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2-D Design

Course Description

Assignments

Projects:

THE BOOK

texture

Rhythm and Motion

VALUE

BALANCE

VALUE WITH LINE

Simple Shape

Expressive Use of Line

 


 

Drawing (art 110) | 2-D Design (art 131) | 3-D Design (art 197D)

ASSIGNMENT 8: BOOK PROJECT


Final solutions due Mon Dec 8, section due dates listed below

What is a book?–a book can be simply thought of as related text and/or images in sequential order

What is an artist's book?


a book created as an original work of art rather than a reproduction of pre-existing work. Also, a book integrates the formal means of its
realization and production with its thematic or aesthetic issues.


Related questions:

What is an original work of art?
Does it have to be a unique work? or can it be an edition? a multiple?
Who is the maker?  is it the artist who has the idea or only if he does all
the work involved with production; printing, painting, binding...
Does it have to have a spine?
Can it be blank paper or reused images?
What about computer generated or xerox images?


The artist's book has become a developed art form in the 20th century. Artist's books appear in every major movement in art and literature from
the Russian avant guard to today's activist artists and have provided a unique means of realizing works of art. This development of artist's books
now has its own practitioners, theorists, critics, innovators and visionaries.

What is abstraction?—artistic distortion
Abstraction implies a simplification of natural shapes to their essential, basic character. Details are ignored as the shapes are reduced to their
simplest terms. Since no artist, no matter how skilled or careful, can possibly reproduce every detail of a natural subject, any painting could be
called an abstraction. But the term is usually applied to works in which simplification is visually obvious and important to the final effect.The degree of abstraction can vary greatly.Objects can still be recognizable. Objects generalized or stylized. Objects can be reduced to simple geometric forms with slight relation to
the original subject.
Not all abstraction results in a geometric end
abstract shapes which allude to natural, organic forms are called biomorphic
rectilinear v. curvilinear

PART ONE


Create one pencil drawing (5 x 6 inch rectangle) of an interior space, relatively complex NOT just a box in the corner of an empty room


convert this pencil drawing into a black, white and/or gray continuous line drawing in marker


compile a folded mock-up of your book pages


due Mon Nov 10: interior space line drawing AND full mock-up of book pages

PART TWO


Create four stages of abstraction that represent the original subjects, each stage must be further removed from the original. Each stage should show less detail than the previous. Work toward the fourth stage being highly abstract with little relation to the original subject.
choose geometric or biomorphic forms


due Mon Nov 17: complete stages to abstraction

 

What is Pattern?—repetitive design with the same motif appearing again and again.We cut patterns for objects, we look for patterns of belief and we pattern our lives after those people we most admire. There is no doubt about the importance of visual pattern. As we grow, it takes a while to discover the finer differences between shapes, colors and textures that will become the
building blocks of pattern. Geniuses are often credited with the ability to discern patterns that the rest of us miss. Pattern recognition is a large part of the business of being human. When no pattern is obvious, one can be invented. Our ancient ancestors watched the passage of celestial events in a compulsive attempt to find order. In some cases, like the orderly revolution of the moon, they were able to find it. In others, such as the random pattern of stars, they invented a pattern by imposing figures of gods upon constellations.

A repeated element and/or design that is usually varied and produces interconnections and obvious directional movements recurring elements across a composition


an archetype: an ideal worthy of imitation a plan, diagram or model to be followed when making things
a representative sample; specimen
to cover or ornament with design

PART THREE


In five stages/steps convert the final abstract composition into a pattern composition. Each stage will move progressively closer to the finished pattern.
Choose geometric or biomorphic forms


Ideas on how to start:
look for main structural lines in the abstract composition
look at figure ground relationships
look for repeated forms
look for a sense of order
look for elements that repeat


due Mon Nov 24: complete stages to pattern


PART FOUR


Ideas to help choose a title:


reference imagery
reference source of imagery
reference the process
can the title tell the story of the images?


Other finishing touches:


cover paper compliments, references or enhances the interior
does the front cover have images, title and image or just title typeface

selection can be tricky—choose something with the look and feel of the entire book and that is readable and of an appropriate size that
compliments that entire book


due Mon Dec 1 (Mon after Thanksgiving):
title decision AND cover paper selected


PROJECT TERMS


artist books: not an easy definition, see the project introduction
accordion books: books made of paper or other material so as to form an accordion fold
bone folder: A thin, rectangular tool used in hand bookbinding for scoring and folding paper, made from cow bone or teflon
book board: acid free paper board or cardboard used for the covers of books, portfolios and boxes. Usually covered with paper or book cloth. Available in single and multi-ply.
book cloth: special paper (cloth on the outside, paper on the inside) used for cover the book boards of hard-bound books.
metamorphosis: change of physical form, structure, or substance especially by supernatural means; a striking alteration in appearance, character, or circumstances
change: to make different in some particular; alter; to make radically different; transform; to replace with another; to undergo a modification
abstraction:  a term used for the visual effects derived by the simplification and/or arrangement of natural objects or nonrepresentational work arranged simply to satisfy  the artist's need for organization or
expression. Abstraction is present in varying degrees in all works of art,from full representation to complete non objectivity.
pattern: a repeated element and/or design that is usually varied and produces interconnections and obvious directional movements
pva: poly vinyl acetate, an acid free adhesive, can be diluted with water but is not water soluble when dry. A white glue which dries clear. When dry, pva is very flexible.

PROJECT READING
handouts
"The Book as Visual Form", Johanna Drucker
accordion book construction, gluing, working with paper, etc...


Art Fundamentals
Chapter 1 (introduction discusses the emergence of abstract art)
Chapter 2 (form) pages 37-38, pattern and motif
Chapter 5 (value)  pages 129-130, value pattern
Chapter 10 (content and style) pages 280-285, Abstract Art

MATERIALS
bone folder
pva glue
glue brush
cover paper to be chosen later
something heavy to use as weight, such as your art history text
ruler
bristol paper
pencils
marker
white eraser
Olfa knife
rubber cement and pickup

SEMESTER CONCEPTS TO CONSIDER
line quality
expression
focal point
variety
simple shapes
unity
scale
balance
proportion
figure v. ground
contrast
deep space
flat space
value
rhythm
motion
repetition

Assignment 7: Texture


Solutions due Mon Nov 3

What is texture?

Surface quality of objects

Texture appeals to our sense of touch


Whenever we touch something, we feel its texture


The various light and dark patterns of different textures give visual clues for us to enjoy textures vicariously


All objects have surface quality, even if it is smooth flatness like glass


In art we can exploit contrasts in surface to provide visual interest–such as rough, soft and hard


In art texture can be very useful because we can both see and feel texture


Visual distance can be a factor–from a distance surfaces appear smooth and get rougher as they get closer


Tactile texture–texture that can actually be felt, ex. thick paint or collage


Visual texture–the impression of texture is created by reproducing the color and value patterns of familiar textures, ex. painting showing silk gown

Assignment for Monday Oct 27


enlarge photo of yourself as we discussed in class and bring working materials including one sheet of 15x20 inch conservation board


Assignment for Wed Oct 29


Complete grid structure, all working materials in class, minimum one half of self-portrait complete

Assignment


create 1 self-portrait


composition will be 11x16 inches, vertical or horizontal (pick the orientation appropriate for your image)
use a variety of related textures or two contrasting texturesin style of Chuck Close portraits


use black, white and gray


textures can be actual or implied


materials up to you: collage, paint, pencil, etc..

Project Terms


texture: refers to the surface quality of objects, appeals to our sense of touch
actual texture: a surface that can be experienced through the sense of touch (as opposed to a surface visually simulated by the artist)
tactile texture: texture that can actually be felt, describes an uneven surface, three-dimensional
visual texture: reproducing the color and value pattern of familiar textures (through painting or another process) can cause us to see texture where none actually exists
assemblage: a technique that brings together individual items of rather bulky 3D nature that are displayed in their original position rather than being limited to the wall
collage: process of adhering real materials that possess actual textures to the picture plane
invented texture: a created texture whose only source is in the imagination of the artist. It generally produces a decorative pattern and should not be confused with an abstract texture.

Project Reading
Art Fundamentals, Chapter 6 (texture)
examples from the text: pages 40, 69 Chuck Close

Materials


collage materials
ruler
pencils
marker
white eraser
Olfa knife
scissors
rubber cement and pickup
Elmers or similar white glue
photo
conservation boardRemember
focal point
variety
unity
scale
balance
proportion
figure v. ground
contrast
distance/space
rhythm
motion
repetition

 

Project 6: Rhythm and Motion


Solutions due Monday Oct 27

What is rhythm?
cadence


the effect or recurring or repetitious lines, colors, forms, etc...

through use of an interval use of rhythm can create a sense of movement


one element can not have rhythm


alternating rhythm occurs when a rhythm of two motifs alternate with one another to produce a regular sequence


progressive rhythm occurs with repetition of a shape that changes in a regular manner

What is motion/movement?


motion has a passage of time between episodes


movement can be seen through contrast of elements


diagonals suggest movement while horizontals appear to be at rest


details and edges of form are lost in rapid movement


multiple images in an overlapping sequence of poses suggest motion


motion can be created by optical movement—a visual pattern can keep the eye moving about a composition

Assignment for Monday Oct 20
10 sketches (each 4x5 inches, vertical) working through compositions for rhythm and motion in black marker

Assignment


create 1 composition using the ideas of rhythm and motion we have discussed


composition will be 11x16 inches, vertically mounted on the 15x20 inch board with a 2 inch border on all sides


use a 1/4 or 1/2 inch grid structure


use black marker, gray marker (optional) and the white of the paperProject

Terms
rhythm: a continuance, a flow or a sense of movement achieved by the repetition of regulated visual units; the use of measured accents, nonrandom variation
motion: the action or process of change of position, to signal or direct by making a gesture
harmony: the quality of relating the visual elements of a composition. Harmony is achieved by the repetition of characteristics that are the same or similar.
These cohesive factors create pleasing interaction

Project Reading
Art Fundamentals, Chapter 2 (form) pages 35-36 Harmony and Repetition and Chapter 8 (space) pages 213-217 Movement in Time and Motion Picture


examples of rhythm from the text:
pages 35 Stella, 313 Riley
examples of motion from the text:
pages 215 Duchamp and Balla, 216 Bertelli, 217 Collins and Arman

Materials
black marker
ruler
pencils
white eraser
Olfa knife
rubber cement and pickup
conservation boardRemember
focal point
variety
balance
figure v. ground
contrast
repetition

 

Project 5: Value


SSolutions due Wed Oct 15

What is value?


-the artistic term for light and dark
- an area's value is its relative lightness or darkness in a given context
-light reveals forms through varying tones of gray
commonly referred to as shading
-value can be used for emphasis
-value can be used to create an illusion of space
-value can be used for contrast

 

In-Class Assignment:


create 1 value scale
collage for various papers, 12 steps black to white 1 inch squares for each stepassignment


create 2 compositions using value:
each composition will be 8.5x12 inches, vertical (compositions will be mounted with no space between)


fill the composition with a variety of rectilinear and curvilinear shapes such as squares, circles or triangles


represent deep space in the composition on the left
represent flat space in the composition on the right

create your compositions from paper collage (newspapers, magazines, type and/or sections of image)
use as many value shifts as possible (more than 5, more than 10, keep going) including blacks, white and grays

Project Terms:


value: relative lightness or darkness in a picture; the amount of black or white


value pattern: the arrangement or organization of value that controls compositional movement and creates a unifying effect throughout a work of art


atmospheric perspective: the use of color or value to show depth. The value contrast between distant objects gradually lessens and contours become less distinct. Objects that are far away appear to be more neutral and lighter in color. The opposite occurs when the background is dark (dark objects, those with less contrast to the ground, appear to recede)


space: an interval or area between or within points or objects; an interval of time. Space in a composition can allow entry and movement as the eyes read or travel through the work. If space is cramped or vast the work will be seen is very different ways. Equal parts of figure and ground create ambiguous space.
shallow (flat) space: limited space, imagery moves only a slight distance back from the picture plane


infinite (deep) space: the picture frame acts as a window through which objects recede endlessly


transparency: a visual quality in which a distant element can be seen through a nearer one


overlap: a visual quality in which one element rests on top or in front of another element


inlay: when two or more elements in a collage meet (overlap) the additional material is cut away so the elements appear to be on the same physical plane

Project Reading:

Art Fundamentals, Chapter 5 (value) and Chapter 8 (space)
examples of deep space from the text:
pages 188 Held, 190 Kiefer, 209 Held and King
examples of flat space from the text:
pages 183 Johns, 184 Lawrence, 197 Hopper

 

Materials:
papers for collage
ruler
pencils
white eraser
Olfa knife
rubber cement and pickup
conservation boardremember
focal point
variety
scale
balance
figure v. ground
contrast
repetition

 

PAST ASSIGNMENTS

Project 4: Balance
S solutions due Mon Oct 6

What is balance?

Visual weight.


A sense of balance is innate; as children we develop a sense of balance in our
bodies and observe balance around us. Lack of balance or imbalance disturbs us.


Dangerously leaning trees, rocks, furniture, and ladders are avoided. But even
where no physical danger is present, as in design or painting, we feel more
comfortable with a balanced pattern.


We look for visual equilibrium. When it is not present we feel a need to
rearrange elements, in the same way that we automatically straighten a picture
on the wall.


In terms of pictorial balance, we are almost always referring to horizontal
balance, the right and left sides of an image. Vertical balance is considered
as well, with a horizontal axis dividing top and bottom. However, because of
our sense of gravity, we are readily accustomed to seeing more weight toward
the bottom.

Types of pictorial balance


Symmetrical: Formal balance. Like shapes are repeated in the same positions on
either side of a central vertical axis. An exact correspondence between the
opposite halves of a figure, form, line or pattern.

Conscious symmetrical :balance can be undeniably static, but is often desired in some art, notably architecture.


asymmetrical: Informal balance. Balance is achieved with dissimilar objects
that have equal visual weight or equal eye attraction. More intricate and
complicated than symmetrical balance, which merely repeats elements in a mirror
image. More subtle factors are involved in attempting to balance dissimilar
items.


Radial: All the elements radiate or circle out from a common central point.


Radial balance is not entirely distinct from symmetrical or asymmetrical
balance. It is a refinement of one or the other, depending on whether the focus
occurs in the middle or off-center. Dishes, bowls, the sun, snowflakes, and
domed buildings are all examples of radial balance. The main advantage of
radial balance is the immediate creation of a focal point

In-class assignment
thumbnail sketches working through various compositions related to symmetry,
asymmetry and radial balance

Assignment


Create two compositions using two different concepts of balance: symmetrical,
asymmetrical or radial.


Use the first initial of your last name as the visual element.


Finished compositions will be in black, permanent marker.


Keep in mind previous discussions of repetition, scale, variety, focal point
and figure/ground.


The compositions will be 7x11 inches, horizontal orientation.


Both compositions will be mounted to the conservation board as we have done on
previous projects. Dimensions will be given in class.

Terms
symmetrical
asymmetrical
radial


Materials


trace paper
bristol paper
pencil
permanent marker
ruler
rubber cement and pickup
white eraser

Project 3: Value with Line


solutions due Mon Sept 29

What is value?
the artistic term for light and dark
an area's value is its relative lightness or darkness in a given context
light reveals forms through varying tones of gray
commonly referred to as shading
value can be used for emphasis
value can be used to create an illusion of space
value can be used for contrast
value can be used to organize a compositionproject 4: balance
solutions due Mon Oct 6What is balance?
Visual weight.
A sense of balance is innate; as children we develop a sense of balance in our
bodies and observe balance around us. Lack of balance or imbalance disturbs us.
Dangerously leaning trees, rocks, furniture, and ladders are avoided. But even
where no physical danger is present, as in design or painting, we feel more
comfortable with a balanced pattern.
We look for visual equilibrium. When it is not present we feel a need to
rearrange elements, in the same way that we automatically straighten a picture
on the wall.
In terms of pictorial balance, we are almost always referring to horizontal
balance, the right and left sides of an image. Vertical balance is considered
as well, with a horizontal axis dividing top and bottom. However, because of
our sense of gravity, we are readily accustomed to seeing more weight toward
the bottom.

types of pictorial balance
symmetrical: Formal balance. Like shapes are repeated in the same positions on
either side of a central vertical axis. An exact correspondence between the
opposite halves of a figure, form, line or pattern. Conscious symmetrical
balance can be undeniably static, but is often desired in some art, notably
architecture.
asymmetrical: Informal balance. Balance is achieved with dissimilar objects
that have equal visual weight or equal eye attraction. More intricate and
complicated than symmetrical balance, which merely repeats elements in a mirror
image. More subtle factors are involved in attempting to balance dissimilar
items.
radial: All the elements radiate or circle out from a common central point.
Radial balance is not entirely distinct from symmetrical or asymmetrical
balance. It is a refinement of one or the other, depending on whether the focus
occurs in the middle or off-center. Dishes, bowls, the sun, snowflakes, and
domed buildings are all examples of radial balance. The main advantage of
radial balance is the immediate creation of a focal point

in-class assignment
thumbnail sketches working through various compositions related to symmetry,
asymmetry and radial balanceassignment
Create two compositions using two different concepts of balance: symmetrical,
asymmetrical or radial.
Use the first initial of your last name as the visual element.
Finished compositions will be in black, permanent marker.
Keep in mind previous discussions of repetition, scale, variety, focal point
and figure/ground.
The compositions will be 7x11 inches, horizontal orientation.
Both compositions will be mounted to the conservation board as we have done on
previous projects. Dimensions will be given in class.terms
symmetrical
asymmetrical
radial
materials
trace paper
bristol paper
pencil
permanent marker
ruler
rubber cement and pickup
white eraser

in-class assignment


create 2 value scales with line: one in pencil, one with marker
each scale will be 1 inch x 9 inches
your value scales will be presented in a vertical column (9 inches long)
1 inch squares for each stepassignment
create one composition, 9x12 inches horizontal, using line as value:
Very lightly draw a composition with non-objective shapes (simple shapes such
as squares, circles or triangles). The page should be organized with various
sizes and shapes to create a well-balanced and interesting composition. Shapes
can overlap. The next step will be to develop the illusion of space through the
use of parallel, horizontal lines that are unbroken. Draw the lines from paper
edge to paper edge. The lines maybe drawn freehand or with a ruler. Draw them
as straight and as close together as possible. As the lines cross each new
shape or negative/ground area, try to give it a different value by changing
marker widths for each area or shape (adding more or less pressure with a
pencil as in your cross contour drawings).  Use the same line width across the
entire area. As the lines begin to define each shape, do your best to establish
5-7 different layers of spatial depth through the change in value.
The shapes will NOT be outlined with marker.
Both scales and the value with line composition will be mounted to the
conservation board as we have done on previous projects. Dimensions will be
given in class.

project terms
line: the path of a moving point that is made by a tool, instrument or medium
as it moves across an area. A line is usually made visible because it contrasts
in value with its surroundings.
linear: compositions in which line is the dominant element; things in a line
have an obvious
 
Sequence: a process that moves logically from point to point
Hierarchy: a body of elements arranged according to rank, authority or capacity
Continuity: an uninterrupted succession, unbroken course
Value: relative lightness or darkness in a picture; the amount of black or
white
Geometric shape: a shape that appears related to geometry; usually simple, such
as a triangle, rectangle or circle
Nonrepresentational art: defines work encompassing nonrecognizable imagery
space: an interval or area between or within points or objects; an interval of
time. Space in a composition can allow entry and movement as the eyes read or
travel through the work. If space is cramped or vast the work will be seen is
very different ways. Equal parts of figure and ground create ambiguous space.

 

Project reading in Art Fundamentals, chapter titled Value

 

materials


trace paper
bristol paper
markers
ruler
pencils
white eraser
Olfa knife
rubber cement and pickup
conservation board


and of course, always the sketchbook/journal for note taking

 

 

Assignment 2: Simple Shape


Solutions due Mon Sept 22

 

What is shape? a visually perceived area created either by an enclosing line or
by color and value changes defining the outer edges. A shape can also be called
a form when in 3D.


Kinds of shape—


actual–clearly defined or positive areas
implied–a shape suggested or created by psychological connection
objective–based on physical actuality or optical perception, tends to appear natural or real
nonobjective–they do not represent any thing other than the geometric forms that we see
rectilinear and curvilinear
positive and negative (figure/ground)

 

In-class assignment

Express the following ideas with black squares only: order, playful, increase,
tension

break into groups of 3 or 4, discuss results with peers


work individually to further develop your ideas

scale


another word for size, large scale=big, small

scale=small
hierarchy in scale can be used for emphasis or confusion


balance distribution of visual weight within a composition

 

Assignment


Choose 2 different ideas from your thumbnails/ideation that you wish to develop
into final solutions.

One must be visually equal black and white. One must be dominate black.

 


Using black permanent marker, complete each solution in a 7 inch x 11 inch
vertical rectangle.

Mount 2 to a board in the same dimensions as project 1.


Remember to keep in mind our discussion of scale and balance.

 

Project Terms


shape: an area that stand out from the space next to or around it. Shape is the
result of a line that travels back to its beginning, an enclosed space


figure/ground (positive/negative): Figure–the outline, form or silhouette of a
thing. Ground–a surrounding area; background. Figure/ground refers to the
relationship between what stands forward and what recedes in a composition.


geometric shape: a shape that appears related to geometry; usually simple, such
as a triangle, rectangle or circle


nonrepresentational art: defines work encompassing nonrecognizable imagery
scale: classification of size, amount, importance or rank; relative proportion
balance: a sense of equilibrium achieved through implied weight, attention or
attraction, by manipulating the visual elements within an artwork

 

Project Reading


Art Fundamentals, Chapter 4, Shape, pages 96-115 and Chapter 1, pages 28-29
(positive and negative areas)


Materials


trace paper
black paper
bristol paper
markers
ruler
pencils
white eraser
Olfa knife
rubber cement and pickup
conservation board
and of course, always the sketchbook/journal for note taking

 

 

Project 1 Expressive Use of Line
Due: Monday, September 15

What is line? a mark made with a pointed tool, a line has length and width, a
moving dot, an infinite number of dots, created by movement, line has direction
We have been using line constantly since we were young children with writing
and drawing tools. Line is around us daily in things like newspaper cartoons
and architecture as we walk through campus. We are going to take line beyond
these simple daily items. The artist’s line is active. It can create movement
and express emotion or feeling. The work of artists such as Cy Twombly, Jasper Johns, Sol LeWitt and Brice Marden places a large emphasis on line.


Types of Line—actual, implied, contour, gesture, curvilinear, rectilinear
Line quality—solid and bold, thick and thin, delicate, refined, light, long,
short, curving, coarse, restrained, sweeping, straight, lingering, flowing,
jagged and nervoussketchbook


Fill one page with horizontal lines showing many types of line qualityin-class assignment quickly, without hesitation express the ideas from the list given in class with line only

Work 10 thumbnails for each of the ideas


Break into groups of 4 or 5, discuss results with peers


Work individually to further develop your line sketchesways to achieve emphasis/focal point contrast, isolation, placement

Absence of focal point - a definite focal point is not necessary to make a solution successful. Emphasizing the entire surface of the page may convey a message more effectively than focusing on individual elements, variety, flexibility within a general framework or plan for a solution adding a lively quality to the Composition

Assignment:

Choose 4 different ideas from your thumbnails/ideation that you wish to develop into final solutions.  Using black permanent marker in at least 3 widths,
complete each solution in a 7 inch x 11 inch vertical rectangle. Mount 2 to a
board as demonstrated in class. Remember to keep in mind our discussion of
emphasis, variety and focal point.

Project terms


line: the path of a moving point that is made by a tool, instrument or medium
as it moves across an area. A line is usually made visible because it contrasts
in value with its surroundings.
expression: the manifestation through artistic form of a thought, emotion or
quality of meaning. In art, expression is synonymous with the term content.
implied line: lines that are dim, fade or disappear. The missing portion of the
line is implied to continue and is visually completed by the observer as the
line reappears.
contour:  the line that defines the outermost limits of an object
gesture: drawing with movement
curvilinear: stressing the use of curved lines as opposed to straight lines
rectilinear: consisting of straight lines
communication: an exchange of information, transmitting information between
individuals through a common system of symbols, signs or behavior
composition: an arrangement and/or structure of all the art elements that
achieves a unified whole
focal point: a point of emphasis, a place to catch the viewer’s attention
thumbnail sketches: small sketches used to work through ideas, get past initial
ideas and push you into new thinking about a given project/problem
variety: flexibility within a general framework or plan for a solution,
differences achieved by opposing, contrasting, changing, elaborating or
diversifying elements in a compoistion to add to individualism and interest

Project reading:
Art Fundamentals, Chapter 3, pages 76-84materials list

Materials needed:

sketch paper
pencil
markers
metal ruler
white eraser
bristol paper
rubber cement
rubber cement pickup
conservation board (purchase later, we will go over this in class)

 

Drawing (art 110) | 2-D Design (art 131) | 3-D Design (art 197D)

 

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