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Summary of Heidi Ross' Presentation at the Inaugural Session of the 2001 CIES Northeast Conference at the University of Massachusetts Amherst

The Relevance of Relational Theory to Re-imagining Global Education (A Challenge to Care in Teaching and Research)

In this presentation, Professor Ross explored the connections between relational theory and global education. Using her own work and that of Nel Noddings, Sarah Lawrence Lightfoot, Nelly Stromquist, and others, Professor Ross argued that one of the greatest challenges faced by educational institutions today is how to include care as an integral part of the learning experience of children and adults. These theorists are critical of the use of rational choice perspectives on human motivation, and instead argue for community-building as the result of inclusive, multilateral and generative approaches to power and respect. What is needed, she said, is to establish symmetry and empathy in all human relationships. From the point of view of the teacher in the classroom, he or she has the enormous difficulty of helping students to flourish in a world that is increasingly complex, paradoxical, and pluralistic. Part of the answer consists in having educators "discover what historically is possible in contributing toward the transformation of the world, giving rise to a world that is rounder, less angular, more humane."

Concurrent Sessions 1:  9:00 - 10:30

1.1  Education, Identity and the Ordering of Knowledge

Panel Overview  

Living with an American perception that still identifies Southeast Asia with the legacy of the Vietnam War, many  refugee and immigrant children find themselves immersed in an education system that preaches an appreciation for diversity and multiculturalism, yet does little to promote a deeper understanding of the rich cultural heritage many of these children and their families were forced to leave behind.  One of the goals for the study tour is to allow teachers to develop empathy and increased understanding of the immigrant and refugee experiences of Southeast Asians and how that knowledge can be integrated into curriculum and teaching strategies in the multicultural classroom.  This presentation will focus on assessing the programmatic aspects related  to organizing experiential learning opportunities as a means for multicultural professional development.

Individual Panelists

1.  Objectivity and Utopia:  Lysenkoism as a facet of Soviet Cultural Imperialism

     William deJong-Lambert (Teachers College, Columbia University) WRL4@columbia.edu

 This paper discusses the role of Lysenkoism, an approach to biological study of the inheritance of characteristics and species evolution which began in the Soviet Union and was imposed upon the satellite nations in the Eastern Bloc after World War II. The head of The Lenin All-Union Academy of Agricultural Sciences, T.D. Lysenko insisted that genetics was “imperialist,” “reactionary” science which, through examples such as an over-emphasis on natural selection (“survival of the fittest”), sought to justify in the natural world the inequities of capitalism. Lysenko’s alternative approach was based upon the idea that species could in fact very quickly adapt to any environment, a perspective which resulted in absurdities such as the attempt to grow watermelons in Siberia. Lysenko lost power within the nomenklatura after Khrushchev, his legacy however demonstrates the utility of knowledge in the process of subjugation among nations

2.  From Black Panthers to Shas:  The educational system in Israel and its relations to processes of cultural hybridity in the Israeli society 

     Tali Yariv-Mashal (Teachers College, Columbia University) TYM3@columbia.edu

Living with an American perception that still identifies Southeast Asia with the legacy of the Vietnam War, many  refugee and immigrant children find themselves immersed in an education system that preaches an appreciation for diversity and multiculturalism, yet does little to promote a deeper understanding of the rich cultural heritage many of these children and their families were forced to leave behind.  One of the goals for the study tour is to allow teachers to develop

empathy and increased undestanding of the immigrant and refugee experiences of Southeast Asians and how that knowledge can be integrated into curriculum and teaching strategies in the multicultural classroom.  This presentation will focus on assessing the programmatic aspects related  to organizing experiential learning opportunities as a means for multicultural professional development.

3.  From the melting pot to cultural hybridity:  the changing needs of refugees in American classrooms  

     Jacqueline Mosselson (Teachers College, Columbia University) Jm823@columbia.edu

Over the past century, the United States has undergone a series of reimaginings in the expectations of, and from, immigrants and refugees.  At the turn of the century, assimilation was of utmost concern to immigrants and refugees in integrating to their new land.  The economic and populational changes of the 1960s initiated a shift in climate from one of assimilation to one of adaptation. Parallel to this, policy makers pointed to the debate surrounding global convergence in the education system.  This presentation will explore how different notions of integration and adaptation were understood and acted upon by the various actors, and how understandings of refugee adaptation and identity development have changed and evolved over time.  By examining the role of schools in adaptation, I will explore how the debates enclose and confine the individual, and how the needs of refugee populations can be better met by their teachers and schools.

4.  Distance Education and its use by Native Societies

     David E. Kahn (Greenwich University) Tughollow@BigPlanet.com

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1.2 Education from a Global Perspective: 

      Bridging SE Asia and Asia America in the Classroom

Panel Overview

The Commonwealth of Massachusetts ranks seventh in the nation for the number of Southeast Asian immigrants and refugees that have resettled in the United States.  Current research at the primary and secondary level supports the notion that newcomer students are more likely to succeed in school if they are able to maintain knowledge about and value their country of origin. This has significant impact in classrooms that are increasingly multicultural and where teachers are confronted with finding new ways to integrate area studies knowledge into the classroom.

For thirty days during the summer of 2001, a select group of K-12 teachers and higher education faculty in Massachusetts was given the opportunity to interact with and learn from direct exposure to urban and ural communities in Cambodia, Thailand, and Vietnam. The group met with members of educational, youth, non-governmental, and social activist groups and visit historic and cultural sites. Currently, these teachers are translating their experience into learning materials and curriculum units that willupdate their knowledge about this dynamic region on the Asia-Pacific Rim, enhance their understanding of the proceses that are linking Asia American And Southeast Asian communities, and use these perspectives to develop new teaching strategies, materials, and curricula to strengthen area studies in their elementary and secondary classrooms.

This panel presentation will highlight the Fulbright Hays Study Project in Southeast Asia and its relevance to reformulating area studies, framing the curriculum through experiential education, and assessing effectiveness for multicultural professional development.

Individual Panelists

1.  Reformulating Area Studies in Higher Education and K-12 Schools 

     James A. Hafner (University of Massachusetts) hafner@geo.umass.edu

In recent years there has been a nation-wide initiative to rethink the traditional model for teaching area studies. While that trend has focused on higher education institutions, its basic premise also applies to how studies of culture, language, and the arts are presented in the K-12 curriculum. As one aspect of this trend, foundations have encouraged higher education institutions to examine new models for the formulation and teaching of area studies. Faculty from various area studies programs have responded to this challenge by examining common themes and issues that cross regions and to integrate this new thinking into their classroom teaching and research. School districts and teachers, confronted with changing demographics in multicultural classrooms, are with finding new ways to integrate area studies knowledge into the classroom . The opportunities presented in the study tour for these educators to re-orient their approach to the teaching of area studies in ways that bridge national, cultural, and geographic boundaries is consistent with this trend toward rethinking area studies, and may serve to influence that thinking at educational institutions and systems nationwide.

2.  Framing the Curriculum through Experiential Learning

     Sally Habana-Hafner, (University of Massachusetts) srhabana@educ.umass.edu

New ways of thinking and teaching area studies require a more intimate appreciation of the cultures and landscapes that are the focus of reformulating approaches to area studies curriculum. The vast majority of K-12 educators serving immigrant and refugee student population in the

Commonwealth have limited first-hand experience with and knowledge of the cultures represented by these diverse student populations. Such knowledge cannot be effectively obtained from existing secondary source materials or solely by contact with those communities in this country. Consequently, the study tour was intended to provide educators with the opportunity toexperience and learn from direct contact with the peoples and cultures of Southeast Asia.

The experiential knowledge gained by the participating teachers and the curriculum units resulting from the study tour provided new approaches to redefining area studies in a framework that draws on the interconnectedness of people and places in Southeat Asia and Asian American communities in the United States. By integrating those linkages and connections into classroom learning, teachers are able to connect the classroom to community, to the daily lives of students, and gain a new understanding to the meaning of area studies.

3.  Assessing Effectiveness for Multicultural Professional Development

     Raymond Young (University of Massachusetts) ryyoung@educ.umass.edu

Living with an American perception that still identifies Southeast Asia with the legacy of the Vietnam War, many  refugee and immigrant children find themselves immersed in an education system that preaches an appreciation for diversity and multiculturalism, yet does little to promote a deeper understanding of the rich cultural heritage many of these children and their families were forced to leave behind.  One of the goals for the study tour is to allow teachers to develop

empathy and increased undestanding of the immigrant and refugee experiences of Southeast Asians and how that knowledge can be integrated into curriculum and teaching strategies in the multicultural classroom.  This presentation will focus on assessing the programmatic aspects related  to organizing experiential learning opportunities as a means for multicultural professional development.

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1.3 Where does Learning Opportunity meet Teacher Education Reform in Developing Countries?

Panel Overview

This panel explores various approaches to teacher education in developing countries and the effectiveness of these approaches in translating into learning opportunities in the classroom. Through this panel we will seek to shed light on challenges faced by countries with limited resources, high demand, and a scarcity of educational professionals. The expansion of teacher education programs prompts us to explore the commonly accepted premises espoused by policymakers, researchers and practitioners.    We also examine different teacher education programs implemented by both government and civil society in order to assess the shortcomings and successes of these strategies.

Individual Panelists

1.  Is El Salvador Expanding Learning Opportunity Through Teacher Education Reform? 

     Kristin Rosekrans (Harvard University) Rosekrkr@gse.harvard.edu

 The educational reforms in Latin America throughout the past decade have used similar strategies for achieving educational equity through improving access and quality: this has involved decentralization, school autonomy, parental involvement, curriculum development, raising teacher’s salaries, and making changes in pre-service and in-service teacher training.  There is little doubt that access to primary education in the region has improved over the last decade.   However, research and assessments of the impact of the educational reforms in various Latin American countries suggest that there have not been significant changes in teacher practices and quality, compromising learning opportunities.  Has there been a gap between reform efforts and teacher needs?  Have the strategies to change teacher performance been ineffective? 

In this paper I seek to answer these questions by focusing on El Salvador - a country commonly regarded as successful in their reform efforts, yet which shares this deficiency in learning opportunities.  The hypothesis of this paper is that teacher practices in El Salvador have not changed in spite of reform efforts.  I analyze the obstacles to changing teacher practices and shed light on challenges faced in comparable reform efforts.

2.  The Course is in the Mail…

     Tracy Reines (Harvard University) Tracy_Reines@gse.harvard.edu

As a result of the world conference in Dakar on Education for All, the explicit demand for teachers in developing countries has increased by millions in the coming decade.  To meet this avid increase in demand, many countries are attempting to expand teacher education programs through distance education (DE). The numbers are staggering with Nigeria alone looking to educate up to a half a million teachers by 2010.  Given the clear limitations of current and traditional teacher education systems, distance education often appears to be the logical and indeed a preferable option.  It is often viewed as a cost –effective and efficient way to reach the otherwise overwhelming amount of teachers yet to be educated in developing nations.

This literature review addresses this trend of training teachers through DE in developing countries, specifically in sub-Saharan Africa.  It examines the presence, and more often, the absence of necessary factors leading to effective learning by teachers through correspondence DE – namely student support, interaction, and guidance - and the implications of these findings.  This literature review seeks to answer the following questions: Are teachers receiving adequate instructor support during their DE courses? Are teachers experiencing and effective learning process or simply “getting certified”?  Asking these questions sheds light on the essence these education courses - whether distance teacher education courses lead to improved quality in the classroom and an improved learning environment for students.

3.  Can We Ensure Quality in the Classroom Through Reforms in Teacher Education? 

     Case Studies from South Asia

     Harpreet Singh (Harvard University) Harpreet_singh@gse.harvard.edu

Quality teacher education, when designed as a combination of pre- and in-service training, continuous supervision, and developmentally appropriate classroom materials, has been recognized as a key component in any strategy to increase learning achievement. This paper analyzes the experience of two teacher education organizations in South Asia: District Institute of Education and Training in India, the government district-based in-service training program; and Gono Shahajjo Sangstha (GSS) in Bangladesh, an NGO that previously operated 750 formal primary schools. Both approaches to teacher education emphasize the importance of in-service training and continual professional development through a decentralized supervisory model. However, the difference in success rates of the two programs (as measured by available achievement scores, retention rates, and repetition rates), as well as differences in implementation, offer insight into the impact of effective teacher education in developing quality and equitable classroom processes.

4.  Cuba's Post Revolutionary Recruitment and Training of Teachers

     Robyn Dowling  (Harvard University) Dowlinro@gse.harvard.edu

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1.4 Intercultural Education in Comparative Perspective

1.  International education:  Bridging the distance between divergent conceptualizations through discourse analysis

     Anna Hahn (Teachers College, Columbia University) amh45@columbia.edu

This paper focuses on divergent concepts of ‘international education’ manifest in the following two contexts: 1) the context of the International Baccalaureate (IB) and specifically the discourse of the International Baccalaureate Organization (IBO) and 2) the context of the field of Comparative and International Education. The IBO is a non-profit educational foundation established in 1968 offering the only pre-school to pre-university international curriculum available worldwide to both international and national schools, public and private.  However, in spite of the growing prevalence of the IB around the world and thus, the rising influence of the IBO in shaping the educational global landscape, there seems to be a notable distance between these two contexts of international education.  The aim of this paper is to bridge this distance through an analysis of discourses emanating from the IBO and from the field of Comparative and International Education.

2.  The Japanese Government's Education Reform:  Transcultural Competence

     Mie Shigemitsu (Teachers College, Columbia University) ms715@columbia.edu

     Elizabeth Meddeb, co-presenter (Teachers College, Columbia University) ejm22@columbia.edu

As globalization deepens international interdependence, our assumptions about the skills and aptitudes required for educated individuals also need to be reexamined.  Success in transcultural competence will be influenced by educational practices, especially in the curricula for foreign languages, social studies, and area studies.  The internationalization of the Japanese child’s worldview has been a topic of interest among educators for several decades. However, Japan’s approach to fostering transcultural competence has a narrow focus on the English language and on European studies compared to other languages and area studies.

In this study, we examined Japan’s proposal for education reform in 1984 in terms of the politics of educational planning.  The reasons for the unsuccessful implementation of educational plans were analyzed and possible actions Japan can take to improve its people’s transcultural competence were explored. 

3.  Reflections on Bilingual Intercultural Education and the Multiple Complexities of a Teacher Training Program in the Highlands of Guatemala (slide presentation)

     Philippe F. Hemmert (Teachers College, Columbia University) pfh23@columbia.edu

4.  Political Correctness and Language Sensitivity in the International Domain 

      Thomas L. Bernard (Smith College)

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1.5 Education in Comparative Context 

1.  What is Asked Of and What is Offered to Teachers:  An International Perspective

     Albert Motivans (UNESCO Institute for Statistics) a.motivans@unesco.org

The demands placed on teachers are considerable. The balance between what is asked of teachers and what is offered to them can have a significant impact on the composition of the teaching force and the quality of teaching and thus, on successful learning outcomes. Attracting skilled individuals and retaining them in the teaching profession is an essential prerequisite for ensuring high-quality education in the future.

This presentation looks at educational indicators which characterise this balance from a comparative perspective across eighteen low- to middle-income countries that are members of the UIS/OECD World Education Indicators Programme (WEI). The presentation shows how educational policy-makers face the different and often difficult challenge of managing teacher forces effectively and efficiently. It considers the challenges posed by the need to secure a skilled and motivated teaching force, and examines some of the policy choices and trade-offs that countries make when expanding access to learning opportunities and improving education quality.

2.  The Role of Schools in Promoting Excellence and Equity

     Yanhong Zhang (UNESCO Institute for Statistics) y.zhang@unesco.org

Educational policies often seek to meet the dual objectives of excellence and equity. In the area of academic achievement, this means high achievement for all students, regardless of their backgrounds. This presentation shows that, in Canada, schools or classrooms with higher levels of math achievement share the following characteristics: adequate instructional resources, taught by teachers who are familiar with the curriculum guide, and more orderly and safer classroom environment. Students from families of higher socio-economic status (SES) tend have superior performance in math. More important, the SES-related achievement gaps are smaller in high-resource schools but larger in low-resource schools. The findings suggest that improving the quality of instructional resources may present the most viable option to boosting the student achievement, particularly those from disadvantaged backgrounds.

3.  The Private Sector Serving the Educational Needs of the Poor:  A case study from the Philippines 

     Charisse Gulosino (University of Massachusetts) cgulosin@educ.umass.edu.

4.  The Effects of Single Parenthood and Family Policy on Student Science Achievement Across 14 European Countries

     Gillian Hampden-Thompson (Penn State University) gmh140@psu.edu

This paper compares the effects of single parenthood on student's science achievement across 14 European Union, European Free Trade Association/European Economic Area (EFTA/EEA), and pre-accession countries. Using the Third International Math and Science Study (TIMSS) this study compares 8th grade students from English single parents families with their counterparts from 13 other European countries. The results of the descriptive and hierarchical linear modeling analysis suggest that the achievement gap between students from two-parent and single-parent families is far greater in England than all the other countries, with the exception of Scotland. The influence of a country's approach to family policymaking are analyzed and discussed.

 

Concurrent Session 2

2.1 Community Participation

1.  The Effects of Decentralization on Local Community Participation in Schools 

     Jenny Jacobs (Harvard University) jacobsje@gse.harvard.edu

2.  Participatory Curriculum Development in Tibet 

     Katherine Shields (Harvard University) Katherine_Shilds@gse.harvard.edu

3.  Community Involvement--Children's Role

     Alexia M. Muchisu (Harvard University) muchisal@gse.harvard.edu

4.  Communities and their role in shaping the schooling opportunities of children in rural China 

     Peggy Kong (Harvard University) kongpe@gse.harvard.edu

In shaping its education plan, China acknowledges the importance of participating in a global community. Education is viewed as essential for preparing China’s children for life in a global society. In the past twenty years, many economic and social changes have been implemented to facilitate China’s development. As a result of these changes, urban-rural inequities have arisen that affect the educational opportunities of children in disadvantaged areas. Roughly 50% of China’s population still reside in rural areas. Many rural communities in China are poor and are unable to support public education, yet education is the key to China’s success. How do local communities cope with recent policy changes? How do rural communities shape the educational opportunities of children? In this paper I will review data collected in the Gansu Children and Family Survey (GCFS, 2000) to understand how communities support or hinder the schooling opportunities of children in rural China.

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2.2 Teaching, Being, Doing:  Women's Studies as a Nexus of Global and Local Education

     Alexandrina Descamps (University of Massachusetts) afd@wost.umass.ed

     Chizu Sato (University of Massachusetts) chizu@tamas.com

     Julie Gallagher (University of Massachusetts) jgallagher@history.umass.edu 

    Kirsten Isgro (University of Massachusetts) kisgro@comm.umass.edu

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2.3 Globalization Up Close and Practical

1. Globalization Up Close and Practical

Arlene Kowal (Northampton Public Schools) arlnkoala@aol.com

Sara Bernstein (Hadley Public Schools) saraslb@hotmail.com

Linda Levister (Springfield Public Schools)

2. Dual Language Programs in the Global Picture

     Odette L. Guillen Lopez (Teachers College, Columbia University) olg2@columbia.edu

This presentation highlights the inquiry into international perspectives of bi/multilingual policies and how they impact education.  Examining what is done to promote these bi/multilingual policies in Europe and North America, the presenter will dialog with the audience to discuss the current policies in the United States that either promote or discourage the use of languages other than English. 

This overview will seek to identify language education models as a product of current language policies.   How and why these language education models differ will significantly contribute to the global education discourse around language, including the transfer of language education models. 

Locally, in the Northeast region of the United States bi/multilingual education has yielded the Dual Language model.  The structure of this model and its implications on the views of bi/multilingualism in the United States will be introduced to begin a conversation around how learning is made to seem global.  

Educators funded by a Fulbright Hays Group Projects Abroad had the unique opportunity to study and tour Thailand, Cambodia, and Vietnam during the summer of 2001 with the primary goal of updating teachers’ awareness of the social, economic, and cultural landscapes of Southeast Asia.   While there they were able to gain an understanding of how globalization, transnationalism, and shifting national and cultural identities are impacting people and places there and in their own communities in the United States.  The result has been exciting culturally specific curriculum development already being implemented in multicultural classrooms throughout Western Massachusetts  communities.

Three of the recipients of the grant will explore those themes of globalization, transnationalism, and diaspora as they explain their developed teaching strategies and activities designed for the classroom.  Some discussion of the tour with slides or video focusing on themes of globalization, transnationalism, and diaspora will be viewed but the majority of the session will be participatory with teacher led activities.  Specific curriculum related materials would be displayed including completed units for teaching.

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2.4 Situating Language and Literacy in a Changing Economic Context

1.  Whose English?  Re-imaging Educational Language Policy in Tanzania from a Local Perspective 

     Frances Vavrus (Teachers College, Columbia University) fv84@columbia.edu

2.  Livelihoods and Learning

     Lisa Deyo (University of Massachusetts) lisa_deyo@yahoolcom

     Joanie Cohen-Mitchell, co-presenter (University of Massachusetts) joanie@educ.umass.edu

Re-conceptualizing language and learning for program design

Presenters examine issues of language and learning in integrated literacy programs for rural women in two settings: Guatemala and Nepal. Current program models and implications for program development and policy formation are discussed from two vantage points.

1)      While current approaches to literacy learning and teaching focus on the use of native language literacy, the marketplace requires different skills for economic development and family and community livelihood.  How does the choice of language of instruction impact future marketplace practices of Guatemalan women? Where is the compromise?

2)       Research studies documenting the diversity in literacy practices and its implications for program design are proliferating; however, relatively little has been done to broaden this discussion to include teaching/learning practices.  How do participants and program staff's own perspectives on learning shape their beliefs about how teaching/learning should take place in an integrated literacy and savings & credit program for women in Nepal?

3.  The Ethnography of Literacy 

     Shaher Bann Vagh (Harvard University) vaghsh@gse.harvard.edu

Literacy is a concept that has varied connotations in different societies and literacy needs as opposed to literacy skills are not universal but need to be understood within the social, cultural, psychological, economic, historical and political context of society. This perspective is even more relevant today as global boundaries become fuzzy and educational practices and standards permeate across cultures. It is pertinent to situate the practices and ideologies of literacy within a sociocultural realm – as the ethnography of literacy. The relation between communities, individuals and their schools across various cultural settings is explored to define the meaning of literacy. In addition I draw upon observational data from a government school in India to concretize and situate the dialogue.

4.  Every Child in School Learning":  A Case study of the "Balsakhi" Program in Public Schools in Mumbai-India 

     Anju Saigal (Harvard University) saigalan@gse.harvard.edu

Illiteracy is one of the most daunting challenges facing the South Asia region today. In a population of a billion, India alone has a non-literate population of 48 million. Further, studies of achievement levels in public schools in India reveal that large numbers of children enrolled are functionally illiterate. Lack of political will has given rise to several large-scale non-governmental attempts to address these issues of educational inequity. One such initiative - “Pratham – Mumbai Education Initiative”, has been working closely with communities and schools towards increasing access to schooling and improving literacy levels of children in public schools. This paper will present the organization’s “Balsakhi” program, aimed at improving learning in schools. The program has institutionalized its presence within all the 1255 public schools in Mumbai. I will therefore examine how such change agendas are institutionalized in schools on a large scale and what lessons does this experience offer for practice informing policy and vice-versa.

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2.5 Conflict Zones, Emerging Perspectives and Alternative Strategies

1.  Developing Perspective:  Gathering and Exploring Models Emerging from the Developing World

     Bonnie B. Mullinix (Monmouth University) bmullini@monmouth.edu

Part of our ethical responsibility as development practitioners is to be involved in reimagining our work from a variety of perspectives, approaches and development contexts.  The purpose of this collaborative session will be to facilitate the identification and sharing of development models emerging directly from developing world contexts.  Acknowledging that many of the models that currently inform our development practice originate from a northern perspective, experience has shown that these models often have limited/short-term impact on development.  More effective for addressing development issues are the models arising from in-depth, long-term collaborations set in development contexts.  As scholar-practitioners we should strive to document and share such models and practices.  This session will provide an opportunity for participants to review a series of such models and identify, share and critique other models known to them.  Participants will then determine which models might be most appropriate to document and share in published form.

2.  Adapting to change--new strategies to improve pedagogical practices:  A case study of Afghan refugee schools in Pakistan 

     Tatiana Garakani (Teachers College, Columbia University) tg124@columbia.edu

The paper chronicles the efforts of International Rescue Committee – Female Education Program in innovating pedagogical practices in Afghan refugee schools, in urban and rural areas in North West Frontier Province of Pakistan.

It examines how approaches to change were considered, and specifically how external inputs were revised, adapted and indigenized to meet the challenges, limitations and context of the refugee settings. The study describes all phases of assessment, analysis, design, development and implementation of the project. It particularly emphasizes issues of ownership, capacity building and continuity under unpredictable and constantly changing environment.

3.  Whose Side Are You On?  An Alternative Evaluation Approach from the Third World

     Mohamed I. Elgadi (University of Massachusetts) Mohamed@educ.umass.edu

This paper introduces a different approach to program evaluation. Oppression Evaluation Approach is a good example for how theory and research are informed by praxis and field experience. It was identified, labeled, and its theoretical framework developed long time after it was successfully tested in the field. It addresses the concept of practicing evaluation under politically oppressive regimes, in both macro and microenvironments. The major characteristics of OE are embedded in its acronym O.P.P.R.E.S.S.I.O.N: Oppressive environment; Power abuse; Politics; Risk factors; Evaluator’s role; Sudan; Security apparatuses; Initiated by outsider evaluators; Overt and covert agenda; and Number counts, i.e. quantitative methodology is preferred.

The paper is also discussing the ethical issues brought up by mainstream Western evaluators in regards to the implementation of this social justice-oriented approach on the credibility and integrity of the evaluation field. This is in particular the prior commitment and biased stance of the OE team in regards to the project under evaluation.

 

Concurrent Session III

3.1 Education for All and Globalizations:  Challenges and Opportunities

1.  Education for All and Globalization:  Challenges and Opportunities 

     Tamo Chattopadhay (Teachers College, Columbia University) tamoghna@att.net

2.  Creating a Global Consciousness with American Students:  Education for World Citizenry

     Tonya Homan (Teachers College, Columbia University) tsh30@columbia.edu

3.  The Evolution of Education for All:  From Jomtien to Dakar in a Decade of Globalization 

     Andria K. Wisler (Teachers College, Columbia University) akw31@columbia.edu

4.  Mexico's Public Education Redefined?  The Impact of Globalization at the Local Level 

     Rocío Rivas (Teachers College, Columbia University)  rr348@columbia.edu

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3.2 Tying the Loose Strands:  Environment, Culture, and Education

1.  Artesian Wells, Skeptic Parents, and Environmental Protection:  Making the Curriculum Relevant in Daily Life 

     Alberto Arenas (University of Massachusetts) arenas@educ.umass.edu

2.  Reasons for Environmental Education Program Ineffectiveness in Madagascar 

     Michael J. Simsik (University of Massachusetts) simsik@educ.umass.edu

Madagascar is one of the richest and most threatened countries worldwide in terms of biological diversity.  The threats facing biodiversity in Madagascar have prompted international donors to provide generous funding for environmental protection.  Virtually every environmental program in Madagascar includes an educational component.  After two decades of intensive educational efforts, deforestation rates continue unabated and biodiversity decreases.  This presentation examines the underlying reasons for the apparent failure of environmental education programs to address these problems.  Some of the reasons include: the cultural inappropriateness of the programs or their messages; the development of curriculum that fails to address the livelihood concerns of Malagasy people; and the neglect of the difficult political and economic realities that confront the majority of Malagasy everyday.  Ultimately, the ineffectiveness of environmental education programs in Madagascar is symptomatic of a larger problem related to the way conservation and development efforts are currently carried out within the country.

3.  Towards a New Form of Environmental Education:  A Discussion of the Gaia Dialogues. 

     Mark Demoranville (University of Massachusetts) mdemoran@educ.umass.edu

4.  Learning from Third World Countries about Cross-Boundary Journeys of Holistic Educators:  From Holistic Worldview to Integrative learning and Integral Being   

     Yihong Fan (University of Massachusetts) fanyihong@yahoo.com

This study investigates a school in Quito, Ecuador and a program in Hochiminh City, Vietnam to discover how holistic educators have gained awareness that education in the information age and global economy needs a holistic worldview. The purpose of this study is to present real life stories of how holistic educators have integrated their knowing, doing, being and becoming to contribute to a better and healthier educational environment. Through phenomenological interview, the study explores how these educators have managed to cross artificial boundaries to implement the new worldview into their philosophical principles, educational vision and missions, pedagogical practices, as well as curriculum designing. The insight gained through this study demonstrates that education for peace and loving for life demands an education to create a more nurturing, nourishing, and dynamic learning environment to enable students to go through a full range of learning to know, learning to live, learning to be and learning to transcend

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3.3 Perspectives and Challenges on Education in Globalized Southeast Asia

Panel Overview

Few would argue with the proposition that the countries in Southeast Asia have undergone remarkable transformation in the past three decades despite the social, cultural, political, and economic upheavals in the region.   In the late 1900s, thinking about their economy evokes a sense of "crisis", and thinking about their educational development evokes a sense of "urgency".   Questions are raised not only in terms of educational access, literacy level, and universal primary education, but on the larger question of the educational system's response to the era of  globalization as well.  Papers in this panel will feature different perspectives and challenges for these educational systems in the region, particularly Laos, Philippines, Thailand, and Vietnam. 

Progressive countries in Southeast Asia like the Philippines and Thailand present cases in which global discourse on education and development is critically viewed from a different perspective.  Bilingual educational policy in the Phillipines is reexamined whether it is a colonial legacy or a global imperative as increasing pressures of the global economy demands its educational system to proritize the improvement of English language skills essential for its labor force at home and abroad.  An NFE program in Thailand questions the pedagogical approaches of the western model of critical and multicultural education when applied to empower rural Thai women. 

Educational systems in countries like Vietnam and Laos are faced with a different challenge as they join the trend of the free-market economy.  Vietnam faces an enormous challenge in the need to address the fundamental problem  in which traditional modes of teaching and learning appear increasingly outdated as its economy shifts from a labor-intensive to a more technology-based agenda.   Similarly, as Laos integrate with the global market, the communities at the grassroots level are struggling to cope with this new trend of market liberalization. 

The levels of educational development are much varied in each country.  Presenting these different perspectives and challenges in their individual educational systems seems to be a crucial element in understanding a globalized Southeast Asia.

Individual panelists

1.  Impact of Globalization at the Grassroots:  A case from Laos  

     Mainus Sultan (University of Massachusetts) sultan@educ.umass.edu

The landscape of this paper is Laos, a small land locked country of Southeast Asia. The central theme is to offer an analysis regarding the impact of globalization at the grassroots. The discussion begins by introducing the process of the country's integration with the global market economy. In conjunction with globalization, the implication of market liberalization at the village level is discussed.  An effort is made to illustrate how the process of globalization is shaping the policy discourse of the economic and education sectors in the country.  Within the backdrop of a macro-policy analysis, the discussion evolves to examine how globalization has been impacting the lives at the community level. A brief case of anecdotal nature is presented to portray the relationship between the increasing globalization and how communities at the grassroots are struggling to cope.

2.  Bilingual Education in the Philippines:  A colonial legacy or global advantage? 

     Andrew Habana Hafner (University of Massachusetts) awhafner@educ.umass.edu

This paper will present the Philippine education’s unspoken struggle with its bilingual education policy, which represents both a key and a consequence of globalization. Increasing pressures of global economy create demands on Philippine education to prioritize the improvement of English language skills as an essential job skill for the Filipino labor force at home and abroad. Economic growth is accompanied by trends of a widening gap between rich and poor, which puts great pressure on public education as the key divide in improving equity and opportunity.  The Philippine education system operates with two official languages of instruction, the national language of  Pilipino (or Tagalog) and English, the language assumed over the course of the 20th century in a quasi-colonial relationship with the United States. While Filipinos have prided themselves in their ability to speak English as compared to their neighbors in the region, the institutionalization of English as a language of  instruction succeeds in perpetuating the colonial legacy of a feudalistic patron-client relationships that characterizes the immense class divide. These sociocultural constraints of a colonial past are compounded by the country’s distinct regional identities and linguistic diversity with over 100 dialects spoken across the archipelago.   English is taught as a foreign language rather than as a second language, and yet it is also the medium of instruction for other content areas as well.  In the classic context of an under-resourced, poorly managed, and corrupt education systems, teachers and students battle with curriculum and textbooks that emanate from “imperial Manila” and do not effectively respond to their needs.  

3.  Discourse on Multicultural Education:  Narratives from Thai Rural Women 

     Tossaporn Sariyant (University of Massachusetts) span@educ.umass.edu

Like much of western-epistemological based discourses, the dialogue on globalization often appears in a form of the “benign defender of the oppressed” which Freire calls “the heirs of exploitation” who “move to the side of the exploited or the oppressed” and Lorraine Code calls “a surrogate knower.” This paper questions the ethics of re/presenting others, especially women, in international discourse on education and development.  In particular, it questions the pedagogical approaches to the western model of critical and multicultural education when applied to empower rural Thai women through an NFE program in Thailand.   Empowerment in relation to the concept of voices, authority, and autonomy takes on a different cultural meaning when applied and employed in communities where women adhere to values of responsibility before right, harmonic society not competitive society, and collectivism over individualism.    Narratives from these women are useful ways to re-interpret and re-articulate critical and multicultural education  in the context of Thailand. 

4.  Alternative Learning Modes in Vietnam:  Crucial to Educational Reform? 

     Duong Van Thanh (University of Massachusetts) duongvt@yahoo.com

As globalization becomes the buzzword in the last decade, Vietnam has lined up with its Southast Asian neighbors to become increasingly globalized.  In Vietnam, education is taken very seriously by government, business, communities, and families. Some of the achievements of mass education transform the lives of many children of the poor who are traditionally marginalized in society. But, the serious gap in the

quality of education poses a problem of "mismatch" between the aspirations and skills of educated young people and the kinds of work available for them in the age of globalization. In the eyes of policymakers, the Vietnamese workforce is under-qualified and lacks technical expertise.  Educational reform is sweeping the country in response to the need of a better qualified workforce in a global economy. This paper argues for the need to change the whole concept of learning as a crucial part of the reform. Modes of teaching are outdated. Rote learning prevails in Vietnam which cultivates obedience to authority rather than stimulate independent thought and critical thinking. Learning which promotes an environment that allows for flexibility and collaborative learning is an alternative to the traditional mode of education.

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3.4 Contemporary Educational Reforms in Africa

1.  Emerging trends in management, leadership and administration in tertiary education in South Africa.  A case study of community transformation through education and transformative community education 

     Dave Bell (University of Massachusetts) davidibell@attbi.net

2.  The Quality Dilemma in Higher Education:  The Prospects for University Institutional Review in Egypt in comparison with the Experiences in the UK and the USA 

     Rasha Saad Sharaf (University of Pittsburgh) rsharaf@pitt.edu

3.  The Merits and Demerits of Web-based Deliver of Distance Learning in South Africa in Comparison with Traditional Distance Education

     R. Kavena Shalyefu (Pennsylvania State University) rks160@psu.edu

This paper examines the merits and demerits of the current status of web-based delivery of distance learning in South Africa by comparison with the traditional distance education methods. The discussion draws largely on literature that is available on web-based resources. The paper also highlights issues that are still unresolved with regard to pedagogical questions related to web-based distance education.

4.  The Role of Education in South Africa's Transition to Democracy:  The State and Civil Society 

     Robert Krech (University of Toronto) jrbodesj@hotmail.com

Discussion of South Africa’s miracle transition to democracy from apartheid without a civil war has often been credited to international economic sanctions, the action of elite politicians at the domestic level and the efforts of civil society in broad terms.  In contrast to international sanctions and elite domestic political action this paper investigates the role of local student groups in South Africa’s transition to democracy and how education became a key site of resistance and transformation.  This paper then concludes with a brief look at how economic globalization altered education in South Africa and its potential to continue to be a site of resistance in its post-transition period.

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3.5 Socio-emotional Well-being, and Alternative Development Models

1.   Development Policies for Socio-Emotional Enablement 

     Friedrich W. Affolter (University of Massachusetts) fritz@educ.umass.edu

As globalization becomes the buzzword in the last decade, Vietnam has lined up with its Southast Asian neighbors to become increasingly globalized.  In Vietnam, education is taken very seriously by government, business, communities, and families. Some of the achievements of mass education transform the lives of many children of the poor who are traditionally marginalized in society. But, the serious gap in the

quality of education poses a problem of "mismatch" between the aspirations and skills of educated young people and the kinds of work available for them in the age of globalization. In the eyes of policymakers, the Vietnamese workforce is under-qualified and lacks technical expertise.  Educational reform is sweeping the country in response to the need of a better qualified workforce in a global economy. This paper argues for the need to change the whole concept of learning as a crucial part of the reform. Modes of teaching are outdated. Rote learning prevails in Vietnam which cultivates obedience to authority rather than stimulate independent thought and critical thinking. Learning which promotes an environment that allows for flexibility and collaborative learning is an alternative to the traditional mode of education.

2.  Exploring the Meaning of Learning Societies

     Vachel Miller (University of Massachusetts) vmiller@educ.umass.edu

3.  Faith-based NGO's:  An Analysis of Their Emerging Role in Education and Development

     Julia Berger (University of Toronto) juliaberger@bigfoot.com

Throughout the last decade faith-based NGOs have come to play an increasingly significant and able role in the processes of education and development at the local, national, and international levels. While the phenomenon of non-profit, non-state, non-elected actors in these processes has received much attention, the role of faith as a central element of many NGOs has been largely ignored. This presentation broadly explores the role and emergence of faith-based NGOs as major players in the field of development education.

 

Concurrent Session IV

4.1  Changes in Educational Governance--Towards Increased Participation or Increased Responsibility  

Panel overview

 In the past decade, in industrialized and developing countries there has been almost universal agreement that education is in crisis and reform is needed. Central to many education reform initiatives are wide-ranging governance reforms. These have involved attempts to dismantle centralized bureaucracies and create devolved systems entailing varying levels of autonomy and greater local participation. However, the effects of such changes are quite varied and often not as planned. This panel reviews the experience with such reforms in two settings, South Africa and Mexico.

Individual panelists                                                                                            

1.  Whose participation?  Re-imagining school governance in South Africa 

     Suzanne Grant-Lewis (Harvard University) Sue_Grant_Lewis@harvard.edu

     Jordan Naidoo, co-presenter (Harvard University) naidoojo@gse.harvard.edu

     Everard Webe, co-presenter (Harvard University) weberke@gse.harvard.edu

Building on recent British scholarship on the “tyranny of participation” in development work, this paper problematizes the conceptualization of “participation” in the South African Government’s new policy on school governance.  The authors examine the language of the South African Schools Act (SASA) as well as the debates surrounding its formulation.  We probe the underlying assumptions of the policy, such as the assumed causal link between participation—particularly parental participation—and democratization.  Through reference to the conditions of South African schools and communities, our analysis tests the assumptions of homogeneity of contexts, the irrelevance of South Africa’s historical legacy, and the benevolent nature of local political dynamics.  At issue is the ability of legislated uniform structures and processes to bring about equitable participation both within and between school governing boards. 

2.  Decentralization, Equity and Diversity--An Analysis of Educational Governance Reforms in Mexico

     Ernesto Trevino (Harvard University) treviner@gse.harvard.edu

The Mexican state provides a useful setting to analyze the tensions between equity and efficiency as well as between unity and diversity that characterize decentralization and governance reforms. Decentralization promised a more efficient administration in line with the structural reforms and also a more participatory democracy. However, the tension between efficiency and equity generated by the Mexican reform has not been solved. The author examines these tensions and the implications for governance and democratization.

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4.2    Basic Education in Malawi and Senegal:  Reform, Initiatives, and Challenges

Basic Education in Malawi and Senegal:  Reform, Initiatives, and Challenges 

1.  Mbarou Gassama (University of Massachusetts) mgassama@educ.umass.edu

2.  Dafter Khembo (University of Massachusetts) dkhembo@educ.umass.edu

3.  Elias Chakwera University of Massachusetts) echakwer@educ.umass.edu

4.  Fritz Kadyoma (University of Massachusetts) fkadyoma@educ.umass.edu

5.  Samson MacJessie-Mbewe (University of Massachusetts) smacjess@educ.umass.edu

 __________________________________________________________________________________________

4.3    Education and Social Transformation

1.  Can Affinity Trump Authority?  The Legitimization of Southern Development Knowledge and Its Implications for Education Transfer 

     Adriana Abdenur (Princeton University) aabdenur@princeton.edu

In the colonial and post-colonial periods, the legitimacy of development knowledge was largely predicated on political and economic authority. As a result, the North assumed the role of lender, and the South, that of borrower. The emergence of dependency theory in the late 1960s, however, helped launch a vast South-South "horizontal cooperation" network that challenges the traditional North-South worldview. Brazil's international cooperation agency, for instance, set up a subdivision to coordinate assistance to other developing countries, even though Brazil itself receives substantial Northern assistance. What does this circularity of expertise and resources reveal about the legitimacy of development knowledge? This presentation uses Brazil as a case study to argue that the central role accorded to education transfer within horizontal cooperation reflects the emergence of alternative sources of legitimacy for development knowledge. These sources of legitimacy are based more on developmental affinity than economic authority, and they offer both symbolic and pragmatic reasons for engaging in horizontal cooperation.

2.  Gypsy Studies:  a transformative educational approach 

     Teresa Sorde-Marti (Universitat de Barcelona-Researcher/Harvard University) sordemts@gse.harvard.edu

     Victoria Miquel-Marti, co-presenter (Gypsy Studies Center)

What can be more global than an ethnic group without a state or a territory by their own but present in most parts of the world? Indeed, gypsies suffer from discrimination in nearly all these societies, in the sense that their social exclusion becomes also a global phenomenon. In this paper, based on my work in the Gypsy Studies Center (CEG) at the Universitat de Barcelona, I will present how recent developments of the Gypsy Studies in Spain are facing the new challenges that the current global society brings into the scene by promoting their own social empowerment. For example, along the same lines as the most recent developments in Social Sciences, theorized by authors such as Habermas, Beck or Touraine as the communicative turn, it is demonstrated that initiatives towards the establishment of an egalitarian dialogue among different cultures are possible. Educational Research projects carried on by CEG encourage other communities such as the recent arrived immigrants to engage in dialogical processes that lead them towards the overcoming of their own social exclusion.

3.  Post-colonial Perspectives on Reform and Teacher Education:  North and South

     David R. Hemphill (San Francisco State University) hemphill@sfsu.edu

     Liliana Olmos, co-presenter (University of Córdoba, Argentina) liliolmos@fulbrightweb.org

4.  The Story Behind the Success and Failure of Education Reform in "Post-Colonial" Countries:  The Cases of Sri Lanka and Pakistan

     Fazilat Thaver (University of Toronto) fthaver@yahoo

In comparing education policy in Sri Lanka and Pakistan, this paper locates the success and failure of education reform within particular political and historical circumstances. Both these countries are significant due to the fact that, although both obtained independence from colonial rule around the same time, Sri Lanka claims to have 91% literacy today compared to Pakistan’s 26%. History shows many ambitious policies that have lacked implementation in the case of Pakistan and considerable success in widespread educational reform in the case of Sri Lanka. A close analysis of some important polices in the context of political goings on within the two countries since independence reveal common problems, namely the assertion of a dominant national identity that marginalizes minority populations. In employing such an analysis, success of educational reform is linked to a culturally pluralistic/systemized approach as opposed to a mono-nationalistic/ideological approach couched within a democratic versus an undemocratic framework.

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4.4    Multiculturalism, Teacher Education, and Respect for Difference

1.  Re-imagining the 'global' in teacher preparations:  New initiatives at a regional university in New Jersey 

     David S. McCurry (Monmouth University) dmccurry@monmouth.edu

In the shadow of the rising smoke of a different New York City skyline, teacher candidates in the Jersey Shore area struggle to make sense and educate themselves about recent terrorist attacks. This presentation will relate the early development of a Global Understanding Project initiative, supported by the university administration and launched prior to recent events. The initiative is a cross-discipline effort, representing a variety of viewpoints. Each faculty member involved views the “globalization” process from various academic and philosophical perspectives. Within the school of education at this mid-sized regional university, international experience among the faculty is limited as are “other world” views of the degree candidates. The proposed presentation will discuss the ways in which existing initiatives (UMass “Global Horizons” project, the US Peace Corps “World Wise Schools”, etc.) can help “re-imagine” a transformative teacher education program with a global emphasis, utilizing recent historical events.

2.  Responding to 9/11: Saudi Arabia, The U.S., and Cross-Cultural Constructivism?

     Chris Amirault (Brown University) Chris_Amirault@Brown.edu

3.  The Role of Historically Black Institutions on International Education:  Some Dilemmas and Implications on Multicultural Perspectives 

     P. Masila Mutisya (North Carolina Central University) pmmutisya@wpo.nccu.edu

4.  Dealing with Globalization in Developing Countries:  Educational Reform in the Sultanate of Oman

     Hamood Al-Harthi  (University of Pittsburgh) hamood99@hotmail.com  

This paper shows how Developing Countries attempt to cope with the challenges of globalization by reforming their educational systems. The paper takes the Basic Education reforms that has established in the Sultanate of Oman since 1998 as example to show how developing countries are trying to face the economic demands of globalization. Basic Education reform, which will replace the current educational system in Oman by the year 2007, gives more emphasis to science, mathematics, computer sciences, and English language in order to prepare students to participate in the global economy.   

The researcher concludes, based on observations and interviews in some schools where the reform has been conducted, that Basic Education provides a substantial step for Oman to cope with the demand of globalization. However, the researcher warns that globalization is not just an economic phenomenon, so the Basic Education reform needs also to include aspects that prepare students to deal with other aspects of globalization, particularly the cultural one.

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4.5    The Search for Money:  Grant-making, Charity, and Outsourcing

1.  The Indigenization of Grant-making for Education in Mongolia 

     Anh T. Nguyen (Teachers College, Columbia University) atn&@columbia.edu

The presentation is on the “Grants for Schools Program” (GFS), one of a variety of components of a three-year (1998-2001) comprehensive school-based reform project entitled “School 2001: School-Based Reform in Mongolian Secondary Schools” that was implemented by the Mongolian Foundation for Open Society (MFOS).  The general objective of the GFS program was to provide grants to educators and administrators to develop innovative professional skills and to create better conditions for teaching and learning in schools.

The usual model of grant-making for institutions in the U.S. was transferred  to the GFS program and was indigenized to a Mongolian context.  Examples of the Mongolian implementation and localization of the usual grant cycle which includes the grant announcement, application and review process will be provided.  The presentation will examine how and why the GFS program was the re-imagining of  the grant-making process for education by the Mongolians and thus was contextualized to the local level.

2.  Use of outsourcing and subcontracting to implement educational services in Sub-Sahara Africa:  The example on non-formal education in Senegal

     Bjorn Harald Nordtweit (University of Maryland) bnordtveit@aol.com.

3.  Philanthropy in education:  what it can and cannot do 

     Natalia Kovalyove (University of Massachusetts) nvk@educ.umass.com


Poster & Alternative Presentation Sessions

1.  Kumarian Press, Inc.

     (Kumarian Press, West Hartford, Connecticut)

2.  Music for Social Change 

     Tom Neilson (University of Massachusetts)

2.  See and Tell:  The FotoDialogo Pictures (Gender and Education)

     Flavia S. Ramos (George Washington University) framos@gwu.edu

3.  Ethnic Bias in Assessment:  Oral Reading Fluency & Prediction of Reading Comprehension in Black and White Students

     James E. Callahan III (University of Massachusetts) Khephra_Kabara@hotmail.com

4.  Global Horizons Consortium

5.  Study Abroad:  Transformative Education

     Kelly O'Brien (University of Massachusetts) kbob@sover.net

6.  WID & GAD:  Whose Reality, and Through Whose Eyes?

     Karen Marie Lennon (University of Massachusetts), kmlennon@educ.umass.edu

7.  Linking Literacy and Economic Development with a Focus on Women in Nepal

    Mukul Acharya (University of Massachusetts), macharya@educ.umass.edu