Report.


Kotliar, N.B., S.L. Haire, and C.H. Key. 2003. Lessons from the fires of 2000: Post-fire heterogeneity in ponderosa pine forests. Pages 277-280 in USDA Forest Service Proceedings RMRS-P-29.


Kotliar, N. B., and J. A. Wiens. 1990. Multiple scales of patchiness and patch structure: a hierarchical framework for the study of heterogeneity. Oikos 59:253-260.


Kotliar, N.B., S.J. Hejl, R.L. Hutto, V.A. Saab, C.P. Melcher, and M.E. McFadzen. 2002. Effects of fire and post-fire salvage logging on avian communities in conifer-dominated forests of the western United States. Studies in Avian Biology 25: 49-64.


Kratz, T. K., K. E. Webster, C. J. Bowser, J. J. Magnuson, and B. J. Benson. 1997. The influence of landscape position on lakes in northern Wisconsin. Freshwater Biology 37:209-217.


Kremsater, L., and F.L. Bunnell. 2000. Edge effects: theory, evidence and implications to management of western North American forests. Pgs 117-153 in J.A. Rochelle, L.A. Lehmann, and J. Wisniewki, eds. Forest Fragmentation: Wildlife and Management Implications. Bill, Boston.


Kroodsma, R. L. 1982. Edge effect on breeding forest birds along a power-line corridor. Journal of Applied Ecology 19:361-370.


Krummel, J.R., R.H. Gardner, G. Sugihara, R.V. O'Neil, and P.R. Coleman. 1987. Landscape patterns in a disturbed environment. Oikos 48:321-324.


Krusic, R.A. and C.D. Neefus. 1996. Habitat associations of bat species in the White Mountain National Forest. Pgs. 185-198 in R.M.R. Barclay and R.M. Brigham eds. Bats and forests symposium. Working Paper 23/1996, Research Branch. B.C. Ministry of Forests, Victoria, B.C.


Kurki, S., A. Nikula, P. Helle, and H. Linden. 1998. Abundances of red fox and pine marten in relation to the composition of boreal forest landscapes. J. Anim. Eco. 67:874-886.


Lagro, J. A. Jr. and DeGloria, S. D. 1992. Land use dynamics within an urbanizing non-metropolitan county in New York State (USA). Landscape Ecology 7: 275-289.


LaGro, J., Jr. 1991. Assessing patch shape in landscape mosaics. Photogrammetric Eng. Remote Sens. 57:285-93.


Lamberson, R.H., R. McKelvey, B.R. Noon, and C. Voss. 1992. A dynamic analysis of Northern Spotted Owl viability in a fragmented forest landscape. Cons. Biol. 6:505-512.


Lande, R. 1987. Extinction thresholds in demographic models of territorial populations. American Naturalist 130:624-635.


Landres, P.B., P. Morgan, and F.J. Swanson. 1999. Overview of the natural variability concepts in managing ecological systems. Ecological Applications 9:1179-1188.


Laudenslayer. W.F. Jr. And R.P. Balda. 1976. Breeding bird use of a pinyon-juniper-poderosa pine ecotone. Auk 93:571-586.


Laurance, W.F. 1989. Ecological impacts of tropical fragmentation on non-flying mammals and their habitats. Ph.D. dissertation, Univ. California, Berkeley, CA.


Leckenby, D.A. 1984. Elk use and availability of cover and forage habitat components in the Blue Mountains, Northeast Oregon, 1976-1982. Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Wildlife Research Report 14, Portland, USA.


Legendre, P, and L. Legendre. 1999. Numerical Ecology, second edition. Elsevier Science, New York.


Legendre, P. 1993. Spatial autocorrelation: trouble or new paradigm? Ecology 74:1659-1673.


Legendre, P., and M.-J. Fortin. 1989. Spatial pattern and ecological analysis. Vegetatio 80:107-38.


Lehmkuhl, J. F., L. F. Ruggiero, and P. A. Hall. 1991. Landscape-scale configurations of forest fragmentation and wildlife richness and abundance in the Southern Washington Cascade Range. Pages 425-442 In L. F. Ruggiero, K. B. Aubry, A. B. Carey, and M. H. Huff, tech. coords. Wildlife and vegetation of unmanaged Douglas-fir forests. U.S. For. Serv. Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-285.


Lehmkuhl, J. F., and L. F. Ruggiero. 1991. Forest fragmentation in the Pacific Northwest and its potential effects on wildlife. Pages 35-46 In L. F. Ruggiero, K.B. Aubry, A. B. Carey, and M. H. Huff, tech. coords. Wildlife and vegetation of unmanaged Douglas-fir forests. U.S. For. Serv. Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-285.


Lehmkuhl, J. F., and M. G. Raphael. 1993. Habitat pattern around northern spotted owl locations on the Olympic Peninsula, Washington. J. Wildl. Manage. 57:302-315.


Lehmkukl, J.F. 1981. Distribution and habitat selection of elk in the north Garnet Mountains of western Montana. M.S. Thesis, University of Montana, Missoula, USA. 130pp.


Leimbruber, P., W.J. McShea, and J.H. Rappole. 1994. Predation on artificial nests in large forest blocks. J. Wildl. Manage. 58:254-260.


Leopold, A. 1933. Game Management. Charles Scribners, New York.


Lertzman, K. P., and C. J. Krebs. 1991. Gap-phase structure of a subalpine old-growth forest. Canadian J. of For. Res. 21:1730-1741.


Levenson, J.B. 1981. Woodlots as biogeographic islands in southeastern Wisconsin. Pgs. 13-29 in R.L. Burgess and D.M. Sharpe eds. Forest Island Dynamics in Man-dominated Landscapes. Springer-Verlag. New York.


Levin, S.A. 1992. The problem of pattern and scale in ecology. Ecology 73:1943-1967.


Levin, S.A. and R.T. Paine. 1974. Disturbance, patch formation, and community structure. Proceeding of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 71:2744-2747.


Levins, R. 1970. Extinctions. Pages 77-107 In M. Gertenhaber, ed. Some Mathematical Questions in Biology, vol 2. Lectures on Mathematics in the Life Sciences. Amer. Math. Soc., Providence, Rhode Island.


Li, H., and J.F. Reynolds. 1993. A new contagion index to quantify spatial patterns of landscapes. Landscape Ecol. 8:155-162.


Li, H., and J. F. Reynolds. 1995. On definition and quantification of heterogeneity. Oikos 73:280-284.


Likens, G.E., F.H. Bormann, N.M. Johnson, D.W. Fisher, and R.S. Pierce. Effects of forest cutting and herbicide treatment on nutrient budgets in the Hubbard Brook watershed ecosystem. Ecological Mogographs 40:23-47.


Lofroth, E.C. and V. Banci. 1991. Marten habitat suitability research project. Working plan. Wildlife Working Report WR-50. Min. Environ. Victoria, 27pp.


Loucks, O.L. 1970. Evolution of diversity, efficiency, and community stability. American Zoologist 10:17-25.


Lovejoy, T.E. 1986. Biological diversity. Issues Sci. Technol. 2:13-13.


Lynch, J.F., and D.F. Whigham. 1984. Effects of forest fragmentation on breeding bird communities in Maryland, USA. Biol. Conserv. 28:287-324.


Lyon, L.J. 1976. Elk use as related to characteristics of clearcuts in western Montana. USDA Forest Service, Research Paper, INT-236, 11pp.


Lyon, L.J. and J.V. Basille. 1980. Influences of timber harvesting and residue management on big game. Pages 441-453 in Symposium Proceedings: Environmental Consequences of Timber Harvesting in Rocky Mountain Coniferous Forests. USDA Forest Service General Technician Report, INT-GTR-90. 526pp.


Lyon, L.J. and J.E. Canfield. 1991. Habitat selection by Rocky Mountain elk under hunting season stress. Pages 99-105 in A.G. Christensen, L.J. Lyon, and T.N, Lonner, comps. Proceedings of Elk Vulnerability Symposium, 1991, April 10-12. Montana State University, Bozeman, USA.


MacArthur, R.H., and E.O. Wilson. 1967. The theory of island biogeography. Princeton University Press, Princeton.


Mader, H.J. Animal habitat isolation by roads and agricultural fields. Biol. Coserv. 29:81-96.


Mandelbrot, B. B. 1982. The Fractal Geometry of Nature. W. H. Freeman and Co., New York.


Marshall, W.H. 1951. Pine marten as a forest product. Journal of Forestry 49:899-905.


Martin, S.K. 1994. Feeding ecology of American martens and fishers. Pgs. 297-315 in S.W. Buskirk, A.S. Harestad, M.G. Raphael, and R.A. Powell eds. Martens, Sables, and Fishers: Biology and Conservation. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, NY.


Marzluff, J.M. and M. Restani. 1999. The effects of forest fragmentation on avian nest predation. Pgs. 155-169 in J.A. Rochelle, L.A. Lehmann, and J. Wisniewski eds. Forest Fragmentation: Wildlife and Management Implications. Brill, Boston.


Matlack, G.R. 1993. Sociological edge effects: spatial distribution of human impact in suburban forest fragmetns. Environ. Manage. 17:829-835.


Matlack, G.R. 1993. Microenvironment variation within and among forest edge sites in the

eastern united states. Biol. Conserv. 66:185-194.


Mattson, D. 1990. Human impacts on bear habitat use. Int. Conf. Bear Res. and Manage. 8:33-56. L. Darling and R. Archibald eds. Hemlock Printers, Victoria, B.C.


May, R.M. and S.K. Robinson. 1985. Population dynamics of avian brood parasitism. Am. Nat. 126:475-495.


McCaffery, K.R. and W.A. Creed. 1969. Significance of forest openings to deer in northern Wisconsin. Tech. Bull. No. 44. Dept. Natural Resources, Madison, WI.


McCarthy, P.D. and S. L. Yanoff. 2003. Biodiversity and altered fire regimes in forests and woodlands of the Rocky Mountain Division: A scientific assessment of threat, need, and opportunity. Report to The Nature Conservancy, November 2003.


McGarigal, K. 2002. Landscape pattern metrics. Volume 2, pp 1135-1142 in A. H. El-Shaarawi and W. W. Piegorsch, eds. Encyclopedia of Environmetrics. John Wiley & Sons, Chichester, England.


McGarigal, K., W,H. Romme, M. Crist., and E. T. Roworth. 2001. Cumulative effects of roads and logging on landscape structure in the San Juan Mountains, Colorado (USA). Landscape Ecology 16:327-349.


McGarigal, K. and W.C. McComb. 1995. Relationships between landscape structure and breeding birds in the Oregon coast range. Ecological Monographs 65(3):235-260.


McGarigal, K., S. A. Cushman, M. C. Neel, and E. Ene. 2002. FRAGSTATS: Spatial Pattern Analysis Program for Categorical Maps. Computer software program produced by the authors at the University of Massachusetts, Amherst. Available at the following web site: http://www.umass.edu/landeco/research/fragstats/fragstats.html


McGarigal, K., S.A. Cushman, and S. Stafford. 2000. Multivariate Statistics for Wildlife and Ecology Research. Springer, New York.


McGarigal, K., and S.A. Cushman. 2002. Comparative evaluation of experimental approaches to the study of habitat fragmentation effects. Ecol. Aplic. 12:335-345.


McGarigal, K., and B. J. Marks. 1995. FRAGSTATS: spatial pattern analysis program for quantifying landscape structure. USDA Forest Service General Technician Report, PNW-GTR-351.


McLellan, B.N. 1990. Relationships between human industrial activity and grizzly bears. Int. Conf. Bear Res. and Manage. 8:57-64. L. Darling and R. Archibald eds. Hemlock Printers, Victoria B.C.


McLellan, C.H., A.P. Dobson, D.S. Wilcove, and J.F. Lynch. 1986. Effects of forest fragmentation on new- and old-World bird communities: empirical observations and theoretical implications. Pgs. 305-313 in J. Verner, M. Morrison, and C. Ralph eds. Wildlife 2000: Modelling Habitat Relationships of Terrestrial Vertebrates. Univ. of Wisconsin Press, Madison, WI.


Merriam,G. and C. Merriam. 1980. Webster's new collegiate dictionary. G.&C. Merriam Co.


Meyer, G.A. and J.L. Pierce. 2003. Climatic controls on fire-induced sediment pulses in Yellowstone National Park and central Idaho: a long-term perspective. For. Ecol. Manage. 178: 89-104.


Miller, J. R., Schultz, T. T., Hobbs, N. T., Wilson, K. R., Schupp, D. L. and Baker, W. L. 1995. Changes in the landscape structure of a southeastern Wyoming riparian zone following shifts in stream dynamics. Biological Cons.72:371-379.


Miller, J. R., Knight, R. L., et al. 1996. Forest Roads and landscape structure in the southern Rocky Mountains. Landscape Ecology 11:115-127.


Mills, L.S. 1995. Edge effects and isolation: red-backed voles of forest remnants. Cons. Biol. 9:395-403.


Millspaugh, S. H., C. Whitlock, and P. J. Bartlein. 2000. Variations in fire frequency and climate over the past 17000 yr in central Yellowstone National Park. Geology 28:211-214.


Milne, B.T. 1991. Lessons from applying fractal models to landscape patterns. Pages 199-235 in Turner, M.G., and R.H. Gardner, editors. Quantitative methods in landscape ecology. Springer-Verlag, New York.


Minnich, R.. 1983. Fire mosaic in southern California and northern Baja California. Science 219: 1287-1294.


Mladenoff, D. J., G. E. Host, J. Boeder, and T. R. Crow. 1996. LANDIS: a spatial model of forest landscape disturbance and succession, and management. Pages 175-180 in M. F. Goodchild, L.T. Steyaert, and B.O. Parks, eds. GIS and environmental modeling: progress and research issues. GIS World Books, Fort Collins, Colorado, USA.


Mladenoff, D. J., and W. L. Baker. 1999. Development of forest and landscape modeling approaches. Pages 1-13 In Mladenoff, D. J. and W. L. Baker, eds. Spatial modeling of forest landscape change: approaches and applications. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.


Mladenoff, D. J., White, M. A., Pastor, J., and T.A. Crow. 1993. Comparing spatial pattern in unaltered old-growth and disturbed forest landscapes. Ecol. Appl. 3:294-306.


Moen, A.N. 1974. Turbulence and visualization of wind flow. Ecology 55:1420-1424.


Moller, A.P. Nest site selection across field-woodland ecotones: the effect of nest predation. Oikos 56:240-246.


Morgan, P., G.H. Aplet, J.B. Haufler, H.C. Humphries, M.M. Moore, and W.D. Wilson. 1994. Historical range of variability: a useful tool for evaluating ecosystem change. Journal of Sustainable Forestry 2:87-111.


Morgan, K. A., and J. E. Gates. 1982. Bird population patterns in forest edge and strip vegetation at Remington Farms, Maryland. J. Wildl. Manage. 46:933-944.


Morgan, P., G.H. Aplet, J.B. Haufler, H.C. Humphries, M.M. Moore, and W.D. Wilson. 1994. Historical range of variability: a useful tool for evaluating ecosystem change. Journal of Sustainable Forestry 2:87-111.


Moritz, M.A. 1997. Analyzing extreme events: Fire in Los Padres National Forest. Ecological Applications 7(4): 1252-1262.


Musick, H. B., and H. D. Grover. 1991. Image textural measures as indices of landscape pattern. Pages 289-307 in Turner, M.G., and R.H. Gardner, editors. Quantitative methods in landscape ecology. Springer-Verlag, New York.


Naiman, R. J., and H. Decamps. 1997. The ecology of interfaces: riparian zones. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 28:621-658.


Nee, S., and R. M. May. 1992. Dynamics of metapopulations: habitat destruction and competitive coexistence. Journal of Animal Ecology 61:37-40.


Nichols, J., D.W. Rose., and R. Haight. 1997. Prediction of favorable pine marten habitat on the Superior National Forest. Compiler 15(1):19-27.


Nordyke, K.A. and S.W. Buskirk. 1991. Southern red-backed vole, Clethrionomys gapperi, populations in relation to stand succession and old-growth character in the central Rocky Mountains. Canadian Field-Naturalist 105:330-334.


Noss, R. F. 1988. Effects of edge and internal patchiness on habitat use by birds in a Florida hardwood forest. Ph.D. Thesis. Univ. of Florida, Gainesville. 109 pp.


Noss, R. F., and A. Y. Cooperrider. 1994. Saving Nature's Legacy: Protecting and Restoring Biodiversity. Island Press, 416 pp.


O'Conner, R.J. and J. Faaborg. 1992. The relative abundance of the brown-headed cowbird (Molothrus ater) in relation to exterior and interior edges in forests of Missouri. Trans. Miss. Acad. Sci. 26:1-9.


O'Neill, R.V., J.R. Krummel, R.H. Gardner, G. Sugihara, B. Jackson, D.L. DeAngelis, B.T. Milne, M.G. Turner, B. Zygmunt, S.W. Christensen, V.H. Dale, and R.L. Graham. 1988. Indices of landscape pattern. Landscape Ecol. 1:153-162.


O'Neill, R.V., B.T. Milne, M.G. Turner, and R.H. Gardner. 1988. Resource utilization scale and landscape pattern. Landscape Ecol. 2:63-69.


O'Neill, R. V., C. T. Hunsaker, S. P. Timmins, B. L. Timmins, K. B. Jackson, K. B. Jones, K. H. Riitters, and J. D. Wickham. 1996. Scale problems in reporting landscape pattern at the regional scale. Landscape Ecology 1: 169-180.


O'Neill, R. V., R. H. Gardner, and M. G. Turner. 1992. A hierarchical neutral model for landscape analysis. Landscape Ecol. 7:55-61.


Oksanen, L., J. Moen and P.A. Lundberg. 1992. The time-scale problem in exploiter-victim models: does the solution lie in ratio-dependent exploitation?


Oliver, C. D., and B. C. Larson. 1990. Forest stand dynamics. New York: McGraw-Hill.


Overpeck, J. T., D. Rind, and R. Goldberg. 1990. Climate induced changes in forest disturbance and vegetation. Nature 343:51-53.


Pacala, S.W., M.P. Hassel, and R.M. May. 1990. Host parasitoid associations in patchy environments. Nature 344:150-153.


Paine, R.T. and S.A. Levin. 1981. Intertidal landscape: disturbance and the dynamics of pattern. Ecological Monographs 51:145-178.


Pastor, J., Y. Cohen, and R. Moen. 1999. Generation of spatial patterns in boreal forest landscapes. Ecosystems 2:439-450.


Paton, P.W.C. 1994. The effect of edge on avian nest success: how strong is the evidence? Conserv. Biol. 8:17-26.


Pausas, J.G., M.P. Austin, and I.R. Noble. 1998. A forest simulation model for predicting eucalypt dynamics and habitat quality for arboreal marsupials. Ecological Applications 7(3):921-933.


Pearson, S.M., and R.H. Gardner. 1997. Neutral models: useful tools for understanding landscape pattern. Pages 215-230 in J. A. Bissonette, ed. Wildlife and Landscape Ecology. Springer-Verlag, New York.


Pearson, S.M., M.G. Turner, R.H. Gardner, and R.V. O'Neill. 1996. Pgs. 77-95 in R.C. Szaro, and D.W. Johnson, eds. Biodiversity in Managed Landscapes: Theory and Practice. Oxford University Press, Oxford.


Pearson, S.M., M.G. Turner, and J.B. Drake. 1999. Landscape change and habitat availability in the Southern Appalachian Highlands and Olympic Peninsula. Ecological Applications 9(4):1288-1304.


Pearson, S.M., and R.H. Gardner. 1997. Neutral models: useful tools for understanding landscape pattern. Pages 215-230 in J. A. Bissonette, ed. Wildlife and Landscape Ecology. Springer-Verlag, New York.


Pearson, S.M., M.G. Turner, and J.B. Drake. 1999. Landscape change and habitat availability in the Southern Appalachian Highlands and Olympic Peninsula. Ecological Applications 9(4):1288-1304.


Pederson, R.J., A.W. Adams, and J. Skovlin. 1979. Elk habitat use in an unlogged and logged forest environment. Wildlife Research Report No. 9, Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Portland, OR, USA. 121 pp.


Pederson, R.J., A.W. Adams, and J. Skovlin. 1980. Elk habitat use in an unlogged and logged forest environment. Wildlife Research Report No. 9, Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Portland, OR, USA. 121pp.


Perry, D. A., and M. P. Amaranthus. 1997. Disturbance, recovery, and stability. Pages 31-56 in K. A. Kohm and J. F. Franklin, eds. Creating a Forestry for the 21st Century: the Science of Ecosystem Management. Island Press, Washington, D. C.


Pfister, A.R. 1980. Postfire avian ecology in Yellowstone National Park. M.S. Thesis, Washington State University, Pullman, USA. 35pp.


Pickett, S.T.A., and P.S. White. 1985. The ecology of natural disturbance and patch dynamics. Academic Press, Orlando.


Pickover, C. A. 1990. Computers, pattern, chaos and beauty: graphics from an unseen world. New York: St. Martin’s.


Pielou, E.C. 1984. The interpretation of ecological data. Wiley, new York.


Plotnick, R. E., R. H. Gardner, and R.V. O'Neill. 1993. Lacunarity indices as measures of landscape texture. Landscape Ecol. 8:201-211.


Plotnick, R. E., R. H. Gardner, W. W. Hargrove, K. Pretegaard, and M. Perlmutter.1996. Lacunarity analysis: a general technique for the analysis of spatial patterns. Phys. Rev. E53:5461-5468.


Powell, R.A. 1994. Structure and spacing of Martes populations. Pages 101-121 in S.W. Buskirk, A.S. Harestad, M.G. Raphael, and R.A. Powell, editors. Martens, Sables, and Fishers: Biology and Conservation. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, New York, USA.


Pulliam, R. H., and B. J. Danielson. 1991. Sources, sinks, and habitat selection: a landscape perspective on population dynamics. The American Naturalist 137:50-66.


Pulliam, H. R. 1988. Sources, sinks, and population regulation. The American Naturalist 132:652-661.


Pulliam, R. H., J. B. Dunning, Jr., and J. Liu. 1992. Population dynamics in complex landscapes: a case study. Ecological Applications 2:165-177.


Pulliam, R. H., and B. J. Danielson. 1991. Sources, sinks, and habitat selection: a landscape perspective on population dynamics. The American Naturalist 137:50-66.


Ranney, J. W., M. C. Bruner, and J. B. Levenson. 1981. The importance of edge in the structure and dynamics of forest islands. Pages 67-94 In R. L. Burgess and D. M. Sharpe, eds. Forest Island Dynamics in Man-Dominated Landscapes. Springer-Verlag, New York.


Raphael, M.G., M.L. Morrison, and M.P. Yoder-Williams. 1987. Breeding bird populations during twenty-five years of postfire succession in the Sierra Nevada. Condor 89:614-626.


Raphael, M.G. and L.L.C. Jones. 1997. Characteristics of resting and denning sites of American martens in central Oregon and western Washington. Pages 146-165 in G. Proulx, H. Bryant, and P.M. Woodard, editors. Martes: Taxonomy, Ecology, Techniques and Management. Provincial Museum of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada.


Raphael, M.G., M.L. Morrison, and M.P. Yoder-Williams. 1987. Breeding bird populations during twenty-five years of postfire succession in the Sierra Nevada. Condor 89:614-626.


Reed, R. A., J. Johnson-Barnard, and W. L. Baker. 1996. Fragmentation of a forested Rocky Mountain landscape, 1950-1993. Biological Cons. 75:267-277.


Reeves, G. H., L. E. Benda, K. M. Burnett, P. A. Bisson, J. R. Sedell. 1995. A disturbance-based ecosystem approach to maintaining and restoring freshwater habitats of evolutionary significant units of anadromous Salmonids in the Pacific Northwest. American Fisheries Society Symposium 17:334-349.


Reiners, W. A., and G. E. Lang. 1979. Vegetation patterns and processes in the balsam fir zone, White Mountains, New Hampshire. Ecology 60:403-417.


Remmert, H. 1987. Sukzessionen im Klimax-System. Verh GFO Bd XVI:27-34


Renkin, R. A., and D. G. Despain. 1992. Fuel moisture, forest type and lightning-caused fire in Yellowstone National Park. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 22:37-45.


Renshaw, E., and E. D. Ford. 1984. The description of spatial pattern using two-dimensional spectral analysis. Vegetatio 56:75-85.


Reynolds, H.G. 1966. Use of openings in spruce-fir forests of Arizona by elk, deer, and cattle. USDA Forest Service Research Note, RM-66.


Reynolds, H.G. 1962. Effects of logging on understory vegetation and deer use in a ponderosa pine forest of Arizona. USDA Forest Service Research Note, RM-80.


Ricklefs, R. E. 1987. Community diversity: relative roles of local and regional processes. Science 235:167-171.


Riitters, K. H., R. V. O'Neill, C. T. Hunsaker, J. D. Wickham, D. H. Yankee, S. P. Timmins, K. B. Jones, and B. L. Jackson. 1995. A factor analysis of landscape pattern and structure metrics. Landscape Ecol. 10: 23-40.


Ripple, W. J., G. A. Bradshaw, and T. A. Spies. 1991. Measuring forest landscape structures in the Cascade Range of Oregon, USA. Biological Cons. 57:73-88.


Ritchie, M. E. 1997. Populations in a landscape context: sources, sinks, and metapopulations. Pages 160-184 in J. A. Bissonette, ed. Wildlife and Landscape Ecology. Springer-Verlag, New York.


Robbins, C. S., D. K. Dawson, and B. A. Dowell. 1989. Habitat area requirements of breeding forest birds of the middle Atlantic states. Wildlife Monographs 103. 34 pp.


Robbins, C.S. 1979. Effect of forest fragmentation on bird populations. Pgs. 198-212 in R.M. DeGraaf and K.E. Evans, eds. Management of north central and northeastern forests for non-game birds: workshop proceedings. USDA Forest Service GTR NC-51.


Robbins, C.S. 1979. Effect of forest fragmentation on bird populations. Pgs. 198-212 in R.M. DeGraaf and K.E. Evans, eds. Management of north central and northeastern forests for non-game birds: workshop proceedings. USDA Forest Service GTR NC-51.


Robertson, F. Dale, Chief, U. S. Forest Service. 1992. Ecosystems Management of the National Forests and Grasslands. Washington, D. C.: USFS, USDA, June 4.


Robinson, S.K. 1992. Ecolog and Conservation of Neotropicall Migrant Landbirds, Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington D.C.


Robinson, S. K., F. R. Thompson III, T. M. Donovan, D. R. Whitehead, and F. Faaborg. 1995. Regional forest fragmentation and the nesting success of migratory birds. Science 267:1987-1990.


Rochelle, J.A., L.A. Lehmann, and J. Wisniewki, eds. 1999. Forest Fragmentation: Wildlife and Management Implications. Bill, Boston.


Romme, W. H., and D. G. Despain. 1989. Historical perspective on the Yellowstone fires of 1988. BioScience 39:695-699.


Romme, W. H., M. L. Floyd, D. Hanna, and J. S. Redders. 2000. Using natural disturbance regimes to mitigate forest fragmentation in the central Rocky Mountains. Pages 377-400 in Knight, R. L., F. W. Smith, S. W. Buskirk, W. H. Romme, and W. L. Baker, editors. Forest fragmentation in the southern Rocky Mountains. University Press of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado.


Romme, W. H., M. G. Turner, L. L. Wallace, and J. S. Walker. 1995. Aspen, elk, and fire in northern Yellowstone National Park. Ecology 76:2097-2106.


Romme, W. H., D. W. Jamieson, J. S. Redder, G. Bigsby, J. P. Lindsey, D. Kendall, R. Cowen, T. Kreykes, A. W. Spencer, and J. C. Ortega. 1992. Old growth forests of the San Juan National Forest in southwestern Colorado. Pages 154-165 in Kaufmann, M. R., W. H. Moir, and R. L. Bassett, Technical Coordinators. Old-growth forests in the southwest and Rocky Mountain regions: Proceedings of a workshop. USDA For. Serv. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-213.


Romme, W. H., M. L. Floyd, D. Hanna, and J. S. Redders. 2003. Landscape Condition Analysis for the South Central Highlands Section, southwestern Colorado & Northern New Mexico. Draft Final Report to the U.S. Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Region, Lakewood, Colorado.


Romme, W. H., and D. G. Knight. 1982. Landscape diversity: the concept applied to Yellowstone Park. BioScience 32:664-670.


Romme, W.H. and D.H. Knight. 1981. Fire frequency and subalpine forest succession along a topographic gradient in Wyoming. Ecology 62:319-326.


Romme, W. H. 1982. Fire and Landscape Diversity in Sub-Alpine Forests of Yellowstone National Park. Ecol. Monogr. 52(2):199-221.


Romme, W. H., M. G. Turner, L. L. Wallace, and J. S. Walker. 1995. Aspen, elk, and fire in northern Yellowstone National Park. Ecology 76:2097-2106.


Romme, W.H., E.H. Everham, L.E. Frelich, M.A. Moritz, and R.E. Sparks. 1998. Are large, infrequent disturbances qualitatively different from small, frequent disturbances? Ecosystems 1: 524-534.


Roovers, L. M., and A. J. Rebertus. 1993. Stand dynamics and conservation of an old-growth Engelmann spruce-subalpine fir forest in Colorado. Natural Areas J. 13:256-267.


Rosenberg, K. V., and M. G. Raphael. 1986. Effects of forest fragmentation on vertebrates in Douglas-fir forest. Pages 263-272 In J. Verner, M. l. Morrison, and C. J. Ralph, eds. Wildlife 2000: modeling habitat relationships of terrestrial vertebrates. University of Wisconsin Press, Madison.


Rothermel, R. C. 1972. A mathematical model for predicting fire spread in wild land fuels. USDA Forest Service, General Technical Report INT-115.


Roughgarden, J., S. D. Gaines, and S. W. Pacala. 1987. Supply side ecology: the role of physical transport processes. Pages 491-518 In J. H. R. Gee and P. S. Giller, eds. Organization of Communities Past and Present. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford.


Rudnicky, T.C. and M.L. Hunter. 1993. Reversing the fragmentation perspective: effects of clear-cut size on bird species richness in main. Ecol. Appl. 3:357-366.


Ruggerio, R.L., K. Aubry, S. Burskirk, L.J. Lyon, and W. Zielinski. 1994. American Marten, Fisher, Lynx, and Wolverine in the western United States. USDA Forest Service General Technical Report, RM-GTR-254.


Ryan, K.C. 1991. Vegetation and wildland fire: Implications of global climate change. Environment International 17 (2-3): 169-175.


Rykiel, E. J., R. N. Coulson, P. J. H. Sharpe, T. F. H. Allen, and R. O. Flamm. 1988. Disturbance propagation by bark beetles as an episodic landscape phenomenon. Landscape Ecol. 1:129-139.

Samson, F. B., and F. L. Knopf. 1996. Ecosystem Management: Selected Readings. Springer-Verlag, New York. 462 pp.


Sabelis, M.W. and O. Diekmann. 1988. Overall population stability despite local extinction: the stabilizing influence of prey dispersal from predator-invaded patches. Theor. Popul. Biol. 34:169-176.


Saunders, D. A., R. J. Hobbs, and C. R. Margules. 1991. Biological consequences of ecosystem fragmentation: a review. Cons. Biol. 5:18-32.


Saupé, D. 1988. Algorithms for random fractals. In The Science of Fractal images, pp.71-113. Edited by H.-O. Peitgen, and D. Saupé. Springer, New York.


Saura, S. 2002. Effects of minimum mapping unit on land cover data spatial configuration and composition. International Journal of Remote Sensing In Press.


Savage, M., P.M. Brown, and J. Feddema. 1996. The role of climate in a pine forest regeneration pulse in the southwestern United States. Ecoscience 3(3): 310-318.


Schieck, J., K. Lertzman, B. Nyberg and R. Page. 1995. Effects of patch size on birds in old-growth montane forests. Conserv. Biol. 9:1072-1084.


Schmiegelow, F. K. A., C. S. Machtans, and S. J. Hannon. 1997. Are boreal birds resilient to forest fragmentation? An experimental study of short-term community responses. Ecology 78:1914-1932.


Schultz, T.T. and L.A. Joyce. 1992. A Spatial application of a Marten habitat model. Wildlife Society Bulletin 20:74-83.


Schumaker, N. 1996. Using landscape indices to predict habitat connectivity. Ecology 77(4): 1210-1225.


Scott, M.D. 1978. Elk habitat selection and use on an undisturbed summer range in western Montana during summer and fall. M.S. Thesis, Univeristy of Montana, Missoula, USA. 98pp.


Scott, V.E., G.L. Crouch, and J.A. Whelan. 1982. Response of birds and small mammals to clearcutting in a subalpine forest in central Colorado. USDA, Forest Service, Research Note, RM-422. 6pp.


Sherburne S.S. and J.A. Bisonette. 1994. Marten subnivean access point use: response to subnivean prey levels. Journal of Wildlife Management 58:400-405.


Sherriff, R. L. 2004. The historic range of variability of ponderosa pine in the northern Colorado Front Range: past fire types and fire effects. PhD dissertation, University of Colorado - Boulder.


Short, L.L. 1974. Habits and Interactions of North American three-toed woodpeckers (Picoides Articus and Picoides Tridactylus). American Museum Novitates. No. 2547:1-42.


Silverman, B.W. 1986. Density estimation for statistics and data analysis. Chapman and Hall. London, U.K. 175 pages.


Simon, T.L. 1980. An ecological study of the marten in the Tahoe National Forest, California. MS Thesis. California State University, Sacramento, USA. 143pp.


Sisk, T.D. and C.R. Margules. 1993. Habitat edges and restoration: methods for quantifying edge effects and predicting the results of restoration efforts. Pgs. 57-59 in D.A. Saunders, R.J. Hobbs and P.R. Ehrlich eds. Nature conservation 3: reconstruction 1987. Avian habitat relationships in Pinyon-juniper woodlands. Wilson Bull. 93:413-431.


Small, M.F. and M.L. Hunter. 1988. Forest fragmentation and avian nest predation in forested landscapes. Oecologia 76:62-64.


Smith, D.M. 1962. The practice of Silviculture. John Wiley and Sons, New York.


Sousa, W.P. 1984. The role of disturbance in natural communities: Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 15:353-391.


Soutiere, E.C. 1979. Effects of timber harvesting on marten in Maine. Journal of Wildlife Management 43:850-860.


Spencer, A. W., and W. H. Romme. 1996. Ecological patterns. Pages 129-142 in R. Blair, ed. The western San Juan Mountains: their geology, ecology, and human history. University Press of Colorado, Niwot, Colorado.


Spencer, W.D., R.H. Barrett, and W.J. Zielinski. 1983. Marten habitat preferences in the northern Sierra Nevada. Journal of Wildlife Management 47:181-1186.


Spies, T. 1997. Forest stand structure, composition, and function in K. A. Kohm and J. F. Franklin, editors. The Science of Ecosystem Management: Creating a Forestry for the 21st Century. Island Press, Washington, D.C. 475 pp.


Spies, T. A., W. J. Ripple, and G. A. Bradshaw. 1994. Dynamics and pattern of a managed Coniferous forest landscape in Oregon. Ecol. Appl. 4:555-568.


Sprugel, D. G. 1991. Disturbance, equilibrium, and environmental variability: what is 'natural' vegetation in a changing environment? Biol. Conserv. 58:1-18.


Strelke, W.K. and J.G. Dickson. 1980. Effects of forest clear-cut edge on breeding birds in east Texas. J. Wildl. Manage. 44:559-567.


Swanson, F.J., J.A. Jones, D.O. Wallin, and J.H. Cissel. 1994. Natural variability implications for ecosystem management. Pages 89-106 in M.E. Jenson and P.S. Bourgeron, technical editors. Eastside Forest Ecosystem Health Assessment. Volume Ii: Ecosystem Management: Principles and Applications. USDA Forest Service General Technical Report, PNW-GTR-318.


Swanson, F. J., J. F. Franklin, and J. R. Sedell. 1990. Landscape patterns, disturbance, and management in the Pacific Northwest, USA. Pages 191-213 In T. S. Zohneveld and R. T. T. Forman, eds. Changing Landscapes: An Ecological Perspective. Springer-Verlag, New York.


Swanson, F. J., T. K. Kratz, N. Caine, and R. G. Woodmansee. 1988. Landform effects on ecosystem patterns and processes. BioScience 38:92-98.


Swanson, F.J., J.A. Jones, D.O. Wallin, and J.H. Cissel. 1994. Natural variability implications for ecosystem management. Pages 89-106 in M.E. Jenson and P.S. Bourgeron, technical editors. Eastside Forest Ecosystem Health Assessment. Volume Ii: Ecosystem Management: Principles and Applications. USDA Forest Service General Technical Report, PNW-GTR-318.


Swetnam, T. W., C. D. Allen, and J. L. Betancourt. 1999. Applied historical ecology: using the past to manage the future. Ecological Applications 9(4):1189-1206.


Swetnam, T.W. and C.H. Baisan. 1996. Historical fire regime patterns in the southwestern United States since 1700. In: Allen, C.D. (ed.), fire effects in southwestern forests. Proceedings of the 2nd La Mesa fire symposium. US Forest Service Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-286. pp. 11-32.


Swetnam, T.W., C.H. Baisan, P.M. Brown, A.C. Caprio, and R. Touchan. 1990. Natural disturbance and the steady-state in high-altitude balsam fir forests. Science 211: 390-393.


Swetnam, T. W., and J. L. Betancourt. 1998. Mesoscale disturbance and ecological response to decadal climatic variability in the American Southwest. Journal of Climate 11:3128-3147.


Swetnam, T.W., C.D. Allen, and J.L. Betancourt. 1999. Applied historical ecology: using the past to manage the future. Ecological Applications 9(4):1189-1206.


Taylor, S.L. 1993. Thermodynamics and energetics of resting site use by the American marten (Martes americana). M.S. Thesis. University of Wyoming, Laramie, USA. 84pp.


Taylor, D.L. and J.W.J. Barmore. 1980. Post-fire succession of avifauna in coniferous forests of Yellowstone and Grand Teton National Parks, Wyoming. Pages 130-145 in Management of Western Forests and Grasslands for Nongame Birds. USDA Forest Service General Technician Report, INT-GTR-86.


Temple, S. A. 1986. Predicting impacts of habitat fragmentation on forest birds: a comparison of two models. Pages 301-304 In J. Verner, M. L. Morrison, and C. J. Ralph, eds. Wildlife 2000: Modeling Habitat Relationships of Terrestrial Vertebrates. Univ. of Wisconsin Press, Madison, WI.


Temple, S.A. and J.R. Carey. 1988. Modelling dynamics of habitat-interior bird populations in fragmented landscapes. Cons. Biol. 2:340-347.


Terborgh, J. 1976. Island biogeogrpahy and conservation: strategy and limitations. Science 193:1029-1030.


Terborgh, J. W. 1989. Where Have all the Birds Gone? Princeton University Press, New Jersey. 207 pp.


Terborgh, J.W. 1992. Why american songbirds are vanishing. Sci. Am. 266:98-104.


Thill, R.E., P.F. Folliott, and D.R. Patton. 1983. Deer and elk forage production in Arizona mixed conifer forests. Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station Research Paper, RM-248.


Thomas, J.W. and D.E. Toweill, editors. 1982. Elk of North America: Ecology and Management. Stackpole Books, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, USA.


Thomas, J.W., H.J. Black, R.J. Scherzinger, and R.J. Pederson. 1979. Deer and elk. Pages 104-127 in J.W. Thomas, editor. Wildlife Habitats in Managed Forests-the Blue Mountains of Oregon and Washington. USDA Forest Service Handbook 553.


Thomas, J.W., editor. 1979. Wildlife Habitats in Managed Forests: The Blue Mountains of Oregon and Washington. USDA Forest Service Handbook 553. 512pp.


Thomas, J. W. 1994. New directions for the Forest Service. USDA Forest Service, Washington D.C.. Statement before the Subcommittee on National Parks, Forests and Public Lands and the Subcommittee on Oversight and Investigations, Committee on Natural Resources, U.S. House of Representatives, February 3, 1994.


Thomas, J.W., editor. 1979. Wildlife Habitats in Managed Forests: The Blue Mountains of Oregon and Washington. USDA Forest Service Handbook 553. 512pp.


Thompson, I.D. and P.W. Colgan. 1994. Marten activity in uncut and logged boreal forests in Ontario. Journal of Wildlife Management 58:280-288.


Tilman, D. 1994. Competition and biodiversity in spatially structured habitats. Ecology 75: 2-16.


Tilman, D., C.L. Lehman, and P. Kareiva. 1997. Population dynamics in spatial habitats. Pages 3-20 in D. Tilman and P. Karieva, editors. Spatial Ecology: the Role of Space in Population Dynamics and Interspecific Interactions. Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey, USA.


Tilman, D. 1990. Constraints and tradeoffs: toward a predictive theory of competition and succession. Oikos 58:3-15.


Tilman, D. 1994. Competition and biodiversity in spatially structured habitats. Ecology 75: 2-16.


Toone, R.A. 1993. New locations for three-toed woodpeckers at the Manti-La Sal National Forest, with comments on survey methods. Utah Ornithological Society Vol 9. no. 1.


Torn, M.S. and J.S. Fried. 1992. Predicting the impacts of global warming on wildland fire. Climate Change 21(3): 257-274.


Towery, R.K., Jr. 1984. Wildlife habitat requirements. Pages 73-209 in R.L. Hoover and D.L. Wills, editors. Managing Forest Lands for Wildlife. Colorado Division of Wildlife, Denver, USA. 459 pp.


Trail, P.W. and L.F. Baptista. 1993. The impact of brown-headed cowbird parasitism on populations of the Nuttall white-crowned sparrow. Conserv. Biol. 7:309-315.


Trzcinski, M. K., L. Fahrig, and G. Merriam. 1999. Independent effects of forest cover and fragmentation on the distribution of forest breeding birds. Ecological Applications 9:586-593.


Turner, M.G., W.H. Romme, R.H. Gardner, R.V. O'Neil, and T.K. Kratz. 1993. A revised concept of landscape equilibrium: disturbance and stability on scaled landscapes. Landscape Ecology 8(3): 213-227.


Turner, M.G., W.L. Baker, C.J. Peterson, and R.K. Peet. 1998. Factors influencing succession: lessons from large, infrequent natural disturbances. Ecosystems 1: 511-523.


Turner, M. G. 1990. Spatial and temporal analysis of landscape patterns. Landscape Ecol. 4:21-30.


Turner, M.G., W.H. Romme, R.H. Gardner, and W.W. Hargrove. 1997. Effects of fire size and pattern on early succession in Yellowstone National Park. Ecol. Monogr. 67(4): 411-433.


Turner, M. G., Gardner, R. H., and O'Neill, R. V. 2001. Landscape Ecology in Theory

and Practice. Springer-Verlag, New York, NY.


Turner, M. G., R. V. O'Neill, R. H. Gardner, and B. T. Milne. 1989b. Effects of changing spatial scale on the analysis of landscape structures. Landscape Ecology 3:153-162.


Turner, M.G., W.H. Romme. 1994. Landscape Dynamics in crown fire Ecosystems. Landscape Ecology 9:59-77.


Turner, M. G. 1989. Landscape Ecology: The effect of pattern on process. Annual Review of Ecological Systems 20:171-197.


Turner, M. G., R. H. Gardner, V. H. Dale, and R. V. O'Neill. 1989. Predicting the spread of disturbance across heterogeneous landscapes. Oikos 55:121-129.


Turner, M. G., and R. H. Gardner (eds). 1991. Quantitative Methods in Landscape Ecology. Springer, New York.


Turner, M.G., W.W. Hargrove, R.H. Gardner, and W.H. Romme. 1994. Effects of fire on landscape heterogeneity in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming. J. Veg. Sci. 5: 731-742.


Turner, M.G., W.H. Romme, R.H. Gardner, and W.W. Hargrove. 1997. Effects of fire size and pattern on early succession in Yellowstone National Park. Ecological Monographs 67(4): 411-433.


Turner, M. G., Gardner, R. H., and O'Neill, R. V. 2001. Landscape Ecology in Theory

and Practice. Springer-Verlag, New York, NY.


Turner, M. G., W. H. Romme, R. H. Gardner, R. V. O'Neill, and T. K. Kratz. 1993. A revised concept of landscape equilibrium: disturbance and stability on scaled landscapes. Landscape Ecol. 8:213-227.


Turner, M. G. 1989. Landscape ecology: the effect of pattern on process. Ann. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 20:171-197.


Turner, S. J., R. V. O'Neill, and W. Conley. 1991. Pattern and scale: statistics for landscape ecology. Pages 17-49 in Turner, M. G. and R. H. Gardner, eds. Quantitative methods in landscape ecology. Springer-Verlag, New York.


Tyser, R.W. and C.A. Worley. 1992. Alien flora in grasslands adjacent to road and trail corridors in glacier national park, Montana (USA). Conserv. Biol. 6:253-262.


U.S.D.I. Bureau of Land Management. 1993. Ecosystem management fact sheet. February. Lakewood, Colorado.


U.S.D.I. Fish and Wildlife Service. 1994. Defining our future: An ecosystem approach to fish and wildlife conservation. Fish and Wildlife News April, 2-3.


Unsworth, J.W., L. Kuck, E.O. Garton, and B.R. Butterfield. 1998. Elk habitat selection on the Clearwater National Forest, Idaho. Journal of Wildlife Management 62:1255-1263.


Urban, D.L., R.V. O'Neill, and H.H. Shugart, Jr. 1987. Landscape Ecology: a heirarchical perspective can help scienctists understand spatial patterns. BioScience 37:119-127.


Usher, M.B., J.P. Field, and S.E. Bedford. 1993. Biogeography and diversity of ground-dwelling arthropods in farm woodlands. Biodiversity Letters. 1:54-62.


Vaisanen, R. A., O. Jarvinen, and P. Rauhala. 1986. How are extensive, human-caused habitat alterations expressed on the scale of local bird populations in boreal forest? Ornis Scandinavica 17:282-292.


Van Apeldoorn, R.C., W.T. Oostenbrink, A Van Winden, and F.F. Vanderzee. 1992. Effects of habitat fragmentation on the bank vole, Clethrionomys glareolus, in an agricultural landscape. Oikos 65:265-274.


Vander Haegen, W.M., and R.M. Degraaf. 1996. Predation on artificial nests in forested riparian buffer strips. Journal of Wildlife Management. 60:542-550.


Vandermeer, J.H. Generalized models of two-species interactions: a graphical analysis. Ecology 54:809-818.


Veblen, T. T. 2000. Disturbance patterns in southern Rocky Mountain forests. Pages 31-54 in Knight, R. L., F. W. Smith, S. W. Buskirk, W. H. Romme, and W. L. Baker, editors. Forest fragmentation in the southern Rocky Mountains. University Press of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado.


Veblen, T. T., K. S. Hadley, M. S. Reid, and A. J. Rebertus. 1989. Blowdown and stand development in a Colorado subalpine forest. Canadian J. For. Res. 19:1218-1225.


Veblen, T. T., K. S. Hadley, M. S. Reid, and A. J. Rebertus. 1991a. The response of subalpine forests to spruce beetle outbreak in Colorado. Ecology 72:213-231.


Veblen, T. T., K. S. Hadley, and M. S. Reid. 1991b. Disturbance and stand development of a Colorado subalpine forest. J. of Biogeography 18:707-716.


Vickholm, M. 1983. Avioten reunojen vaikutus metsalinnustoon. M.Sc. thesis, Dept. Zoology. Univ. Helsinki.


Villard, M.-A., M. K. Trzcinski, and G. Merriam. 1999. Fragmentation effects on forest birds: Relative influence of woodland cover and configuration on landscape occupancy. Conservation Biology 13: 774-783.


Villard, P. 1994. Foraging behavior of black-backed and three-toed woodpeckers during spring and summer in a Canadian boreal forest. Canadian Journal of Zoology 72(1):1957-1959.


Vogt, K. A., J. C. Gordon, J. P. Wargo, and others. 1997. Ecosystems: Balancing Science with Management. Springer-Verlag, New York. 470 pp.


Vos, C.C. and J.P. Chardon. Effects of habitat fragmentation and road density on the distribution pattern of the moor frog Rana arvalis. Journal of Applied Ecology 35:44-56.


Wagner, R.G. 1980. Natural regeneration at the edges of Abies amabilis zone clearcuts on the west slope of the central Washington Cascades, M.Sc. thesis. University of Washington, Seattle, WA.



Waldrip, G.P. and J.H. Shaw. 1980. Movements and habitat use by cow and calf elk at the Wichita Mountains National Wildlife Refuge. Pages 177-184 in M.S. Boyce and L.D. Hayden-Wing, editors. North American Elk: Ecology, Behavior and Management. University of Wyoming, Laramie, USA.


Wallin, D.O., F.J. Swanson, B. Marks, J. H. Cissel, and J. Kertis. 1996. Comparison of managed and pre-settlement landscape dynamics in forests of the Pacific Northwest, USA. Forest Ecology and Management 85:291-309.


Wallin, D. O., F. J. Swanson, B. Marks, J. H. Cissel, and J. Kertis. 1996. Comparison of managed and pre-settlement landscape dynamics in forests of the Pacific Northwest, USA. Forest Ecology and Management 85:291-309.


Warren, M.S. 1985. The influence of shade on butterly numbers in woodland rides, with special reference to the wood white Leptidae sinapsis. Biol. Conserv. 33:147-164.


Warren, M.S., E. Pollard, and T.J. Bibby. 1986. Annual and long-term changes in a population of the wood white butterfly Leptidae sinapsis. J. Anim. Ecol. 55:707-719.


Watt, A. S. 1947. Pattern and process in the plant community. J. Ecol. 35:1-22.


Weckwerth, R.P. and V.D. Hawley. 1962. Marten food habits and population fluctuations in Montana. Journal of Wildlife Management 26:55-74.


Weger, E. 1977. Evaluation of winter use of second-growth stands by black-tailed deer. B.S.F. thesis, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, B.C.


Wegner, J.F. and R. Merriam. 1979. Movement by birds and small mammals between a wood and surrounding farmland habitat. Journal ofApplied Ecology 16:349-358.


Weins, J.A. 1997. Metapopulation dynamics and landscape ecology. Pages 43-62 in I. Hanski and M.E. Gilpin, editors. Metapopulation Biology: Ecology, Genetics and Evolution. Academic Press, San Diego, California, USA.


Weir, J.M.H., K.J. Chapman, and E.A. Johnson. 1995. Wildland fire management and the fire regime in the southern Canadian Rockies. Pgs. 275-280 in J.K. brown, R.W. Mutch, C.W. Spoon and R.H. Wakimoto, technical coordinators. Proceedings:Slymposium on Fire in Wilderness and Park Management. USDA Forest Service INT-GTR-320.


Whitcomb, R. F., J. F. Lynch, M. K. Klimkiewwicz, C. S. Robbins, B. L. Whitcomb, and D. Bystrak. 1981. Effects of forest fragmentation on avifauna of the eastern deciduous forest. Pages 125-205 in R. L. Burgess and D. M. Sharpe, editors. Forest island dynamics in man-dominated landscapes. Springer-Verlag, New York.


White, P. S., and S. T. A. Pickett. 1985. Natural disturbance and patch dynamics: an introduction. Chapter 1 in Pickett and White 1985.


White, P.S., and J. Harrod. 1997. Disturbance and diversity in a landscape context. Chapter 5 in J. Bissonette, ed. Wildlife and Landscape Ecology: Effects of Pattern and Scale: New York: Springer-Verlag.


White, P.S., and J. Harrod. 1997. Disturbance and diversity in a landscape context. Pages 128-159 in J. A. Bissonette, ed. Wildlife and Landscape Ecology. Springer-Verlag, New York.


Wiens, J.A. 1976. Population responses to patchy environments. Ann. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 7:81-120.


Wiens, J. A., C. S. Crawford, and J. R. Gosz. 1985. Boundary dynamics: a conceptual framework for studying landscape ecosystems. Oikos 45: 421-427.


Wiens, J. A. 1981. Scale problems in avian censusing. Studies in Avian Biology Number 6:513-521.


Wiens, J. A. 1989a. Spatial scaling in ecology. Functional Ecology 3:385-397.


Wiens, J. A. 1989b. The Ecology of Bird Communities: Volume 2, Processes and Variations. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. 316 pp.


Wiens, J. A. 1989b. The Ecology of Bird Communities: Volume 2, Processes and Variations. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. 316 pp.


Wiens, J.A. 1976. Population responses to patchy environments. Ann. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 7:81-120.


Wiens, J. A. 1976. Population responses to patchy environments. Ann. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 7:81-120.


Wiens, J. A. 1992. What is landscape ecology, really? Landscape Ecology 7:149-150.


Wiens, J. A. 1995. Habitat fragmentation: island versus landscape perspectives on bird conservation. The Ibis 137:S97-104.


Wiens, J. A., and J. T. Rotenberry. 1981. Habitat associations and community structure of birds in shrubsteppe environments. Ecological Monographs 51:21-41.


Wiens, J.A. 1997. Metapopulation dynamics and landscape ecology. Pages 43-62 in I. Hanski and M.E. Gilpin, editors. Metapopulation Biology: Ecology, Genetics and Evolution. Academic Press, San Diego, California, USA.


Wiens, J. A., and B. T. Milne. 1989. Scaling of 'landscapes' in landscape ecology, or, landscape ecology from a beetle's perspective. Landscape Ecology 3:87-96.


Wiens, J. A., C. S. Crawford, and J. R. Gosz. 1985. Boundary dynamics: a conceptual framework for studying landscape ecosystems. Oikos 45: 421-427.


Wiens, J. A., J. T. Rotenberry, and B. Van Horne. 1986. A lesson in the limitations of field experiments: shrubsteppe birds and habitat alteration. Ecology 67:365-376.


Wiens, J. A., and J. T. Rotenberry. 1985. Response of breeding passerine birds to rangeland alteration in a North American shrubsteppe locality. Journal of Applied Ecology 22:655-668.


Wiens, J. A., and J. T. Rotenberry. 1981. Habitat associations and community structure of birds in shrubsteppe environments. Ecological Monographs 51:21-41.


Wiens, J. A., J. T. Rotenberry, and B. Van Horne. 1986. A lesson in the limitations of field experiments: shrubsteppe birds and habitat alteration. Ecology 67:365-376.


Wiens, J. A., J. T. Rotenberry, and B. Van Horne. 1987. Habitat occupancy configurations of North American shrubsteppe birds: the effects of spatial scale. Oikos 48:132-147.


Wiens, J. A., N. C. Stenseth, B. Van Horne, and R. A. Ims. 1993. Ecological mechanisms and landscape ecology. Oikos 66:369-380.


Wiens, J. A., N. C. Stenseth, B. Van Horne, and R. A. Ims. 1993. Ecological mechanisms and landscape ecology. Oikos 66:369-380.


Wilcove, D. S. 1985. Nest predation in forest tracts and the decline of migratory songbirds. Ecology 66:1211-1214.


Wilcox, B. A., and D. D. Murphy. 1985. Conservation strategy: the effects of fragmentation on extinction. American Naturalist 125:879-887.


Willms, W.D. 1972. The influence of forest edge, elevation, aspect, site index, and roads on deer use of logged and mature forest, northern Vancouver Island. M.Sc. thesis. University of British Columbia, Vancouver, B.C.


Wilms, W.D. 1971. The influence of forest edge, elevation, aspect, site index, and roads on deer use of logged and mature forest, northern Vancouver Island. M.S. Thesis. University of British Columbia, Vancouver, B.C. 184 pp.


Wilson, E.O. 1999. The diversity of life. Norton, W.W. & Co.,Inc.


Wimberly, M. C., T. A. Spies, C. J. Long, and C. Whitlock. 2000. Simulating historical variability in the amount of old forests in the Oregon Coast Range. Conservation Biology 14:167-180.


With, K. A., R. H. Gardner, and M. G. Turner. 1997. Landscape connectivity and population distributions in heterogeneous environments. Oikos 78: 151-169.


With, K.A. 1994. Using fractal analysis to assess how species perceive landscape structure. Landscape Ecol. 9:25-36.


With, K. A., and T. O. Crist. 1995. Critical thresholds in species’ responses to landscape structure. Ecology 76:2446-2459.


With, K.A. 1999. Is landscape connectivity necessary and sufficient for wildlife management, Pages 97-115 in J.P. Rochelle, L.A. Lehman, and J. Wisniewski, editors. Forest Fragmentation: Wildlife and Management Implications. Brill Press, Netherlands.


With, K. A. 1997. The application of neutral landscape models in conservation biology. Conservation Biology 11:1069-1080.


With, K. A., and A. W. King. 2001. Analysis of landscape sources and sinks: the effect of spatial pattern on avian demography. Biological Conservation 100: 75-88.


With, K.A., R.H. Gardner, and M.G. Turner. Landscape connectivity and population distributions in heterogeneous environments. Oikos 78:151-169.


With, K. A. 1997. The application of neutral landscape models in conservation biology. Conservation Biology 11:1069-1080.


With, K. A., and A.W. King. 1999b. Extinction thresholds for species in fractal landscapes. Conservation Biology 13:314-326.


With, K. A., and A.W. King. 1999a. Dispersal success on fractal landscapes: a consequence of lacunarity thresholds. Landscape Ecology 14:73-82.


With, K. A., and A.W. King. 1997. The use and misuse of neutral landscape models in ecology. Oikos 79:219-229.


With, K. A., and T. O. Crist. 1995. Critical thresholds in species' responses to landscape structure. Ecology 76:2446-2459.


Witmer, G.W., M. Wisdom, E.P. Harshman, R.J. Anderson, C. Carey, M.P. Kuttel, I.D.J. Luman, J.A. Rochelle, R.W. Scharpf, and D. Smithey. 1985. Deer and elk. Pages 231-258 in E.R. Brown, editor. Management of Wildlife and Fish Habitats in Forests of Western Oregon and Washington. USDA Forest Service, Publ. No. R6-F&WL-192-1985.


Witmer, G.W. 1981. Roosevelt elk habitat use in the Oregon Coast Range. Ph.D. Dissertation, Oregon State University, Corvallis, USA. 104pp.


Witmer, G.W. and D.S. deCalesta. 1983. Habitat use by female Roosevelt elk in the Oregon Coast Range. J. Wild. Manage. 47:933-939.


Wondzell, S.M., G.L. Cunningham, and D. Bachelet. 1996. Relationships between landforms, geomorphic processes, and plant communities on a watershed in the northern Chihuahuan Desert. Landscape Ecology 11:351-363.


Worton, B. J. 1989. Kernel methods for estimating the utilization distribution in home-range studies. Ecology 70:164-168.


Wu, R. 1999. Fire history and forest structure in the mixed conifer forests of southwest Colorado. M.S. Thesis, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO.


Wu, J. G., W. Shen, W. Sun, and P. T. Tueller. Accepted. Empirical patterns of the effects of changing scale on landscape metrics. Landscape Ecology.


Yaeger, L.E. 1955. Two woodpecker populations in relation to environmental change. Condor 57:148-153.


Yahner, R.H. 1983. Seasonal dynamics, habitat relationships, and management of avifauna in farmstead shelterbelts. J. Wildl. Manage. 47:85-104.


Yahner, R. H., and D. P. Scott. 1988. Effects of forest fragmentation on depredation of artificial nests. Journal of Wildlife Management 52:158-161.


Yahner, R.H. 1988. Feeding-site use by red squirrels, Tamiasciurus husonicus, in a marginal habitat in Pennsylvania. Can. Field Nat. 101:586-589.


Yahner, R.H. 1986. Microhabitat use by small mammals in even-aged forest stands. Am. Midl. Nat. 115:174-180.


Young, A.G. 1988. The ecological significance of the edge effect in a fragmented forest landscape. M.Sc. thesis, University of Aukland, New Zealand.


Young, A. and N. Mitchell. Microclimate and vegetation edge effects in a fragmented podocarp-broadleaf forest in New Zealand. Biol. Conserv. 67:63-72.


Zen, M.C. 1995. Growth and morphological development of Douglas-fir and western hemlock on forest edges in the Alberni Valley, B.C. M.Sc. thesis, University of Washington, Seattle, WA.