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middle eastern history

Jana Evans Braziel, Assistant Professor
229B Mc Micken Hall
Department of English and Comparative Literature
University of Cincinnati
ML 210069
Cincinnati, OH 45221-0069
Office # (513) 556-0834
Fax # (513) 556-5960
jana.braziel@uc.edu
evans_braziel@hotmail.com

Nov. 2, 1917 British government issued the Balfour Declaration, which promised support for Zionist aims.

December 1917 British troops led by Gen. Sir Edmund Allenby invaded Palestine, capturing Jerusalem.

July 1919 General Syrian Congress in Damascus demanded independence for a Syrian state that would include Palestine.

April 1920 Anti-Zionist riots broke out among Arab Palestinians in and were followed by even more serious violence in May 1921.

1922 League of Nations approved a British mandate over Palestine and neighboring Transjordan.

1923 Arab state of Transjordan (later Jordan) became autonomous.

1928 Independence of Jordan.

1939 London Round Table Conference: promised the establishment within ten years of an independent Palestine retaining an Arab majority. The White Paper also limited Jewish immigration to 1,500 per month until 1944, when Jews would no longer be admitted to Palestine.

May 1942 Biltmore Conference in New York demanded the formation of an independent Jewish commonwealth.

November 1947 United Nations voted to split Palestine into Arab and Jewish states.

May 14, 1948 "Armies of the adjacent Arab states quickly entered Palestine. This war, the first in a series of Arab-Israeli Wars, ended in 1949 with a hard-fought Israeli victory that included possession of territories won on the battlefield; the migration of more than 700,000 Arab Palestinian refugees out of Israeli territory into adjacent areas controlled by various Arab states; the confiscation of the property left by the Arab refugees and its redistribution to Israelis; and the eclipse of Palestine as a political entity."

1950 Annexation of West Bank territory (west of the Jordan River) by Jordan, formerly Transjordan.

1967 Arab-Israeli War: West Bank territory was occupied by Israel. Israel took the entire city following the Six Day War.

1969 Creation of the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO), chaired by Yasir Arafat.

1970-71 Jordanian Civil War: Palestinian camps destoyed in Amman.

1973 Conflicts between Lebanese and the fedayeen.

1975-76 Lebanese Civil War.

1977 Election of a Likud government, who considered the West Bank to be an integral part of Israel. It initiated an aggressive policy of settlement (nearly 60,000 settlers in 1978-88), land expropriation, and the construction of new settlements close to Palestinian population centers.

December 1987 Palestinian frustration with Israeli policies erupted in the Intifada. Although the intifada was initially organized by indigenous Palestinians, its direction was quickly assumed by the PLO under a fourteen-point program advocating an independent Palestinian state in the West Bank and Gaza Strip that would coexist with Israel. In November 1988, the PLO unilaterally declared a state of Intifada.

1990 Hamas rejected PLO moderation in favor of armed resistance.

1990 Iraqi invasion of Kuwait: caused one of the largest Palestinian migrations in history and fueled discontent with the PLO leadership.

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