Ph.D. Economics - University of Minnesota, June 1965
M.A. Mathematics - University of Minnesota, July 1962
B.A. Mathematics - Oberlin College, June 1959
Summer Intern, Council of Economic Advisers, Summer 1962
Assistant Professor, University of Pennsylvania, 1965-71
Visiting Professor, Institute of Social and Economic Research, Osaka University, 1967-68, May-July, 1993
Associate Professor, University of Waterloo, 1970-71
Professor, University of Waterloo, 1971-73
Lecturer, University of California/San Diego, 1973-75
Professor, University of Massachusetts/Amherst, 1975-present
Chairman, Department of Economics, University of Massachusetts/Amherst, 1976-1981
Visiting Scholar, Department of Economics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1981-1982
Invited Professor, University of Paris I (Pantheon-Sorbonne), February--March, 1989
Fellow, Swedish Collegium for Advanced Study in the Social Sciences, Fall, 1995
Culture and Economic Behavior
Japan and the Japanese Economy
honors & awards
Inducted into Phi Kappa Phi Honors Society (University of Massachusetts Chapter), 1992.
University Medal, Mongolian National University, Ulaan Baatar, 1994.
The Order of Merit, Poznan University of Economics, Poznan, 2000.
Recognition for distinguished academic outreach, University of Massachusetts, 2002.
Ford Foundation Doctoral Dissertation Fellowship, 1964-65.
"The Economic Costs of the Composition of Unemployment," with L. R. Klein, 1965-66 (Department of
Health, Education and Welfare).
"Demand, Adjustment Processes and Economic Growth," with E. Burmeister and R. A. Pollack, 1967-69 (National Science
Faculty Research Grant, Social Science Research Council, 1967-68.
Summer Research Fellowship, University of Waterloo, 1971.
Research Grant, Academic Senate, University of California/San Diego, 1974-75.
Faculty Research Grants for Conference Travel, Research Council, University of Massachusetts/Amherst, 1987 and 1989.
USIA grants for lecturing on microeconomic theory to college professors and teachers: Poland (Summer, 1992), Mongolia
Five College grant for 3-semester seminar to study comparative economic behaviors across cultural boundaries (1996-97).
Fulbright Senior Specialist grant to give a series of lectures in Mongolia (Summer, 2002).
Fulbright Senior Specialist grant to give lectures and consult in Taiwan (Summer, 2007).
Static Demand Theory (New York: Macmillan, 1970).
Choice and the Quality of Life (Beverly Hills: SAGE, 1979).
Analysis Without Measurement (Cambridge: Cambridge University
Walrasian Microeconomics: An Introduction to the Economic Theory
of Market Behavior (Reading: Addison-Wesley, 1988).
The Walrasian Vision of the Microeconomy: An Elementary Exposition
of the Structure of Modern General Equilibrium Theory (Ann
Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1989). Mongolian
edition, R. Enkhbat trans. (Ulaanbaatar: JICOM, 2002).
Time, Ignorance, and Uncertainty in Economic Models (Ann Arbor:
University of Michigan Press, 1998).
Unmeasured Information and the Methodology of Social Scientific
Inquiry (Boston: Kluwer, 2001).
An Introduction to the Economic Theory of Market Behavior:
Microeconomics from a Walrasian Perspective (Cheltenham:
Elgar, 2006). (A considerably revised and expanded version of
Culture and Economic Explanation: Economics in the US and Japan
(London: Routledge, forthcoming).
Cherry Blossoms and Eagles: Some Comparisons between Japan and the
United States (unpublished ms., 2005).
At the Edge of Camelot: Debating Economics in Turbulent Times (New
York: Oxford University Press, 2011).
"A Note on the Constancy of the Marginal Utility of Income,"
International Economic Review 8 (1967), pp. 128-130.
"A Note on the Differentiability of Consumer Demand Functions," Econometrica 36 (1968), pp. 415-418.
"A General Approach to the Theory of Supply," Economic Studies
Quarterly 19 (1968), pp. 32-45.
"On the Possibility of the General Linear Economic Model," with L.
R. Klein, Economic Models, Estimation and Risk Programming, K. Fox
et al eds. (Berlin: Springer, 1969), pp. 343-364.
"Political Structure and System and the Notion of Logical
Completeness," General Systems 14 (1969), pp. 169-171.
"Demand and Exchange Analysis in the Absence of Integrability
Conditions," Preferences, Utility and Demand, J. S. Chipman,
eds. (New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1971), pp. 254-270.
"A Simple Approach to Existence and Uniqueness of Competitive Equilibria," American Economic Review 57 (1972), pp. 432-437.
"On the Analysis of Systems Containing Non-Quantifiable Elements," Kybernetes 2 (1973), pp. 147-155.
"An Approach to a Unified Micro-Macro Economic Model," with S. Weintraub, Kyklos 27 (1974), pp. 482-510.
"Occupational Preferences and the Quality of Life," with J. E.
Russo, Social Science Research 6 (1977), pp. 363-378.
"On Not Quantifying the Non-Quantifiable," Journal of Post
Keynesian Economics 1, no. 2 (Winter 1978-79), pp. 113-128.
"Reply to Brennan," Journal of Post Keynesian Economics
2 no. 2 (Winter 1979-80), pp. 270-273.
"Profits, Optimality, and the Social Division of Labor in the
Firm," with H. Gintis, Sociological Economics, L. Levy-Garboua,
ed. (London: SAGE Publications, 1979), pp. 269-297.
"The Formal Structure of Argument in Professor Apter's Choice and
the Politics of Allocation," Political Methodology 6 no. 2
(1979), pp. 217-235.
"Capital and Walrasian Equilibrium," Demand, Equilibrium and
Trade, A. Ingham and A. M. Ulph eds. (London: Macmillan, 1984),
"Alternatives to Equilibrium Analysis," Eastern Economic Journal
11 (1985), pp. 404-421.
"The Role of Formalism in Economic Thought, with Illustration
Drawn From the Analysis of Social Interaction in the Firm," The
Reconstruction of Economic Theory, P. Mirowski ed. (Boston:
Kluwer-Nijhoff, 1986), pp. 137-177.
"Potential Surprise, Potential Confirmation and Probability,"
Journal of Post Keynesian Economics 9 no. 1 (Fall, 1986),
"More on the Distinction between Potential Confirmation and
Probability," Journal of Post Keynesian Economics 10 no. 1
(Fall, 1987), pp. 65-83.
"The Efficiency of Organizational Forms," Economie Appliquee
40 (1987), pp. 539-564.
"Integrability of Demand," The New Palgrave v. 2, J. Eatwell et al
eds. (London: Macmillan, 1987), pp. 872-873. Rewritten for The New
Palgrave (revised ed.), S. Durlauf and L. Blume eds. (London:
Palgrave Macmillan, forthcoming).
"Supply Functions," The New Palgrave v. 4, J. Eatwell et al eds.
(London: Macmillan, 1987), pp. 554-556.
"Notions of Closeness in a Nonquantifiable Setting," Social
Science Research 17 (1988), pp. 1-28.
"The 'Comparative Statics' of the Shackle-Vickers Approach to
Decision-Making in Ignorance," Studies in the Economics of
Uncertainty, T. B. Fomby and T. K. Seo, eds. (New York:
Springer, 1989), pp. 21-43.
"Attitudes, Rationality and Consumer Demand," Inflation and Income
Distribution in Capitalist Crisis, J. A. Kregel, ed. (London:
Macmillan, 1989), pp. 133-153.
"The Shackle-Vickers Approach to Decision-Making in Ignorance,"
Journal of Post Keynesian Economics 12 no. 2 (Winter, 1989-90),
Editor's "Introduction" to a symposium in honor of Douglas
Vickers, Journal of Post Keynesian Economics 12 no. 2
(Winter, 1989-90), pp. 201-202.
"The Firm under Conditions of Ignorance and Historical Time,"
Journal of Post Keynesian Economics 13 no. 1 (Fall, 1990),
"Institutionally Determined Parameters in Economic Equations," Économie Appliquée 43 (1990), pp. 35-52.
"Unity of Subject-Matter in the Teaching of Intermediate
Microeconomic Theory," Journal of Economic Education 22 (1991),
"Aggregation and the Analysis of Markets," Review of Political
Economy 3 (1991), pp. 220-231.
"In Defense of Formalization in Economics," Methodus 3 no. 1
(June, 1991), pp. 17-24. Reprinted in Tales of Narcissus: The Looking
Glass of Economic Science, C. Freedman and R. Szostak, eds. (New
York: Nova Science: 2003), pp. 85-91.
"The Role of Empirical Analysis in the Investigation of Situations
Involving Ignorance and Historical Time," Eastern Economic Journal
17 (1991), pp. 297-303.
"Our Mad Rush to Measure: How Did We Get into This Mess?" Methodus
3 no. 2 (December, 1991), pp. 18-26.
"The Structure of Authority in the Firm," Journal of Economic
Behavior and Organization 19 (1992), pp. 41-67.
Letter to the Editor, Methodus 4 no. 2 (December, 1992),
"Operationality in the Shackle-Vickers Approach to Decision-Making
in Ignorance," Journal of Post Keynesian Economics 15 no. 2
(Winter, 1992-93), pp. 229-254.
"Some Notes on the Role of History and the Definition of
Hysteresis and Related Concepts in Economic Analysis," Journal of
Post Keynesian Economics 15 no. 3 (Spring, 1993), pp. 323-345.
"Effort and Efficiency in the Neoclassical Firm," Review of
Political Economy 6 (1994), pp. 62-71.
"Simultaneous Economic Behavior under Conditions of Ignorance and
Historical Time," Measurement, Quantification and Economic
Analysis: Numeracy in Economics, I. Rima, ed. (London: Routledge,
1995), pp. 379-395.
"Participatory Decision-Making in the Firm," Journal of Economic
Behavior and Organization 26 (1995), pp. 221-236.
"Analysis with Ordinal Measurement," Employment, Economic Growth
and the Tyranny of the Market: Essays in Honour of Paul Davidson,
v. 2, P. Arestis, ed. (Cheltenham: Elgar, 1996), pp. 37-54.
"The Misuse of Measurement in Economics," Metroeconomica 49 (1998),
"Participation and the Location of Decision-Making in the Firm,"
Journal of Comparative Economics 27 (1999), pp. 150-167.
"Hysteresis and the Modeling of Economic Phenomena," Review of
Political Economy 11 (1999), pp. 171-181.
"Western Economics and the Economy of Japan," Journal of Post
Keynesian Economics v. 21, no. 3 (Spring, 1999), pp. 503-521.
"Reply to Thiruvadanthai," Journal of Post Keynesian
Economics v. 22, n. 4 (Summer, 2000), pp. 653-658.
"Profit Maximization and the Japanese Firm: A Reply to Coffey
and Tomlinson," Journal of Post Keysesian Economics 26, no. 4
(Summer, 2004), pp. 745-750.
"Methodological Individualism and the Walrasian Tatonnement,"
Journal of Economic and Social Research 1 (1999), pp. 5-33.
"The Demand for Money in an Uncertain World," Economics as an
Art of Thought, P.E. Earl and S.F. Frowen, eds. (London:
Routledge, 2000), pp. 269-298.
"Economics and the Principle of Uniformity," Economia Politica
17 (2000), pp. 237-252. Reprinted in Time in Economic Theory, v. II,
S. Zamagni and E. Agliardi, eds. (Cheltenham: Elgar, 2004), pp. 132-
"Culture and the Explanation of Choice Behavior," Theory and
Decision 48 (2000), pp. 241-262.
"Explaining the Japanese Economic Miracle," Japan and the World
Economy 13 (2001), pp. 303-319.
"The Significance, Success, and Failure of Microeconomic Theory,"
Journal of Post Keynesian Economics 24, no. 1 (Fall, 2001),
"'What Are the Questions?'" Journal of Post Keynesian Economics
25, no. 1 (Fall 2002), pp. 51-68.
"Why Mathematics in Economics?" Journal of Post Keynesian Economics
25, no. 4 (Summer, 2003), pp. 561-574.
"Equilibrium and Nonequilibrium," Elgar Companion to Post Keynesian
Economics, J. E. King, ed. (Cheltenham: Elgar, 2003), pp. 126-131.
"The Role of Optimization in Economics," Optimization and Optimal
Control, P.M. Pardalos, I. Tseveedorj, and R. Enkhbat, eds.
(Singapore: World Scientific Publishing, 2003), pp. 141-153.
"Economic Explanation, Ordinality, and the Adequacy of Analytic
Specification," with P. Skott, Journal of Economic Methodology,
11(2004), pp. 437-453.
"Cultural Variation in the Theory of the Firm," Journal of Post
Keynesian Economics 28, no. 2 (Winter, 2005-06), pp. 277-293.
"The Workings of the Japanese Economy," Crisis or Recovery in Japan:
State and Industrial Economy, D. Bailey, D. Coffey, and P. Tomlinson,
eds. (Cheltenham: Elgar, 2007), pp. 9-30.
"Exercises in Futility: Post-War Auto-Trade Negotiations between the
United states and Japan," with M.J. Nikomarov, The Japanese Economy,
35 (2008), pp. 29-58.
"On the Analytical and Methodological Significance of Microeconomic Theory,"
Review of Radical Political Economics 40 (2008), pp. 324-330.
"The Current Non-Status of General Equilibrium Theory," Review of Economic
Design 14 (2010), pp. 203-219.
"The Need to Restructure and Downsize in the Firm," (unpublished
"Rule Complexity and Response, and the Organization of the Firm,"
"The Implicit Assumption Requirements of Model building in Economics,"