IPM MESSAGES 2012 You can also call in to 508.295.2212 ext. 60.
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IPM Message July 18, 2012
Some growers are reporting heavy infestations regarding fruit inspection and CFW pressure. Talking with the Ent lab, that concurs with what they are finding. "Most bogs have nothing but 1 in 10 will have a big (heavy) infestation similar to your numbers. We can't say whether the dead eggs are from the whole egglaying period or just the last week but where there is pressure it continues, new eggs continue to be laid." They also caution to remember NO more Altacor now that it is after 7/15! Delegate can be used for Spag but do not exceed 19.5 oz per acre per season. The Ent lab has gotten several calls about cranberry weevil so if you are still sweeping, you may be seeing these as well. Belay can be used but only after the bees are gone as it is highly toxic. Check for handler restrictions for this insecticide as some handlers are prohibiting its use. Lorsban continues to be a poor choice for most bogs as weevils are resistant to this OP.
I have gotten a few calls about applying Callisto. You are permitted only 2 applications total to the bog area. This counts whether applied by boom, chemigation or any combination of application methods. Even if you only apply 4 oz/A each time (thus staying under the 16 oz/A limit), you can only make 2 applications. If you chemigated Callisto and If a portion of your bog did not get treated for some reason (blocked head, etc) and you have weed escapes, you can spot-treat that portion of bog. You should carefully note this in your pesticide records so it does not read as 3 applications to the same piece. Callisto has a 45-day PHI. Poast has a 60-day PHI.
Treatments for fairy ring can go out in July. Ferbam is used but must be applied by July 31 and can only be used once. Treat 3 ft beyond the advancing ring of dying vines and 2 feet within the line. Sul-Po-Mag or K-Mag can be used to help vines recover mid-August through October. Remember that Abound and Indar are considered high risk materials for resistance development; rotate other fungicides into your schedule as needed.
IPM Message July 6, 2012
Cranberry fruitworm egg-laying is likely on the decline in most areas; first and second sprays have already gone out on most bogs. Reports on Spag flight indicate it is declining as well. Treatments with compounds other than Confirm or Intrepid (e.g. Delegate) go out 10-14 days after peak flight, typically mid-to-late July. Oriental beetle adults are likely at peak flight with numbers now declining. It is a small beetle, just over a ½ inch long, color patterns vary greatly from light brown to black. This warm winter allowed for much feeding damage; dead spots are evidence of their damage. Consider applications of imidacloprid products such as Admire in a few weeks. A soil drench treatment is recommended for OB. Earlier applications are better than late ones as the insecticide is most effective when present prior to or at egg hatch. Highly toxic to bees! So wait for pollinators to leave the bog.
We have received questions about tank mixing with Altacor. We have not tested Altacor in a jar test with other pesticides. Growers have mixed it with Bravo and with Manzate without problem, but you must have agitation throughout the application. If you have different experiences with mixtures than that listed in the chart that was sent out with the last newsletter, PLEASE let me (Hilary) know.
Scouting for fruitworm eggs typically starts 1 week after the second treatment. However, if you have had low pressure and want to save some money on a second spray, you can scout for viable orange-lined eggs after the first spray and only spray when the numbers trigger a spray. Randomly pick 50 berries/Acre with a minimum of 200 berries per management system. Look in the calyx end (opposite the stem end) for the eggs (photo on right show a viable orange-lined egg). A microscope (even one with low magnification) is helpful for ID’ing the status of the eggs.
You can only spray Callisto twice per season, no matter what rate you use for each application. It has a 45-day PHI. You must wait a minimum of 14 days between applications. With QuinStar, you must wait at least 30 days between applications. Most handlers have a 100-day PHI for QuinStar but check with yours to be sure.
IPM Message June 29, 2012
Just some reminders from the Ent lab on using Altacor since it is a good choice for first fruitworm sprays. It works by causing paralysis of the insect by sustained contraction of the muscles. It has low toxicity to beneficials, especially pollinators. Please note: It will not function as a rescue spray against large larvae. It is most effective against small larvae. It works best in well-timed systems (low rinse times are required for efficacy). Other bolded selections (in the Chart Book) for fruitworm management include Delegate, Diazinon, Intrepid and Sevin. Although Altacor may be a great choice in the overall picture of things, it is not the best choice for every situation. If you have questions about choosing a compound, contact the Ent Lab.
Bravo sprays are also going out now. We have not tested Altacor in a jar test with other pesticides. The general thought would be NOT to mix these two, certainly not until we have more experience with using Altacor. On State Bog, we sprayed Altacor on Thursday late AM and are waiting until Friday PM to put out Bravo. If you mix Bravo with Delegate, keep the mixture constantly agitated to prevent the pesticides from falling out of solution. If you have different experiences with mixtures than that list in the chart that was sent out with the last newsletter, PLEASE let me (Hilary) know. This information was based solely on jar tests done in the lab and there is a chance pesticides may behave differently in actual chemigation systems.
Again, I do apologize for any confusion that resulted from my misspeech regarding Altacor on the IPM message (phone) for June 13. Altacor IS bee-safe. The web site information is and has been correct; I misspoke when transferring the web announcement to the phone.
IPM Message June 26, 2012
Second generation black-headed fireworm is active during bloom. The timing for BHF is 2 weeks after the ONSET of flight if using growth regulators like Confirm or Intrepid (and again 10 days later). For other insecticides, including Delegate and Avaunt, apply 10 days after peak flight, which is usually during bloom.
Many cultivars have reached 50% oob already. See page 15 of the Chart Book on calculating %oob. Timing of this spray is critical. The timing is 0-7 days after 50% oob for ST, EB and BL and 7-9 days for Howes. Your second treatment (if you are planning on this) goes out 10 days later. Fruit inspection starts 1 week after the second treatment.
Handlers have various restrictions regarding use patterns for several pesticides. Be sure to consult with your handler to keep in compliance. For example (according to lists issued in the spring), for Ocean Spray export processed fruit, Lorsban and Orthene cannot be used after scattered bloom or June 22, whichever comes first. Altacor cannot be used after July 15. Fresh fruit export has similar restrictions plus no Sevin after June 15 or scattered bloom, whichever is first and no Bravo after July 15. There are more restrictions on these lists and changes may have occurred since the lists I have in hand were distributed so be sure to verify what is permissible for your handler before applying pesticides.
I do apologize for the error in speech that I made regarding Altacor on the IPM message (phone) for June 13. Altacor IS bee-safe. The web site information is and has been correct; I misspoke when making the phone announcement. I am sorry for any confusion this may have caused. HS
IPM Message June 18, 2012
Altacor is a new bee-safe insecticide for Sparganothis fruitworm, fireworm and cranberry fruitworm. Target EGGS as they are hatching and SMALL larvae, not larger larvae. Short rinse times (<6 min) are necessary for good coverage. It is expensive ($50/acre), but is longer lasting than some other compounds. 2 apps at 4.5 oz are allowed. Restricted use after July 15 by some handlers. We are evaluating whether this will be a great 1st fruitworm option at 50% out of bloom, but for early varieties only (note that for the later Howes, we still adhere to the old recommendation of the first application timed at 7-9 days after 50% out of bloom).
IPM Message June 13, 2012
First fungicides are going out now (or have been applied for advanced bogs).
We are looking for bogs with Poverty Grass and Phragmites. If you have either of these weeds, please contact Hilary at ext 21, firstname.lastname@example.org or Chelsea at ext 27 email@example.com. If you are using Poast, be careful of your blooms as the crop oil that is mixed with the herbicide can injure sensitive blossoms.
The season is ahead in many locations and very slow in others. We have seen a wide range of growth and flowering stages out on the bogs. Some are barely at 5% open blossom and other sites have pinheads and bigger. To properly time cranberry fruitworm (CFW) sprays, the biggest point is to know what stage YOUR bog is at with respect to %OUT-OF-BLOOM. This can sometimes be confused with %IN-BLOOM, which is used to time FUNGICIDE and/or FERTILIZER applications. CFW sprays should go out at 50% OUT-of-bloom (0-7 days) for all varieties except Howes (apply 7-9 days after 50% OOB). Refer to Page 15 in the 2012 Chart Book for directions on calculating %OOB. You should get at least one (but 2 is better) sampling BEFORE 50% and then one sampling after.
A reminder that Altacor is not intended for use as a clean-up spray. It is NOT effective against large caterpillars or adults. It is meant to be used as an ovacide, which kills eggs. It is effective against the eggs of Spag and cranberry fruitworm. So, it is really important to know what stage of the life cycle is out on your bog before making an insecticide application. These materials are quite expensive and should be used wisely for both environmental and economic reasons. If you choose to use Altacor, your system should be 6 minutes or less and this is the only compound that has NO bee toxicity.
It is probably too late to be spraying for cranberry weevil (eggs are in the pods already) and for spag larvae. Spag adults are flying and have been for about 1 week. If treating with Intrepid or Confirm, apply 3 weeks after moth flight begins and again 10-14 days later. Conventional insecticides are applied 10-14 days after PEAK flight.
Many sites have green spanworm moths flying. This is notable in that the numbers are higher than usually seen. Even sites that have been well managed have some moths flying. Control efforts target the larvae, not the adult moths. Likely the eggs laid this year will not hatch until next spring.
Grub damage is high in some locations. The Ent lab has gotten many reports of problems. This may be related to the warm winter. Oriental Beetle is out there and infestations continue to spread. The adults for OB, cranberry root grub and white grub are out there now. Like Altacor, Admire (imidacloprid) also targets the EGGS, not the adults. Applications (soil drenches) are usually made late July but with the advanced season, applications may need to go out a few weeks earlier. Be careful with bees with this product.
IPM Message June 8, 2012
Weevil are out and laying eggs in flower pods. If you need to treat for any insects, be careful as the bees are out.
Blackheaded fireworm larve and adults have been spotted. Spag moths are flying, so if you're using non-conventional insecticides, you have missed your window.
IPM Message June 1, 2012
Pheromone traps should be out on all bogs at this time. We have traps for blackheaded fireworm, cranberry girdler and Sparganothis. Traps are used to TIME sprays to control these insects; they are not mass removal traps. Lures should be replaced about every 3 weeks (keep extras in the fridge or freezer). Check traps at least weekly; more often if counts are high. Be sure to record your counts each time. Use 1 trap for every 10 acres (of management unit) and place on the upwind side of the bog such that the pheromone will travel across the bog. Remember some non-target moths may get caught in the trap so be clear on your ID of the moths (see pix below). Intrepid and Confirm sprays go on several weeks earlier than conventional sprays. Check the Chart Book for more details. BHF moths were seen in flight earlier this week. Cutworms are full sized at this point.
If you opt to mix Callisto and Poast, be sure to provide constant agitation, otherwise some small amounts of precipitate will form.
IPM Message May 24, 2012
Between the wet spring and frost nights from 2 years ago and the same pattern in 2012, many Phythophthora samples have been coming into the Pathology lab for diagnosis. First applications for root rot control can go out now. We are at the tail-end of the first application period. Make sure you attend to any drainage problems FIRST before starting a fungicide program. Contact Frank at Ext 18 if you have further questions.
Applications for dodder control with QuinStar are going out now as well (tail-end of this window, too). To the best of our knowledge, you do not want to water the QuinStar into the soil much after application. It is a POST emergence application, so target to keep the material where the dodder seedlings are. This is typically in the canopy (since they have emerged) rather than in the soil.
The Ent lab reports that winter moth is just about finished up. Spag larvae are out; they can be 0.5 inch long at this point (but won’t get much bigger). The slate of cutworms is out there. If they are still small, it can be worth is to spray. They can get to big quite large and will still consume a lot of tissue to get to that size. Cranberry weevil counts are up there on some bogs (with a high of about 28). Avaunt is the good choice for the spring population but you could make a case for Actara if you have been spraying Avaunt for the past few years. Contact the Ent lab at ext 20 for more information. Remember Actara is restricted use and Zone II.
IPM Message May 18, 2012
Insects are out there so you should be sweeping. Reports are that folks are picking up a few of everything, but in most cases, numbers are not necessarily exceeding threshold. Be sure to sweep your own bogs to make your decisions rather than relying on what other growers are reporting. Insects are big enough to see at this point and if there are enough of them, you should consider treating ASAP.
Applications of QuinStar and Casoron have been going out for dodder control. This is the window to apply, right now if you haven’t done so already. Dodder is up, emerging, and attaching. Growers have been putting out Callisto for general weed control. If you have been applying Callisto for the past years since it’s been registered and you don’t really need to, consider taking a year off from applying Callisto. This is to minimize your risk of weeds developing resistance to Callisto, which is a real concern for us.
IPM Message May 3, 2012
With the many frosts and recent rains, many growers have not swept bogs nor have they treated. As soon as an opening appears, you should sweep your bog.
Winter moth is still tiny on cranberry but present on 1 in 10 bogs. If you are only picking up a few, let it go but if you are picking up over 10 per sweep set you should consider treating with Avaunt or Delegate. In the lab they clearly eat out cabbage heads and can do significant damage to this years crop.
If you have advanced vines (newer plantings or recently sanded areas) the winter moth larvae will advance more rapidly. One case with one inch growth had ¼" larvae that were webbing together uprights. Be sure to scout these bogs as damage could be significant. If you don't know what the winter moth larvae look like, look for holes in any blueberry or maple near the bog, many are infested with ¼" larvae!
Black-headed fireworm has been found a ½ dozen bogs as of last week. Larvae are tiny but warrant scouting if you have a history of a problem. The first gypsy moth larvae have also been reported.
We had our first report of dodder seedling emergence on April 30th. You should be looking for emerged seedlings in warm areas or where you take off fruit. Often, you must part the vines and look in the duff for the seedling (see photo). Plan Casoron applications for 7-10 days after you see the early seedlings. QuinStar applications can go out preemergence to early postemergence.
IPM Message April 23, 2012
Several confirmed sightings in sweep nets of tiny black-headed fireworm (BHF) larvae have been reported from late last week and over the weekend. Larvae are the same size as winter moth larvae (2 mm, ~1/16") except that they wriggle when touched or disturbed. This is the best (really, only) distinguishing feature at this point.
Both BHF and winter moth larvae are really exceptionally small!! but you should still sweep once the weather clears and try to see what you have on your bog.
|Left: Larva next to stem on 3rd leaf.
||Right: Larva on top of stem at leaf base.
IPM Message April 18, 2012
Winter moths are on the bog now! We now have over 12 reports of winter moth larvae found in sweep sets on sites throughout cranberry land. High counts of 15-30 were reported in Mattapoisett, Rochester, and Wareham. Several reports of 10 counts came from Plymouth sites. Other sweeps confirm counts ranging from 0-10, concentrated on the edge of the bog. Most infestations were on the edges rather than the middle but a few bogs had larvae throughout. The larvae are very small!! but they are out there. It would be wise to sweep your bog THIS WEEK to check for them. Blueberries around the bogs are loaded with winter moth larvae.
IPM Message April 17, 2012
Winter moth are now ACTIVE on the bog!
Winter moth have been found on the bog as of Saturday April 14. Counts of 4 average were reported from Onset and Middleboro. Averages of 10 were reported in Plymouth from sweeps done on Sunday. These populations were on the edges rather than the middle of the bog. Other sweeps in Middleboro and Plymouth confirm counts ranging from 0-10, concentrated on the edges of bogs. The larvae are very small!! but they are out there. Nearby blueberries were loaded with winter moth.
IPM Message April 6, 2012
Winter moth larvae are NOT on the bogs YET!!
We expect to start seeing them on the bogs in the 3rd or 4th week of April. It would be wise to sweep at least once or twice towards the end of April. Winter moth larvae are green spanworms. There is no official threshold for winter moth, but a general gauge would be 18 since it is a spanworm. These spanworm will eat the developing bud and can do substantial damage.
Winter moth larvae have hatched in the area and are actively feeding on blueberry, apples, and maples. They are tiny, about 2 mm, and are very hard to see. They feed inside the blueberry bud and often do substantial damage without being seen. Cranberry is apparently still too small for them to use as a food source, but once we reach cabbage head stage, they may appear.
There are many control options for spanworms including Avaunt (not on flow-throughs), B.t., Delegate, Intrepid, Confirm, Imidan, Lorsban, Orthene and Pyronyl. If you have a history of bad winter moth, or saw moths flying in November and December near your bog, you should consider a prophylactic spray towards the end of April. Damage may be done to the developing tips before populations can be detected.
It was reported to be a very high population year for winter moth in our area of southeastern Massachusetts. However, the early hot spell (week of 3/19-23) followed by the remarkable cold nights (3/26 on) may have caused substantial mortality. We are scouting blueberry and cranberry each week. We have been finding them at many sites with blueberry at a 5-10% infestation. We have not found any winter moth on cranberry this year YET.
Martha Sylvia, Anne Averill, Entomology, UMass Cranberry Station
There is excellent information, an updated winter moth fact sheet and links available through the UMass Landscape, Nursery and Urban Forestry Website (http://www.umassgreeninfo.org/) and the link to the landscape message gives scouting information by region including winter moth hatch info (http://www.umassgreeninfo.org/landscape_message/landscape_message.html).
Winter Moth remains the top insect of interest at this time in MA for the landscape, nursery, and forest, as well as for blueberry and apple growers. The caterpillars have now virtually all hatched on the North Shore, greater Boston area, South Shore and Rhode Island. They still lag behind on Cape Cod due to cooler climate at this time of year but will be very active within a couple of days. Initial observations from the Elkinton lab at UMass Amherst suggests that approximately 20% of winter moth eggs (not on Cape Cod or in RI) were killed by the excessive temperatures during the third week in March and that as many as another 20% were killed by cold temperatures after hatch on the night of March 26. However, there were millions of eggs over-wintering on host trees in MA this past winter and now the many remaining yet tiny caterpillars are actively finding and feeding on the foliage and flower buds of those plants experiencing early bud opening. Some tiny caterpillars are still seen sitting on the trunks of trees waiting for warmer weather to venture up to the canopy. The warmer temperatures predicted for this week should drive this process quickly. Oak buds are still rather tight and therefore not available to the caterpillars but apple, blueberry, lilac, birches, and all maples are well-enough along to provide food for these caterpillars.
For infested plants with opened or opening buds, a spray of Bacillus thuringiensis Kurstaki (B.t.K.) can be quite effective. However, B.t. needs to be ingested by the caterpillars to be effective and if the foliage is not yet near to being fully expanded, then wait for that to happen. Otherwise, the new foliage material that appears over the next several days, after spraying B.t., will not be covered with B.t. thus allowing the caterpillars more leaf surface to damage before ingesting the pesticide. An application of a product that contains Spinosad as the active ingredient should provide excellent results at this time or in the coming weeks during the caterpillar feeding stage. Many pyrethroid insecticides are labeled for caterpillars as well. Avoid spraying apples and crabapples with Spinosad or pyrethroid products if they are in bloom. Pyrethroids can be very harsh on pollinators, such as bees. Spinosad products are toxic to bees at the time of application but this threat diminishes significantly 24 hours after application.
Reported by Robert D. Childs, Extension Entomologist, Plant, Soil and Insect Sciences Department, UMass, Amherst
IPM Message March 15, 2012
Since the first few months of the year have been warmer than usual, growers should be preparing for preemergence herbicide applications earlier this season. Typically herbicides are applied late March through early April. Based on the movement of many other plant species, I would recommend that preemergence applications go out before the end of March and preferably before that, if possible.
Heads are going out on many bogs in preparation for any upcoming frost protection events. It is highly recommended that you have heads in place by the 25th if not sooner. The CCCGA Frost Committee will be meeting on March 19 to assess the status of buds and determine start date for their message service. Carolyn has looked at a few buds and thus far they do not appear to have moved from their winter hardiness status. However, a quick drive around the industry indicates that the early varieties are starting to lose their full dormant color; this is normally not seen until early April.
Both Carolyn and Frank think that this is NOT a good year for late water. If you do intend to use late water, the flood should be in place before the vines green up or soon thereafter.
Our best guess is that we are about 3 weeks ahead of average.
Winter moth is expected to hatch earlier than usual, likely as early as next week (March 19) at the earliest. The Entomology lab will be monitoring blueberries, other upland areas and bogs and will make updates to this message as needed.
IPM Message January 11, 2012
Hardiness is the ability of the plant to withstand cold temperatures. In the fall, plants develop cold hardiness in response to cold temperatures (and maybe to day length changes). Because it was so warm this fall, there was concern that bud hardiness was not developing normally. On December 8-9, we exposed cut uprights with flower buds to temperatures of 10F and 0F for 5 hours. The uprights were then left in the lab at room temperature for 3 days to allow any damage symptoms to develop. Buds were then cut and examined under a dissecting scope for damage. For the cultivars Early Black, Howes, Stevens, Ben Lear, and Crimson Queen, we found no significant damage after exposure to either temperature. This indicates that by December 8, the buds had developed hardiness to at least 0F (-18C).
Temperate fruit crops have a chilling requirement - the need for exposure to some number of hours of cold conditions - in order to properly develop flower buds and fruit. This chilling exposure also contributes to the development of winter hardiness (see above). Chilling requirement for cranberry appears to be ~1700-2000 hours below 45F in MA field conditions. We are at about 750-800 currently, about 2 weeks behind average. In average years, the requirement is met by about mid-February to early-March. If temperatures remain average from this point on, chilling would be satisfied in another 45-50 days or by the last week of Feb - to first week of March.
There is a body of research that indicates that chilling may be lost in warm temperatures (generally above 55-60F). For this reason, it is prudent to guard against winter warm spells by having the bog under flood. The cold water then buffers against loss of chilling. Not having the bog under flood can also increase the risk of certain insect infestations, particularly yellow-headed fireworm.
Spring development and loss of hardiness
Once the chilling requirement is satisfied (late Feb-Early Mar), the plant is capable of beginning growth once it is exposed to enough heat units. Generally, cranberry growers remove the winter flood by mid-March. With the water removed, the plants can accumulate heat units and begin to lose hardiness. Once again, keeping the flood in place longer can be a buffer against unseasonably warm temperatures. This may be desirable since the warmer it is, the faster dormancy and hardiness are lost.
Questions? Call Carolyn x25; Hilary x21; Peter x29; or Frank x18