Raising a Bilingual Child by Barbara Zurer Pearson
NY: Random House, 2008
ISBN: 978-1-4000-02334-9
http://www.randomhouse.com/catalog/display.pperl?isbn=9781400023349

An index of the authors' names in these endnotes can be found here.

Notes for Chapter 1. (Or download all chapters as Word.doc)

page

 

4

monolingualism the exception: D. Crystal, The Language Revolution, ( Cambridge UK : Polity Press, 2004), p 93.

 

 

4

language diversity index: R. Gordon, Jr. (Ed.), Ethnologue: Languages of the World, Fifteenth edition. (Dallas, TX.: SIL International, 2005). Online version:  http://www.ethnologue.com/.

 

 

4

Census Data: Gateway to Latest Census Data on Language Use. http://ourworld.compuserve.com/homepages/jWCRAWFORD/census02.htm

 

 

4

Linguist Althea Gupta: “Bilingual and Multilingual Children: Another Perspective,” Ask-A-Linguist FAQ, Linguistlist.org, consulted 10/6/06 .

 

 

5

Jane Merrill: Bringing up baby bilingual. (NY: Facts on File, Inc., 1984)

 

 

7

George Saunders: Bilingual children: From birth to teens (Clevedon: Multilingual Matters, 1988).

 

 

8

Types of motivation: R.C. Gardner & W. E. Lambert, Attitudes and motivation in 2nd language learning (Rowley MA: Newbury House, 1972).

 

 

8

Ariel Dorfman, “The Wandering Bigamists of Language,” In I. De Courtivron (Ed.), Lives in Translation, (NY: Palgrave Macmillan, 2003) p. 36.

 

 

9

Income patterns: S. Fradd & T. Boswell, “Income patterns of bilingual and English-only Hispanics in selected metropolitan areas.” In S. Fradd (Ed.), Creating Florida ’s multilingual global workforce. (Tallahassee FL: Florida Dept. of Education, 1999).

 

 

9

FBI agent: L. Wright, "The Agent," New Yorker, July 9, 2002 .

 

 

11

Translations: Nuala Ni Dhomhnaill, “Linguistic ecology: Preventing a great loss.” In I. De Courtivron (Ed.), Lives in Translation, (NY: Palgrave Macmillan, 2003) pp. 79-92.

 

 

12

Richard Rodriguez: Hunger of Memory (Boston: D.R.Godine, 1982) p. 23.

 

 

12-3

Language of comfort: V. Gathercole et al., Report for Welsh Language Board, Language Transmission in Bilingual Families in Wales , ( Bangor , Wales , 2005).

 

 

14

Help to 3 rd language: E. Bild & M. Swain, “Minority language students in a French programme: Their French proficiency.” Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 10 (1989), 255-274.

 

 

15

Both languages always activated: F. Grosjean et al., “Imaging bilinguals: When the neurosciences meet the language sciences,” Bilingualism: Language and Cognition 6 (2003): 159–165. Also: Francis, W. S. “Bilingual semantic and conceptual representation.” In J. Kroll & A.M. B. de Groot (Eds.), Handbook of Bilingualism: Psycholinguistic Approaches (pp. 251-267). Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005.

 

 

17

Switch to “dictionary matches”: R. W. Brown & J. Berko, “Word association and the acquisition of grammar.” Child Development 31 (1960): 1-14. BL: Sheng, L., McGregor, K., & Marian, V. (2006). Lexical-semantic organization in bilingual children: Evidence from a repeated word association task. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 49, 572-587.

 

 

18

Natural versus non-natural meaning: C.S. Pierce, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/fall2006/entries/peirce/#seme

 

 

18

Sun-moon experiment: J. Piaget, The child's conception of the world. (NY: Harcourt, Brace, Jovanovich, 1929).

 

 

18

Sun-moon experiment with bilinguals: J. Cummins, “Bilingualism and the development of metalinguistic awareness,” Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 9 (1978): 131-149.

 

 

18

Variation on sun-moon: C. Feldman & M. Shen, “Some language-related cognitive advantages of bilingual five-year-olds,” Journal of Genetic Psychology, 118 (1971): 235-244.

 

 

20

Concept of print: for example, Marie Clay, Concepts about print. ( Portsmouth NH : Heinemann, 2000).

 

 

21

Comparing bilinguals with different language pairs: E. Bialystok , “Bilingualism at school: Effect on the acquisition of literacy,” In P. McCardle & E. Hoff (Eds.), Childhood bilingualism: Research on infancy through school age, pp. 107-124. ( Clevedon , UK : Multilingual Matters, 2006).

 

 

21-2

Moving card task: E. Bialytok , “Letters, sounds, and symbols: Changes in children's understanding of written language.” Developmental Psychology 28 (1991): 654-664.

 

 

22-3

Reading in two languages: D.K. Oller & R. E. Eilers (Eds.), Language and literacy in bilingual children. (Clevedon UK : Multilingual Matters, 2002).

 

 

23

Greater mental flexibility: W. E. Lambert, “The effects of bilingualism on the individual: Cognitive and sociocultural consequences.” In P.Hornby (Ed.) Bilingualism. Psychological, social, and educational implications, pp. 15-28, (NY: Academic Press, 1977).

 

 

23

C. Kessler & M.E. Quinn, “Language minority children's linguistic and cognitive creativity.” Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 8 (1987): 173-186.

 

 

23

Problem solving: S. Ben-Zeev, “The influence of bilingualism on cognitive strategy and cognitive development.” Child Development, 48 (1977): 1009-1018.

 

 

24

Stroop test: J.R. Stroop, “ Studies of interference in serial verbal reactions.”Journal of Experimental Psychology, 18, (1935): 643-662.

 

 

24-5

Selective attention: P.D. Zelazo, D. Frye & T. Rapus, “Age-related dissociation between knowing rules and using them.” Cognitive Development, 11 (1996): 37-63.

 

 

25

Simon effect: Simon, J. R., Acosta, E., Mewaldt, S. P., & Speidel, C. R. (1976). The effect of an irrelevant directional cue on choice reaction time: Duration of the phenomenon and its relation to stages of processing. Perception & Psychophysics, 19, 16–22.

 

 

25

Simon effect in children: M.M. Martin & E. Bialystok, The development of two kinds of inhibition in monolingual and bilingual children: Simon versus Stroop. Poster presented at the meeting of the Cognitive Development Society, Park City UT , April 2003.

 

 

25

Simon effect through lifespan: E. Bialystok , F.M. Craik, R. Klein, M. Viswanathan, “Bilingualism, aging,and cognitive control: Evidence from the Simon Task,” Psychology and Aging, 19 (2004): 290-303.

 

 

25-6

Bilingualism and dementia: E. Bialystok , F.I.M. Craik & M. Freedman, “Bilingualism as a protection against the onset of symptoms of dementia.” Neuropsychologia, 45 (2007): 459-464.

 

 

27

Linguistic relativity: B. L. Whorf, Language, thought, and reality, (NY: MIT Press & John Wiley and Sons, 1956).

 

 

28

“Weak form” of relativity: W. Phillips & L. Boroditsky, “Can quirks of grammar affect the way you think? Grammatical gender and object concepts,” Proceedings of the 25th Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society. Boston , MA , August, 2003.

 

 

28-9

Relativity in verbs: L. Naigles & P. Terrazas, “Motion verb generalizations in English and Spanish: Influences of language and syntax.” Psychological Science 9 (1998): 363-369.

 

 

29-30

Indonesian experiment: L. Boroditsky, W. Ham, & M. Ramscar, “What is universal about event perception? Comparing English and Indonesian speakers,” Proceedings of the 24th Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society, Fairfax, VA, August, 2002.

 

 

30

Early language specific thinking: M. Bowerman, “The origins of children’s spatial semantic categories: Cognitive versus linguistic determinants,” In J. J. Gumperz & S. C. Levinson (Eds.), Rethinking linguistic relativity (pp. 145-176). Cambridge : Cambridge University Press, 1996.

 

 

30-1

Later language specific thinking: J. A. Lucy, Grammatical Categories and Cognition. (NY: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1992). Also, J. A. Lucy & S. Gaskins, Vygotsky and the culture of language. Paper presented at Society for Research in Child Development, Kansas City , April 1989.

 

 

32-3

Effect on social attitudes: S. Wright & L. Tropp, “Investigating the impact of bilingual instruction on children’s intergroup attitudes,” Group Processes & Intergroup Relations 8 (2005): 309-328.

 

 

33

Saving endangered languages: J. Fishman (Ed.), Can threatened languages be saved: Reversing language shift, revisited. ( Clevedon , UK : Multilingual Matters, 2001).

 

 

33-4

Statistics about Welsh: Welsh Language Board website, http://www.bwrdd-yr-iaith.org.uk/ (last accessed 4/2007)

 

 

35

Esperanto: http://esperanto.net/info/index_en.html (last accessed 1/2007)

 

 

35

Number of English speakers: D. Crystal, The language revolution. ( Cambridge : Polity Press, 2004), p. 9.

 

 

35

Words for snow: G. Pullum, The great Eskimo vocabulary hoax. (Chicago:U of Chicago Press, 1991).

 

 

35

Quechua “we”: D. Sommer (Ed.), Bilingual games: Some literary investigations, Introduction, (NY: Palgrave Macmillan, 2003) p. 8.

 

 

35

Relative friendship terms: E. Hoffman, Lost in translation, (NY: Dutton, 1989). Also in A. Wierzbicka, “Universal human concepts as a tool for exploring bilingual lives.” International Journal of Bilingualism 9 (1005): 7-26.

 

 

35

Against monoculture: M. Pollan, Botany of Desire. (NY: Random House, 2001).

 

 

35-6

Potato famine: The Future of Food, Deborah Koons, writer, producer, director, Lily Films. ( Mill Valley CA , 2004).

 

 

36

On “unnatural selection”: G. Steiner, Errata: An Examined Life (New Haven CT: Yale University Press, 1997) p.113.

 

 

36

Separated by a common language: In E. Esar, Treasury of humorous quotations, (Garden City NY: Doubleday, 1949).

 

 

37

Loss of linguistic diversity: D. Crystal, “Languages in danger,” p. 47 ff. (See note for p. 4.) Also: K. David Harrison When languages die: The extinction of the world’s languages and the erosion of human knowledge. (NY: Oxford University Press, 2007).

 

 

 

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