Raising a Bilingual Child by Barbara Zurer Pearson
NY: Random House, 2008
ISBN: 978-1-4000-02334-9

An index of the authors' names in these endnotes can be found here.

Notes for Chapter 1. (Or download all chapters as Word.doc)




monolingualism the exception: D. Crystal, The Language Revolution, ( Cambridge UK : Polity Press, 2004), p 93.




language diversity index: R. Gordon, Jr. (Ed.), Ethnologue: Languages of the World, Fifteenth edition. (Dallas, TX.: SIL International, 2005). Online version:  http://www.ethnologue.com/.




Census Data: Gateway to Latest Census Data on Language Use. http://ourworld.compuserve.com/homepages/jWCRAWFORD/census02.htm




Linguist Althea Gupta: “Bilingual and Multilingual Children: Another Perspective,” Ask-A-Linguist FAQ, Linguistlist.org, consulted 10/6/06 .




Jane Merrill: Bringing up baby bilingual. (NY: Facts on File, Inc., 1984)




George Saunders: Bilingual children: From birth to teens (Clevedon: Multilingual Matters, 1988).




Types of motivation: R.C. Gardner & W. E. Lambert, Attitudes and motivation in 2nd language learning (Rowley MA: Newbury House, 1972).




Ariel Dorfman, “The Wandering Bigamists of Language,” In I. De Courtivron (Ed.), Lives in Translation, (NY: Palgrave Macmillan, 2003) p. 36.




Income patterns: S. Fradd & T. Boswell, “Income patterns of bilingual and English-only Hispanics in selected metropolitan areas.” In S. Fradd (Ed.), Creating Florida ’s multilingual global workforce. (Tallahassee FL: Florida Dept. of Education, 1999).




FBI agent: L. Wright, "The Agent," New Yorker, July 9, 2002 .




Translations: Nuala Ni Dhomhnaill, “Linguistic ecology: Preventing a great loss.” In I. De Courtivron (Ed.), Lives in Translation, (NY: Palgrave Macmillan, 2003) pp. 79-92.




Richard Rodriguez: Hunger of Memory (Boston: D.R.Godine, 1982) p. 23.




Language of comfort: V. Gathercole et al., Report for Welsh Language Board, Language Transmission in Bilingual Families in Wales , ( Bangor , Wales , 2005).




Help to 3 rd language: E. Bild & M. Swain, “Minority language students in a French programme: Their French proficiency.” Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 10 (1989), 255-274.




Both languages always activated: F. Grosjean et al., “Imaging bilinguals: When the neurosciences meet the language sciences,” Bilingualism: Language and Cognition 6 (2003): 159–165. Also: Francis, W. S. “Bilingual semantic and conceptual representation.” In J. Kroll & A.M. B. de Groot (Eds.), Handbook of Bilingualism: Psycholinguistic Approaches (pp. 251-267). Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005.




Switch to “dictionary matches”: R. W. Brown & J. Berko, “Word association and the acquisition of grammar.” Child Development 31 (1960): 1-14. BL: Sheng, L., McGregor, K., & Marian, V. (2006). Lexical-semantic organization in bilingual children: Evidence from a repeated word association task. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 49, 572-587.




Natural versus non-natural meaning: C.S. Pierce, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/fall2006/entries/peirce/#seme




Sun-moon experiment: J. Piaget, The child's conception of the world. (NY: Harcourt, Brace, Jovanovich, 1929).




Sun-moon experiment with bilinguals: J. Cummins, “Bilingualism and the development of metalinguistic awareness,” Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 9 (1978): 131-149.




Variation on sun-moon: C. Feldman & M. Shen, “Some language-related cognitive advantages of bilingual five-year-olds,” Journal of Genetic Psychology, 118 (1971): 235-244.




Concept of print: for example, Marie Clay, Concepts about print. ( Portsmouth NH : Heinemann, 2000).




Comparing bilinguals with different language pairs: E. Bialystok , “Bilingualism at school: Effect on the acquisition of literacy,” In P. McCardle & E. Hoff (Eds.), Childhood bilingualism: Research on infancy through school age, pp. 107-124. ( Clevedon , UK : Multilingual Matters, 2006).




Moving card task: E. Bialytok , “Letters, sounds, and symbols: Changes in children's understanding of written language.” Developmental Psychology 28 (1991): 654-664.




Reading in two languages: D.K. Oller & R. E. Eilers (Eds.), Language and literacy in bilingual children. (Clevedon UK : Multilingual Matters, 2002).




Greater mental flexibility: W. E. Lambert, “The effects of bilingualism on the individual: Cognitive and sociocultural consequences.” In P.Hornby (Ed.) Bilingualism. Psychological, social, and educational implications, pp. 15-28, (NY: Academic Press, 1977).




C. Kessler & M.E. Quinn, “Language minority children's linguistic and cognitive creativity.” Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 8 (1987): 173-186.




Problem solving: S. Ben-Zeev, “The influence of bilingualism on cognitive strategy and cognitive development.” Child Development, 48 (1977): 1009-1018.




Stroop test: J.R. Stroop, “ Studies of interference in serial verbal reactions.”Journal of Experimental Psychology, 18, (1935): 643-662.




Selective attention: P.D. Zelazo, D. Frye & T. Rapus, “Age-related dissociation between knowing rules and using them.” Cognitive Development, 11 (1996): 37-63.




Simon effect: Simon, J. R., Acosta, E., Mewaldt, S. P., & Speidel, C. R. (1976). The effect of an irrelevant directional cue on choice reaction time: Duration of the phenomenon and its relation to stages of processing. Perception & Psychophysics, 19, 16–22.




Simon effect in children: M.M. Martin & E. Bialystok, The development of two kinds of inhibition in monolingual and bilingual children: Simon versus Stroop. Poster presented at the meeting of the Cognitive Development Society, Park City UT , April 2003.




Simon effect through lifespan: E. Bialystok , F.M. Craik, R. Klein, M. Viswanathan, “Bilingualism, aging,and cognitive control: Evidence from the Simon Task,” Psychology and Aging, 19 (2004): 290-303.




Bilingualism and dementia: E. Bialystok , F.I.M. Craik & M. Freedman, “Bilingualism as a protection against the onset of symptoms of dementia.” Neuropsychologia, 45 (2007): 459-464.




Linguistic relativity: B. L. Whorf, Language, thought, and reality, (NY: MIT Press & John Wiley and Sons, 1956).




“Weak form” of relativity: W. Phillips & L. Boroditsky, “Can quirks of grammar affect the way you think? Grammatical gender and object concepts,” Proceedings of the 25th Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society. Boston , MA , August, 2003.




Relativity in verbs: L. Naigles & P. Terrazas, “Motion verb generalizations in English and Spanish: Influences of language and syntax.” Psychological Science 9 (1998): 363-369.




Indonesian experiment: L. Boroditsky, W. Ham, & M. Ramscar, “What is universal about event perception? Comparing English and Indonesian speakers,” Proceedings of the 24th Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society, Fairfax, VA, August, 2002.




Early language specific thinking: M. Bowerman, “The origins of children’s spatial semantic categories: Cognitive versus linguistic determinants,” In J. J. Gumperz & S. C. Levinson (Eds.), Rethinking linguistic relativity (pp. 145-176). Cambridge : Cambridge University Press, 1996.




Later language specific thinking: J. A. Lucy, Grammatical Categories and Cognition. (NY: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1992). Also, J. A. Lucy & S. Gaskins, Vygotsky and the culture of language. Paper presented at Society for Research in Child Development, Kansas City , April 1989.




Effect on social attitudes: S. Wright & L. Tropp, “Investigating the impact of bilingual instruction on children’s intergroup attitudes,” Group Processes & Intergroup Relations 8 (2005): 309-328.




Saving endangered languages: J. Fishman (Ed.), Can threatened languages be saved: Reversing language shift, revisited. ( Clevedon , UK : Multilingual Matters, 2001).




Statistics about Welsh: Welsh Language Board website, http://www.bwrdd-yr-iaith.org.uk/ (last accessed 4/2007)




Esperanto: http://esperanto.net/info/index_en.html (last accessed 1/2007)




Number of English speakers: D. Crystal, The language revolution. ( Cambridge : Polity Press, 2004), p. 9.




Words for snow: G. Pullum, The great Eskimo vocabulary hoax. (Chicago:U of Chicago Press, 1991).




Quechua “we”: D. Sommer (Ed.), Bilingual games: Some literary investigations, Introduction, (NY: Palgrave Macmillan, 2003) p. 8.




Relative friendship terms: E. Hoffman, Lost in translation, (NY: Dutton, 1989). Also in A. Wierzbicka, “Universal human concepts as a tool for exploring bilingual lives.” International Journal of Bilingualism 9 (1005): 7-26.




Against monoculture: M. Pollan, Botany of Desire. (NY: Random House, 2001).




Potato famine: The Future of Food, Deborah Koons, writer, producer, director, Lily Films. ( Mill Valley CA , 2004).




On “unnatural selection”: G. Steiner, Errata: An Examined Life (New Haven CT: Yale University Press, 1997) p.113.




Separated by a common language: In E. Esar, Treasury of humorous quotations, (Garden City NY: Doubleday, 1949).




Loss of linguistic diversity: D. Crystal, “Languages in danger,” p. 47 ff. (See note for p. 4.) Also: K. David Harrison When languages die: The extinction of the world’s languages and the erosion of human knowledge. (NY: Oxford University Press, 2007).




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